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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 1891, 2022 Apr 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1783979

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease is a critical drug target for small molecule COVID-19 therapy, given its likely druggability and essentiality in the viral maturation and replication cycle. Based on the conservation of 3CL protease substrate binding pockets across coronaviruses and using screening, we identified four structurally distinct lead compounds that inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease. After evaluation of their binding specificity, cellular antiviral potency, metabolic stability, and water solubility, we prioritized the GC376 scaffold as being optimal for optimization. We identified multiple drug-like compounds with <10 nM potency for inhibiting SARS-CoV-2 3CL and the ability to block SARS-CoV-2 replication in human cells, obtained co-crystal structures of the 3CL protease in complex with these compounds, and determined that they have pan-coronavirus activity. We selected one compound, termed coronastat, as an optimized lead and characterized it in pharmacokinetic and safety studies in vivo. Coronastat represents a new candidate for a small molecule protease inhibitor for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection for eliminating pandemics involving coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Pandemics , Peptide Hydrolases , Protease Inhibitors/chemistry , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Nature ; 2022 Mar 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773987

ABSTRACT

The global emergence of many severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants jeopardizes the protective antiviral immunity induced following infection or vaccination. To address the public health threat caused by the increasing SARS-CoV-2 genomic diversity, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) within the National Institutes of Health (NIH) established the SARS-CoV-2 Assessment of Viral Evolution (SAVE) program. This effort was designed to provide a real-time risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2 variants potentially impacting transmission, virulence, and resistance to convalescent and vaccine-induced immunity. The SAVE program serves as a critical data-generating component of the United States Government SARS-CoV-2 Interagency Group to assess implications of SARS-CoV-2 variants on diagnostics, vaccines, and therapeutics and for communicating public health risk. Here we describe the coordinated approach used to identify and curate data about emerging variants, their impact on immunity, and effects on vaccine protection using animal models. We report the development of reagents, methodologies, models, and pivotal findings facilitated by this collaborative approach and identify future challenges. This program serves as a template for the response against rapidly evolving pandemic pathogens by monitoring viral evolution in the human population to identify variants that could erode the effectiveness of countermeasures.

3.
Nature ; 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1721546

ABSTRACT

The identification of the Omicron (B.1.1.529.1 or BA.1) variant of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in Botswana in November 20211 immediately caused concern owing to the number of alterations in the spike glycoprotein that could lead to antibody evasion. We2 and others3-6 recently reported results confirming such a concern. Continuing surveillance of the evolution of Omicron has since revealed the rise in prevalence of two sublineages, BA.1 with an R346K alteration (BA.1+R346K, also known as BA.1.1) and B.1.1.529.2 (BA.2), with the latter containing 8 unique spike alterations and lacking 13 spike alterations found in BA.1. Here we extended our studies to include antigenic characterization of these new sublineages. Polyclonal sera from patients infected by wild-type SARS-CoV-2 or recipients of current mRNA vaccines showed a substantial loss in neutralizing activity against both BA.1+R346K and BA.2, with drops comparable to that already reported for BA.1 (refs. 2,3,5,6). These findings indicate that these three sublineages of Omicron are antigenically equidistant from the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and thus similarly threaten the efficacies of current vaccines. BA.2 also exhibited marked resistance to 17 of 19 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies tested, including S309 (sotrovimab)7, which had retained appreciable activity against BA.1 and BA.1+R346K (refs. 2-4,6). This finding shows that no authorized monoclonal antibody therapy could adequately cover all sublineages of the Omicron variant, except for the recently authorized LY-CoV1404 (bebtelovimab).

4.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(632): eabi5735, 2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691438

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants stresses the continued need for next-generation vaccines that confer broad protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We developed and evaluated an adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 spike ferritin nanoparticle (SpFN) vaccine in nonhuman primates. High-dose (50 µg) SpFN vaccine, given twice 28 days apart, induced a Th1-biased CD4 T cell helper response and elicited neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and variants of concern, as well as against SARS-CoV-1. These potent humoral and cell-mediated immune responses translated into rapid elimination of replicating virus in the upper and lower airways and lung parenchyma of nonhuman primates following high-dose SARS-CoV-2 respiratory challenge. The immune response elicited by SpFN vaccination and resulting efficacy in nonhuman primates supports the utility of SpFN as a vaccine candidate for SARS-causing betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ferritins , Humans , Immunity , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316984

ABSTRACT

We developed and validated serologic assays to determine SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in select patient populations in greater New York City area early during the epidemic. We tested “discarded” serum samples from February 24 to March 29 for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer and nucleocapsid protein. Using known durations for antibody development, incubation period, serial interval, and reproductive ratio for this pandemic, we determined that introduction of SARS-CoV-2 into New York likely occurred between January 23 and February 4, 2020. SARS-CoV-2 spread silently for 4–5 weeks before the first community acquired infection was reported. A novel coronavirus emerged in December 2019 in Wuhan, China 1,2 and devasted Hubei Province in early 2020 before spreading to every province within China and nearly every country in the world 3 . This pathogen, now termed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused a global pandemic, with ~ 10 million cases and over 500,000 deaths reported through June 30, 2020 3 . The first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the United States was identified on January 19, 2020 in a man who returned to the State of Washington from Wuhan 4 . In the ensuing months, the U.S. has become a hotspot of the pandemic, presently accounting for almost one third of the total caseload and over one fourth of the deaths 3 . The first confirmed case in New York was reported on March 1 in a traveler recently returned from Iran. The first community-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection was diagnosed on March 3 in a 50-year-old male who lived in New Rochelle and worked in New York City (https://www1.nyc.gov/site/doh/covid/covid-19-data-archive.page.) In the ensuing 18 weeks, New York City has suffered a peak daily infection number of ~ 4,500 (Fig. 1a) and a cumulative caseload of ~ 400,000 to date. The time period when SARS-CoV-2 gained entry into this epicenter of the pandemic remains unclear.

6.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327483

ABSTRACT

The identification of the Omicron variant (B.1.1.529.1 or BA.1) of SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) in Botswana in November 2021 1 immediately raised alarms due to the sheer number of mutations in the spike glycoprotein that could lead to striking antibody evasion. We 2 and others 3–6 recently reported results in this Journal confirming such a concern. Continuing surveillance of Omicron evolution has since revealed the rise in prevalence of two sublineages, BA.1 with an R346K mutation (BA.1+R346K) and B.1.1.529.2 (BA.2), with the latter containing 8 unique spike mutations while lacking 13 spike mutations found in BA.1. We therefore extended our studies to include antigenic characterization of these new sublineages. Polyclonal sera from patients infected by wild-type SARS-CoV-2 or recipients of current mRNA vaccines showed a substantial loss in neutralizing activity against both BA.1+R346K and BA.2, with drops comparable to that already reported for BA.1 2,3,5,6 . These findings indicate that these three sublineages of Omicron are antigenically equidistant from the wild-type SARS-CoV-2 and thus similarly threaten the efficacies of current vaccines. BA.2 also exhibited marked resistance to 17 of 19 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies tested, including S309 (sotrovimab) 7 , which had retained appreciable activity against BA.1 and BA.1+R346K 2–4,6 . This new finding shows that no presently approved or authorized monoclonal antibody therapy could adequately cover all sublineages of the Omicron variant.

7.
Nature ; 602(7898): 676-681, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616993

ABSTRACT

The B.1.1.529/Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 was only recently detected in southern Africa, but its subsequent spread has been extensive, both regionally and globally1. It is expected to become dominant in the coming weeks2, probably due to enhanced transmissibility. A striking feature of this variant is the large number of spike mutations3 that pose a threat to the efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines and antibody therapies4. This concern is amplified by the findings of our study. Here we found that B.1.1.529 is markedly resistant to neutralization by serum not only from patients who recovered from COVID-19, but also from individuals who were vaccinated with one of the four widely used COVID-19 vaccines. Even serum from individuals who were vaccinated and received a booster dose of mRNA-based vaccines exhibited substantially diminished neutralizing activity against B.1.1.529. By evaluating a panel of monoclonal antibodies against all known epitope clusters on the spike protein, we noted that the activity of 17 out of the 19 antibodies tested were either abolished or impaired, including ones that are currently authorized or approved for use in patients. Moreover, we also identified four new spike mutations (S371L, N440K, G446S and Q493R) that confer greater antibody resistance on B.1.1.529. The Omicron variant presents a serious threat to many existing COVID-19 vaccines and therapies, compelling the development of new interventions that anticipate the evolutionary trajectory of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Immune Evasion/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Cell Line , Convalescence , Evolution, Molecular , Humans , Immune Sera/immunology , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
8.
iScience ; 24(11): 103393, 2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587465

ABSTRACT

We compared the functional properties of spike (S) glycoproteins from the original SARS-CoV-2 strain (D614) (Wuhan, China), the globally dominant D614G strain, and emerging geographic variants: B.1.1.7 (United Kingdom), B.1.351 (South Africa), P.1 (Brazil), and B.1.1.248 (Brazil/Japan). Compared with D614G, the emerging variants exhibited an increased affinity for the receptor, ACE2, and increased ability to infect cells with low ACE2 levels. All variants lost infectivity similarly at room temperature and 37°C; however, in the cold, B.1.1.7 was more stable, and P.1 and B.1.1.248 were less stable. Shedding of the S1 glycoprotein from the S contributed to virus inactivation in the cold. B.1.351, P.1, and B.1.1.248 were neutralized by convalescent and vaccinee sera less efficiently than the other variants. S glycoprotein properties such as requirements for ACE2 levels on the target cell, functional stability in the cold, and resistance to host neutralizing antibodies potentially contribute to the outgrowth of emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296805

ABSTRACT

The Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant of SARS-CoV-2 was only recently detected in southern Africa, but its subsequent spread has been extensive, both regionally and globally1. It is expected to become dominant in the coming weeks2, probably due to enhanced transmissibility. A striking feature of this variant is the large number of spike mutations3 that pose a threat to the efficacy of current COVID-19 vaccines and antibody therapies4. This concern is amplified by the findings from our study. We found B.1.1.529 to be markedly resistant to neutralization by serum not only from convalescent patients, but also from individuals vaccinated with one of the four widely used COVID-19 vaccines. Even serum from persons vaccinated and boosted with mRNA-based vaccines exhibited substantially diminished neutralizing activity against B.1.1.529. By evaluating a panel of monoclonal antibodies to all known epitope clusters on the spike protein, we noted that the activity of 18 of the 19 antibodies tested were either abolished or impaired, including ones currently authorized or approved for use in patients. In addition, we also identified four new spike mutations (S371L, N440K, G446S, and Q493R) that confer greater antibody resistance to B.1.1.529. The Omicron variant presents a serious threat to many existing COVID-19 vaccines and therapies, compelling the development of new interventions that anticipate the evolutionary trajectory of SARS-CoV-2.

10.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296804

ABSTRACT

The devastation caused by SARS-CoV-2 has made clear the importance of pandemic preparedness. To address future zoonotic outbreaks due to related viruses in the sarbecovirus subgenus, we identified a human monoclonal antibody, 10-40, that neutralized or bound all sarbecoviruses tested in vitro and protected against SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV in vivo. Comparative studies with other receptor-binding domain (RBD)-directed antibodies showed 10-40 to have the greatest breadth against sarbecoviruses and thus its promise as an agent for pandemic preparedness. Moreover, structural analyses on 10-40 and similar antibodies not only defined an epitope cluster in the inner face of the RBD that is well conserved among sarbecoviruses, but also uncovered a new antibody class with a common CDRH3 motif. Our analyses also suggested that elicitation of this class of antibodies may not be overly difficult, an observation that bodes well for the development of a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine.

13.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):S373-S373, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564195

ABSTRACT

Background Molnupiravir (MOV, MK-4482, EIDD-2801) is an orally administered prodrug of N-hydroxycytidine (NHC, EIDD-1931), a nucleoside with broad antiviral activity against a range of RNA viruses. MOV acts by driving viral error catastrophe following its incorporation by the viral RdRp into the viral genome. Given its mechanism of action, MOV activity should not be affected by substitutions in the spike protein present in SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern which impact efficacy of therapeutic neutralizing antibodies and vaccine induced immunity. We characterized MOV activity against variants by assessing antiviral activity in vitro and virologic response from the Phase 2/3 clinical trials (MOVe-In, MOVe-Out) for treatment of COVID-19. Methods MOV activity against several SARS-CoV-2 variants, was evaluated in an in vitro infection assay. Antiviral potency of NHC (IC50) was determined in Vero E6 cells infected with virus at MOI ~0.1 by monitoring CPE. Longitudinal SARS-CoV-2 RNA viral load measures in participants enrolled in MOVe-In and MOVe-Out were analyzed based on SARS-CoV-2 genotype. Sequences of SARS-CoV-2 from study participants were amplified from nasal swabs by PCR and NGS was performed on samples with viral genome RNA of >22,000 copies/ml amplified by primers covering full length genome with Ion Torrent sequencing to identify clades represented in trial participants. SARS-CoV-2 clades were assigned using clade.nextstrain.org. Results In vitro, NHC was equally effective against SARS-CoV-2 variants B.1.1.7 (20I), B.1351 (20H), and P1 (20J), compared with the original WA1 (19B) isolate. In clinical trials, no discernable difference was observed in magnitude of viral response measured by change from baseline in RNA titer over time across all clades represented including 20A through 20E and 20G to 20I. No participants at the time of the study presented with 20F, 20J, or 21A. Conclusion Distribution of clades in participants in MOVe-In and MOVe-Out was representative of those circulating globally at the time of collection (Oct 2020 – Jan 2021). Both in vitro and clinical data suggest that spike protein substitutions do not impact antiviral activity of MOV and suggest its potential use for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 variants. Disclosures Jay Grobler, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Julie Strizki, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Nicholas Murgolo, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Wei Gao, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Youfang Cao, PhD, Merck & Co. (Employee) Ying Zhang, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Jiejun Du, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) Manoj Nair, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support) Yaoxing Huang, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support) Yang Luo, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support) Daria Hazuda, PhD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Employee, Shareholder) David D. Ho, MD, Merck & Co., Inc. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support) David D. Ho, MD, Brii Biosciences (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Consultant;Merck (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Research Grant or Support;RenBio (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Consultant, Founder, Other Financial or Material Support, Shareholder;WuXi Biologics (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Consultant

14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 147-157, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537457

ABSTRACT

The repeated emergence of highly pathogenic human coronaviruses as well as their evolving variants highlight the need to develop potent and broad-spectrum antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. By screening monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) isolated from COVID-19-convalescent patients, we found one mAb, 2-36, with cross-neutralizing activity against SARS-CoV. We solved the cryo-EM structure of 2-36 in complex with SARS-CoV-2 or SARS-CoV spike, revealing a highly conserved epitope in the receptor-binding domain (RBD). Antibody 2-36 neutralized not only all current circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and SARS-COV, but also a panel of bat and pangolin sarbecoviruses that can use human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) as a receptor. We selected 2-36-escape viruses in vitro and confirmed that K378 T in SARS-CoV-2 RBD led to viral resistance. Taken together, 2-36 represents a strategic reserve drug candidate for the prevention and treatment of possible diseases caused by pre-emergent SARS-related coronaviruses. Its epitope defines a promising target for the development of a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Epitopes/immunology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Neutralization Tests , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Vero Cells
15.
Cell Rep ; 37(6): 109920, 2021 11 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1530684

ABSTRACT

It is urgent to develop disease models to dissect mechanisms regulating severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we derive airway organoids from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC-AOs). The hPSC-AOs, particularly ciliated-like cells, are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Using this platform, we perform a high content screen and identify GW6471, which blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection. GW6471 can also block infection of the B.1.351 SARS-CoV-2 variant. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis suggests that GW6471 blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection at least in part by inhibiting hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha (HIF1α), which is further validated by chemical inhibitor and genetic perturbation targeting HIF1α. Metabolic profiling identifies decreased rates of glycolysis upon GW6471 treatment, consistent with transcriptome profiling. Finally, xanthohumol, 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid, and ND-646, three compounds that suppress fatty acid biosynthesis, also block SARS-CoV-2 infection. Together, a high content screen coupled with transcriptome and metabolic profiling reveals a key role of the HIF1α-glycolysis axis in mediating SARS-CoV-2 infection of human airway epithelium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Glycolysis/physiology , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit/metabolism , Lung/metabolism , Organoids/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Pluripotent Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Transcriptome/physiology , Vero Cells
16.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292770

ABSTRACT

We report the identification of three structurally diverse compounds - compound 4, GC376, and MAC-5576 - as inhibitors of the SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease. Structures of each of these compounds in complex with the protease revealed strategies for further development, as well as general principles for designing SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease inhibitors. These compounds may therefore serve as leads for the basis of building effective SARS-CoV-2 3CL protease inhibitors.

18.
Cell Rep ; 37(5): 109928, 2021 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1466096

ABSTRACT

Antibodies that potently neutralize SARS-CoV-2 target mainly the receptor-binding domain or the N-terminal domain (NTD). Over a dozen potently neutralizing NTD-directed antibodies have been studied structurally, and all target a single antigenic supersite in NTD (site 1). Here, we report the cryo-EM structure of a potent NTD-directed neutralizing antibody 5-7, which recognizes a site distinct from other potently neutralizing antibodies, inserting a binding loop into an exposed hydrophobic pocket between the two sheets of the NTD ß sandwich. Interestingly, this pocket was previously identified as the binding site for hydrophobic molecules, including heme metabolites, but we observe that their presence does not substantially impede 5-7 recognition. Mirroring its distinctive binding, antibody 5-7 retains neutralization potency with many variants of concern (VOCs). Overall, we reveal that a hydrophobic pocket in NTD proposed for immune evasion can be used by the immune system for recognition.

19.
Nature ; 597(7878): 703-708, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442788

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infections have surged across the globe in recent months, concomitant with considerable viral evolution1-3. Extensive mutations in the spike protein may threaten the efficacy of vaccines and therapeutic monoclonal antibodies4. Two signature spike mutations of concern are E484K, which has a crucial role in the loss of neutralizing activity of antibodies, and N501Y, a driver of rapid worldwide transmission of the B.1.1.7 lineage. Here we report the emergence of the variant lineage B.1.526 (also known as the Iota variant5), which contains E484K, and its rise to dominance in New York City in early 2021. This variant is partially or completely resistant to two therapeutic monoclonal antibodies that are in clinical use and is less susceptible to neutralization by plasma from individuals who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection or serum from vaccinated individuals, posing a modest antigenic challenge. The presence of the B.1.526 lineage has now been reported in all 50 states in the United States and in many other countries. B.1.526 rapidly replaced earlier lineages in New York, with an estimated transmission advantage of 35%. These transmission dynamics, together with the relative antibody resistance of its E484K sub-lineage, are likely to have contributed to the sharp rise and rapid spread of B.1.526. Although SARS-CoV-2 B.1.526 initially outpaced B.1.1.7 in the region, its growth subsequently slowed concurrently with the rise of B.1.1.7 and ensuing variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/growth & development , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Humans , Mutation , New York/epidemiology , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , United States/epidemiology
20.
Cell Rep ; 37(1): 109771, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439919

ABSTRACT

Understanding mechanisms of protective antibody recognition can inform vaccine and therapeutic strategies against SARS-CoV-2. We report a monoclonal antibody, 910-30, targeting the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding site for ACE2 as a member of a public antibody response encoded by IGHV3-53/IGHV3-66 genes. Sequence and structural analyses of 910-30 and related antibodies explore how class recognition features correlate with SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Cryo-EM structures of 910-30 bound to the SARS-CoV-2 spike trimer reveal binding interactions and its ability to disassemble spike. Despite heavy-chain sequence similarity, biophysical analyses of IGHV3-53/3-66-encoded antibodies highlight the importance of native heavy:light pairings for ACE2-binding competition and SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. We develop paired heavy:light class sequence signatures and determine antibody precursor prevalence to be ∼1 in 44,000 human B cells, consistent with public antibody identification in several convalescent COVID-19 patients. These class signatures reveal genetic, structural, and functional immune features that are helpful in accelerating antibody-based medical interventions for SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aged , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Antibodies, Monoclonal/ultrastructure , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Binding Sites , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cryoelectron Microscopy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/ultrastructure , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/chemistry , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/genetics , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Light Chains/ultrastructure , Male , Protein Binding , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Vero Cells
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