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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325065

ABSTRACT

Background: Many Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) users have difficulty attending the quarterly facility-based HIV testing, which leads to the potential risk of drug resistance in the context of breakthrough infection with low drug compliance. We explored the acceptance of HIV self-testing (HIVST) service among PrEP recipients. Methods: : MSM were recruited for the PrEP demonstration in four major cities in China from December 2018 to September 2019, provided with regimens of both daily and on-demand PrEP. Facility-based HIV testing was provided quarterly at clinic visits. Previous HIV testing history and acceptance of free HIVST kits to use between each quarterly clinic visit was collected. Correlates of levels of acceptance were analysed using multivariable ordinal logistic regression. Results: : We recruited 1,222 MSM. among which 48.5% preferred daily PrEP and 51.5% preferred on-demand PrEP. There was 26.8% (321/1222) had never been to any facility-based HIV testing previously, and the self-reported major reason was that they had already routinely used HIVST. A quarter of the participants (74.5%, 910/1222) had used HIVST previously. There were 1184 MSM (96.9%) accepted to use HIVST between each quarterly clinic visits during PrEP usage, composing 947 ( 77.5%) very willing to, 237(19.4%)willing to, 29 (2.4%) unwilling to, and 9 (0.7%) very unwilling to. Participants preferred daily PrEP (vs. on-demand PrEP, aOR=1.8, 95% CI:1.3-2.4) and had less than 2 times of facility-based HIV testing in the past year (vs. ³2, aOR=1.4,95% CI:1.1-1.9) were more likely to have higher level of acceptance of HIVST. Conclusions: : MSM had high acceptance of HIVST, especially among those preferred daily PrEP and with less facility-based HIV testing in the previous year. Offering HIVST services PrEP recipients is feasible and necessary. Above result is of great significance for promoting HIVST among PrEP users during COVID-19, improving awareness of their HIV infection status and ensuring compliance with medication. Future study should exam the impact of HIVST on HIV testing frequency among PrEP users. Trial registration: ChiCTR1800020374 on 27 th Dec 2018. http://www.chictr.org.cn/searchproj.aspx

3.
J Clin Pathol ; 74(8): 522-527, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733145

ABSTRACT

AIMS: The global outbreak of COVID-19 has resulted in an increased mortality. However, whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can affect multiple organs is still unclear. In this study, postmortem percutaneous biopsies of multiple organs from deceased patients were performed to understand the histopathological changes caused by COVID-19. METHODS: Biopsy specimens of pulmonary, cardiac, hepatic and lymphoid tissues were obtained from three patients, who died due to COVID-19 pneumonia. H&E stain, Masson trichrome stain, immunohistochemistry stain and in-situ hybridisation were used. RESULTS: Pulmonary damages caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection was diffuse alveolar damage (DAD). In the early phase, the histological findings were mainly those of exudative features of DAD. The later phase was characterised by organisation of DAD combined with bacterial pneumonia. No serious damage was found in the bronchiolar epithelium and submucosal glands. The hepatic tissue revealed features of ischaemic necrosis, but findings suggestive of mild lobular hepatitis were also observed. The lymphoid tissue revealed features of non-specific acute lymphadenitis. The cardiac tissue revealed changes of underlying disease. SARS-CoV-2 RNAs were not detected in hepatocytes, cholangiocytes and lymphocytes of lymph nodes. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 predominantly involves the pulmonary tissue, causes DAD and aggravates the cardiovascular disease. However, other extrapulmonary tissues did not reveal any virus-specific findings, but were affected by multiple factors. The findings in this report caution the pathologists that they should not mistakenly attribute all the histological features to CoV infection. Moreover, the clinicians should pay attention to the potentially injurious and correctable causes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Liver/pathology , Lung/pathology , Lymphoid Tissue/pathology , Myocardium/pathology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biopsy, Large-Core Needle , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Fatal Outcome , Female , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , In Situ Hybridization , Lung/virology , Lymphoid Tissue/immunology , Male , Myocardium/chemistry , Predictive Value of Tests
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