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1.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 212: 106468, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525744

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With outbreaks of COVID-19 around the world, lockdown restrictions are routinely imposed to limit the spread of the virus. During periods of lockdown, social media has become the main channel for citizens to exchange information with others. Public emotions are being generated and shared rapidly online with citizens using internet platforms to reduce anxiety and stress, and stay connected while isolated. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to explore the regularity of emotional evolution by examining public emotions expressed in online discussions about the Wuhan lockdown event in January 2020. METHODS: Data related to the Wuhan lockdown was collected from Sina Weibo by web crawler. In this study, the Ortony, Clore, and Collins (OCC) model, Word2Vec, and Bi-directional Long Short-Term Memory model were employed to determine emotional types, train vectorization of words, and identify each text emotion for the training set. Latent Dirichlet Allocation models were also employed to mine the various topic categories, while topic emotional evolution was visualized. RESULTS: Seven types of emotions and four phases were categorized to describe emotional evolution on the Wuhan lockdown event. The study found that negative emotions such as blame and fear dominated in the early days, and public attitudes towards the lockdown gradually alleviated and reached a balance as the situation improved. Emotional expression about Wuhan lockdown event were significantly related to users' gender, location, and whether or not their account was verified. There were statistically significant correlations between different emotions within the subtle emotional categories. In addition, the evolution of emotions presented a different path due to different topics. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple emotional categories were determined in our study, providing a detailed and explainable emotion analysis to explored emotional appeal of citizen. The public emotions were gradually easing related to the Wuhan lockdown event, there yet exists regional discrimination and post-traumatic stress disorder in this process, which would lead us to pay continuous attention to citizens lives and psychological status post-pandemic. In addition, this study provided an appropriate method and reference case for the government's public opinion control and emotional appeasement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Social Media , Communicable Disease Control , Emotions , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Curr Psychol ; : 1-13, 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274952

ABSTRACT

A massive home-quarantine took place in China due to the novel coronavirus in the end of 2019. The purpose of the present study was to explore the potential mental health impact of this forced quarantine and widespread shutdown among small business owners and the self-employed. A semi-structured interview was employed among 14 participants from three different cities in China. Grounded Theory was employed to analyze the data using Nvivo11 plus. Based on a qualitative analysis, 9 categories of responses emerged to describe the experience and actions of participants towards the quarantine: enjoyment of life, emotional disturbance, hope, comparisons to others, social support, patriotism, making changes, and obedience. Further analysis suggested that the mental state of participants was either positive or negative depending on enjoyment of life, loss, emotional disturbance, and hope, and that these were impacted by intervening conditions (national measures, social support, patriotism), personal strategies (exercising, studying, comparisons to others), and personal consequences (making change, obedience). Rather than observing a linear pattern of negative outcomes, mental state was found to be variable in that positive outcomes were experienced earlier in the quarantine (making connections with family), negative states were encountered midway through the quarantine (fear of financial loss, anxiety), and more positive mental states (hope) emerged towards the end of the quarantine depending on intervening conditions, personal strategies, and consequences. It can be concluded that the nature of the impact of mandatory quarantine in China among small business owners and the self-employed is complex and depends on a variety of personal and situational factors.

3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(23)2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238060

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global pandemic and has claimed over 2 million lives worldwide. Although the genetic sequences of SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2 have high homology, the clinical and pathological characteristics of COVID-19 differ significantly from those of SARS. How and whether SARS-CoV-2 evades (cellular) immune surveillance requires further elucidation. In this study, we show that SARS-CoV-2 infection leads to major histocompability complex class Ι (MHC-Ι) down-regulation both in vitro and in vivo. The viral protein encoded by open reading frame 8 (ORF8) of SARS-CoV-2, which shares the least homology with SARS-CoV among all viral proteins, directly interacts with MHC-Ι molecules and mediates their down-regulation. In ORF8-expressing cells, MHC-Ι molecules are selectively targeted for lysosomal degradation via autophagy. Thus, SARS-CoV-2-infected cells are much less sensitive to lysis by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Because ORF8 protein impairs the antigen presentation system, inhibition of ORF8 could be a strategy to improve immune surveillance.


Subject(s)
Antigen Presentation , COVID-19/immunology , Down-Regulation/immunology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/immunology , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Proteins/immunology , Animals , Autophagy/genetics , Autophagy/immunology , COVID-19/genetics , Chlorocebus aethiops , HEK293 Cells , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/genetics , Humans , Lysosomes/genetics , Lysosomes/immunology , Lysosomes/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/genetics
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