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1.
Geoforum ; (116): 149-152, 20201101.
Article in English | ELSEVIER | ID: covidwho-741221

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we coin the term “crypto place” to describe an emerging type of virtual place on the blockchain. Using an encrypted monument that was built to memorialize Dr. Wenliang Li, one of the whistleblowers of China's coronavirus outbreak, we extensively investigate three definitive dimensions of crypto place in terms of decentralized location, immutable locales and transaction-based sense of place. We then reflect upon the complicated social implications of blockchain technology much beyond purely serving as an alternative cryptocurrency, and further examine how place information is stored, disseminated, and incentivized on blockchain. Through this paper, we investigate the relevance of blockchain to geography studies and discuss how it may enrich the concept of place in today's data-intensive and decentralized world.

2.
Kidney Blood Press Res ; 45(4): 612-622, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-680430

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory viral infections are frequency accompanied by multiple organ dysfunction, including acute kidney injury (AKI). In December 2019, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak began in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, and rapidly spread worldwide. While diffuse alveolar damage and acute respiratory failure are the main features of COVID-19, other organs may be involved, and the incidence of AKI is not well described. We assessed the incidence and clinical characteristics of AKI in patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and its effects on clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective, observational study of patients with COVID-19 admitted to two general hospitals in Wuhan from 5 January 2020 to 21 March 2020. Demographic data and information on organ dysfunction were collected daily. AKI was defined according to the KDIGO clinical practice guidelines. Early and late AKI were defined as AKI occurring within 72 h after admission or after 72 h, respectively. RESULTS: Of the 116 patients, AKI developed in 21 (18.1%) patients. Among them, early and late AKI were found in 13 (11.2%) and 8 (6.9%) patients, respectively. Compared with patients without AKI, patients with AKI had more severe organ dysfunction, as indicated by a higher level of disease severity status, higher sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score on admission, an increased prevalence of shock, and a higher level of respiratory support. Patients with AKI had a higher SOFA score on admission (4.5 ± 2.1 vs. 2.8 ± 1.4, OR 1.498, 95% CI 1.047-2.143 ) and greater hospital mortality (57.1% vs. 12.6%, OR 3.998, 95% CI 1.088-14.613) than patients without AKI in both the univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients with late AKI, but not those with early AKI, had a significantly prolonged length of stay (19.6 vs. 9.6 days, p = 0.015). CONCLUSION: Our findings show that admission SOFA score was an independent risk factor for AKI in COVID-19 patients, and patients with AKI had higher in-hospital mortality. Moreover, AKI development after 72 h of admission was related to prolonged hospitalization time.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Progression , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals, General , Humans , Incidence , Kidney Function Tests , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome , Water-Electrolyte Balance
3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 21-32, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601423

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) remain a significant public threat with high morbidity and mortality worldwide; viruses are significant pathogens that cause ARIs. This study was conducted to better understand the epidemiological characteristics of respiratory viruses circulating in southern China. METHODS: We collected 22,680 respiratory samples from ARI patients in 18 hospitals in southern China during 2009-2018; seven common respiratory viruses including Flu, RSV, PIV, hMPV, ADV, HCoV, and HBoV were screened using in-house real-time PCR. RESULTS: Of all samples, 9760 ARI cases (9760/22680, 43.03%) tested positive for the seven common respiratory viruses. The most detected virus was Flu (14.15%), followed by RSV (10.33%) and PIV (5.43%); Flu-A, PIV3, and HCoV-OC43 were the predominant subtypes. Although most of the viruses were detected in male inpatients, Flu was more likely detected in female outpatients. Flu infection was more likely to cause URTI (upper respiratory tract infection), whereas RSV infection was more likely to cause pneumonia and bronchitis. The prevalence of Flu was particularly high in 2009. The epidemic level was found notably high in 2014-2018 for RSV, in 2016-2018 for PIV, in the summer of 2018 for ADV, in the summer of 2016 and winter of 2018 for HCoV, and in the summer of 2011 and autumn of 2018 for HBoV. The co-detection rate of the seven viruses was 4.70%; RSV, PIV, and Flu were the most commonly co-detected viruses. CONCLUSIONS: This work demonstrates the epidemiological characteristics of seven common respiratory viruses in ARI patients in southern China.

5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(6): 1324-1326, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-6800

ABSTRACT

We report co-infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and influenza A virus in a patient with pneumonia in China. The case highlights possible co-detection of known respiratory viruses. We noted low sensitivity of upper respiratory specimens for SARS-CoV-2, which could further complicate recognition of the full extent of disease.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , China , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Influenza A virus , Influenza, Human/virology , Male , Nasopharynx/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology
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