Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 85
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-337732

ABSTRACT

Homologous and heterologous booster with COVID-19 mRNA vaccines represent the most effective strategy to prevent the ongoing Omicron pandemic. The additional protection from these prototype SARS-CoV-2 S-targeting vaccine was attributed to the increased RBD-specific memory B cells with expanded potency and breadth. Herein, we show the safety and immunogenicity of heterologous boosting with the RBD-targeting mRNA vaccine AWcorna (also term ARCoV) in Chinese adults who have received two doses inactivated vaccine. The superiority over inactivated vaccine in neutralization antibodies, as well as the safety profile, support the use of AWcorna as heterologous booster in China.

2.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2076523, 2022 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1852829

ABSTRACT

Vaccine uptake rate is crucial for herd immunity. Medical care workers (MCWs) can serve as ambassadors of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance. This study aimed to assess MCWs' willingness to receive the COVID-19 vaccine, and to explore the factors affecting COVID-19 vaccination acceptance. A multicenter study among medical care workers was conducted in seven selected hospitals from seven geographical territories of China, and data were collected on sociodemographic characteristics, vaccine hesitancy, and health beliefs on COVID-19 vaccination among participants. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were performed to explore the correlations between individual factors and the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine. Among the 2681 subjects, 82.5% of the participants were willing to accept the COVID-19 vaccination. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that individuals with more cues to action about the vaccination, higher level of confidence about the vaccine, and higher level of trust in the recommendations of COVID-19 vaccine from the government and the healthcare system were more likely to get the COVID-19 vaccine. In contrast, subjects with higher level of perceived barriers and complacency were less likely to accept the COVID-19 vaccine. Overall, MCWs in China showed a high willingness to get the COVID-19 vaccine. The governmental recommendation is an important driver and lead of vaccination. Relevant institutions could increase MCWs' willingness to COVID-19 vaccines by increasing MCWs' perception of confidence about COVID-19 vaccines and cues to action through various strategies and channels. Meanwhile, it can also provide evidence in similar circumstances in the future to develop vaccine promotion strategies.

3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335520

ABSTRACT

Background: This study aims to described the epidemiology and genotypic diversity of Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on the prevalence of HMPV in hospitalized children with Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in Beijing, China. Methods From April 2018 to March 2019 and from September 2020 to August 2021, nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) from hospitalized children with ARTIs in Beijing were collected and subjected to real-time polymerase chain reaction tests for HMPV. Then genotyping, detection of 15 common respiratory viruses and clinical characteristics were analyzed on HMPV positive samples. Results 7.9% (124/1572) enrolled paediatric patients were identified as having HMPV infection, and the majority of children under the age of 5 (78.2%, 92/124), From April 2018 to March 2019. The detection rate of HMPV in spring and winter is significantly higher than that in summer and autumn. The co-infection rate were 37.1% (46/124), the most common co-infected virus were parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV-3). The main diagnosis of HMPV infection was pneumonia (92.7%,115/124), most patient have cough and fever. Of 78 HMPV-positive specimens, A2b (82.1%,64/78) were the main epidemic subtypes. .During the COVID-19 outbreak, Among 232 samples, only 4 cases were HMPV-positive. After statistical test, the detection rate of HMPV during the COVID-19 pandemic has decreased significantly compared with that before the epidemic (p=0.001). Conclusions HMPV is an important cause of ARTIs in children under 5 years old. Under the prevention and control of the COVID-19 pandemic, the HMPV infection of hospitalized children with ARTIs has decreased significantly.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-334361

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, most of the endoscopic services were electively postponed or suspended. We aimed to assess the safety of a triage policy in patients receiving esophageal variceal ligation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Triage policy of endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) was implemented in our hospital during the lockdown period from 15th May 2021 to 26th July 2021. We compared the clinical characteristics and outcomes with those receiving endoscopy due to esophageal varices from 17th May 2020 to 28th July 2020. Of the 124 patients receiving EVL, a higher percentage of esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB) was noted (9/32, 28.1% vs. 8/92, 8.7%, p = 0.006) during the lockdown period, with a higher percentage of EVB in the referrals (7/9, 77.8% vs. 2/14, 14.2%, p = 0.007). Twenty-three patients whose endoscopies were postponed by triage policy due to low-risk or eradicated varices did not experience EVB during the lockdown period. Child-Pughs class C was independent factor predictive of EVB (relative risk 7.674, P = 0.004), entering the program of prophylactic EVL was the protective factor of EVB (relative risk 0.158, P = 0.004). Entrance into the prophylaxis program does not only decrease risk of EVB but also fosters comprehensive triage to postpone endoscopy during the lockdown period.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-333031

ABSTRACT

As the world continues to experience the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza remain a cause of severe morbidity and mortality globally. Worse yet, coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) leads to more severe clinical outcomes. The development of a combined vaccine against both COVID-19 and influenza is thus of high priority. Based on our established lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine platform, we developed and characterized a novel mRNA vaccine encoding the HA antigen of influenza A (H1N1) virus, termed ARIAV. Then, ARIAV was combined with our COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, to formulate the final combined vaccine, AR-CoV/IAV. Further characterization demonstrated that immunization with two doses of AR-CoV/IAV elicited robust protective antibodies as well as antigen-specific cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. More importantly, AR-CoV/IAV immunization protected mice from coinfection with IAV and the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants. Our results highlight the potential of the LNP-mRNA vaccine platform in preventing COVID-19 and influenza, as well as other respiratory diseases.

6.
Research Square ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1786456

ABSTRACT

As the world continues to experience the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza remain a cause of severe morbidity and mortality globally. Worse yet, coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) leads to more severe clinical outcomes. The development of a combined vaccine against both COVID-19 and influenza is thus of high priority. Based on our established lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine platform, we developed and characterized a novel mRNA vaccine encoding the HA antigen of influenza A (H1N1) virus, termed ARIAV. Then, ARIAV was combined with our COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, to formulate the final combined vaccine, AR-CoV/IAV. Further characterization demonstrated that immunization with two doses of AR-CoV/IAV elicited robust protective antibodies as well as antigen-specific cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. More importantly, AR-CoV/IAV immunization protected mice from coinfection with IAV and the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants. Our results highlight the potential of the LNP-mRNA vaccine platform in preventing COVID-19 and influenza, as well as other respiratory diseases.

7.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-332739

ABSTRACT

Reliable and contactless measurements of vital signs, such as respiration and heart rate, are still an unmet need in clinical and home settings. Mm-wave radar and video-based technologies are promising, but currently, the signal processing-based vital sign extraction methods are prone to body motion disruptions or illumination variations in the surrounding environment. Here we propose an image segmentation-based method to extract vital signs from the recorded video and mm-wave radar signals. The proposed method analyses time-frequency spectrograms obtained from Short-Time Fourier Transform rather than individual time-domain signals. This leads to much-improved robustness and accuracy of the heart rate and respiration rate extraction over existing methods. The experiments were conducted under no- and post-exercise conditions and repeated on multiple individuals. The results are evaluated by using four metrics against the gold standard contact-based measurements. Significant improvements are observed in terms of precision, accuracy, and stability. We believe that the proposed estimation method will help address the need for the increasingly popular remote cardiovascular sensing and diagnosing posed by Covid-19.

8.
Signal Transduct Target Ther ; 7(1): 112, 2022 04 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773956

ABSTRACT

Critical coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is associated with high mortality and potential genetic factors have been reported to be involved in the development of critical COVID-19. We performed a genome-wide association study to identify the genetic factors responsible for developing critical COVID-19. 632 critical patients with COVID-19 and 3021 healthy controls from the Chinese population were recruited. First, we identified a genome-wide significant difference of IL-6 rs2069837 (p = 9.73 × 10-15, OR = 0.41) between 437 critical patients with COVID-19 and 2551 normal controls in the discovery cohort. When replicated these findings in a set of 195 patients with critical COVID-19 and 470 healthy controls, we detected significant association of rs2069837 with COVID-19 (p = 8.89 × 10-3, OR = 0.67). This variant surpassed the formal threshold for genome-wide significance (combined p = 4.64 × 10-16, OR = 0.49). Further analysis revealed that there was a significantly stronger expression of IL-6 in the serum from patients with critical COVID-19 than in that from patients with asymptomatic COVID-19. An in vitro assay showed that the A to G allele changes in rs2069837 within IL-6 obviously decreased the luciferase expression activity. When analyzing the effect of this variant on the IL-6 in the serum based on the rs2069837 genotype, we found that the A to G variation in rs2069837 decreased the expression of IL-6, especially in the male. Overall, we identified a genetic variant in IL-6 that protects against critical conditions with COVID-19 though decreasing IL-6 expression in the serum.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-6/genetics , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Male , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide/genetics
9.
Applied Sciences ; 12(7):3231, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1762341

ABSTRACT

This study proposes a design for unmanned chemical factories and implementation based on ultra-low-cost Internet of Things technology, to combat the impact of COVID-19 on industrial factories. A safety and private blockchain network architecture was established, including a three-layer network structure comprising edge, fog, and cloud calculators. Edge computing uses a programmable logic controller and a single-chip microcomputer to transmit and control the motion path of a four-axis robotic arm motor. The fog computing architecture is implemented using Python software. The structure is integrated and applied using a convolutional neural network (CNN) and a fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controller (FOPID). In addition, edge computing and fog computing signals are transmitted through the blockchain, and can be directly uploaded to the cloud computing controller for signal integration. The integrated application of the production line sensor and image recognition based on the network layer was addressed. We verified the image recognition of the CNN and the robot motor signal control of the FOPID. This study proposes that a CNN + FOPID method can improve the efficiency of the factory by more than 50% compared with traditional manual operators. The low-cost, high-efficiency equipment of the new method has substantial contribution and application potential.

10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(6)2022 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760615

ABSTRACT

This large-sample study of three Chinese societies-Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong-demonstrates the importance of media exposure for people's vaccination intentions during the COVID-19 pandemic. By employing two constructs (i.e., perceived susceptibility and severity) in the health belief model (HBM), the study identifies significant indirect effects of media exposure on individuals' vaccination intention in all three Chinese societies. That said, media trust negatively moderated the path from perceived severity to vaccination intention in Mainland China and Taiwan. In these two societies, the higher an individual's trust in media, the less influence of perceived severity on his/her vaccination intention. It suggests that the level of trust in media is a contextual factor in explaining individuals' decision-making on health issues. Generally, the combination of the HBM and media trust has been proven to be useful for understanding individuals' vaccination intentions. These findings provide practical considerations for governmental agencies, public institutions, and health campaign designers to promote vaccination in the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Female , Health Belief Model , Humans , Male , Vaccination
11.
Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao ; 44(1): 30-39, 2022 Feb.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1753709

ABSTRACT

Objective To measure the prevalence of mental health symptoms and identify the associated factors among college students at the beginning of coronavirus disease 2019(COVID-19)outbreak in China. Methods We carried out a multi-center cross-sectional study via snowball sampling and convenience sampling of the college students in different areas of China.The rates of self-reported depression,anxiety,and stress and post-traumatic stress disorder(PTSD)were assessed via the 21-item Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale(DASS-21)and the 6-item Impact of Event Scale-Revised(IES-6),respectively.Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics,health-related data,and information of the social environment.Data pertaining to mental health service seeking were also collected.Multivariate Logistic regression analyses were performed to identify the risk factors. Results A total of 3641 valid questionnaires were collected from college students.At the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak,535(14.69%)students had negative emotions,among which 402(11.04%),381(10.49%),and 171(4.90%)students had the symptoms of depression,anxiety,and stress,respectively.Meanwhile,1245(34.19%)college students had PTSD.Among the risk factors identified,male gender was associated with a lower likelihood of reporting depression symptoms(AOR=0.755,P=0.037],and medical students were at higher risk of depression and stress symptoms than liberal arts students(AOR=1.497,P=0.003;AOR=1.494,P=0.045).Family support was associated with lower risks of negative emotions and PTSD in college students(AOR=0.918,P<0.001;AOR=0.913,P<0.001;AOR=0.899,P<0.001;AOR=0.971,P=0.021). Conclusions College students were more sensitive to public health emergencies,and the incidence of negative emotions and PTSD was significantly higher than that before the outbreak of COVID-19.More attention should be paid to female college students who were more likely to develop negative emotions.We should strengthen positive and proper propaganda via mass media and help college students understand the situation and impact of COVID-19.Furthermore,we should enhance family support for college students.The government and relevant agencies need to provide appropriate mental health services to the students under similar circumstances to avoid the deterioration of their mental well-being.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Status , Humans , Male , Students/psychology , Universities
12.
Comput Inform Nurs ; 40(5): 307-316, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735676

ABSTRACT

Healthcare providers without working experience in isolation wards experience enormous challenges. Traditional ward orientation is constrained by space, time, and even infection risk in particular periods (eg, the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic). Virtual reality has been used widely, but rarely in wards. This study aimed to explore the experience of utilizing virtual reality for isolation ward training among nurses. In this study, nurses completed virtual reality training via an online platform and were then trained in isolation wards, after which their perceptions were explored by questionnaire and interviews. A total of 1868 participants completed the training. Most participants thought the preservice training was important and believed the virtual reality experience was consistent with the in-person training. Virtual reality was found not only to be convenient and valuable for training but also to have the benefits of occupational protection. However, whereas 50.48% of participants wanted to learn the ward via virtual reality, 87.21% of participants wanted to learn via in-person training before working in the wards. As a substitute for in-person training, virtual reality is a feasible and practical instrument to provide preservice training in particular periods. However, there is room for improvement due to general discomfort and technological problems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nursing Staff , Virtual Reality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pilot Projects
13.
Scientific Programming ; : 1-15, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1707892

ABSTRACT

With the rapid development of e-commerce in China and the global pandemic of COVID-19, more and more sales personnel and brands have abandoned the physical retail industry and started investing in e-commerce. The consumer culture of livestream e-commerce is becoming popular in China. However, a report from Southern Finance Omnimedia Corp of China pointed out that among China's top 1,000 livestream sellers, the top 20 sellers have contributed to nearly half of the gross merchandise volume (GMV), using three major Chinese streaming platforms: Taobao, Douyin, and Kuaishou. Moreover, a novice in livestream e-commerce knows less about the important impact factors of the realm. Akin to the adage, "well aware is well prepared," knowing more about the influencing factors of livestream e-commerce more will be the chances to promote the commercial value. A benchmark research is needed to systematically trace out the most important and influencing factors and to make possible the rising of selling with less effort, hence this study. The research intends to sort out the relevant influencing factors that affect consumers' shopping motivation in livestream e-commerce by reviewing previous related literature. Then, through the Delphi method, eight experts constructed the 14 main influencing factors that affect consumers' shopping motivation in livestream e-commerce. Through DEMATEL-ANP, we can not only find the key factors but also sort out the causal relationship between the main key factors, forming a preliminary evaluation model of the commercial value of livestream sellers. The importance-performance analysis (IPA) of these impact factors found that "seller popularity" is the most critical factor affecting consumers' shopping motivation. At the same time, product discounts, product quality, and the attractiveness of the sellers are being included in effects by the "seller popularity." The investigation followed in this study revealed that characteristics of the livestream seller are one of the most influencing factor achieving a total weight of 0.3020, whereas the streaming platform is the least influencing factor (total weight is 0.1333). The assessment made the study explore the sustainability of livestream e-commerce in China, and the proposed evaluation model can be used for the preliminary business value evaluation of people engaged in livestream sellers and related industries. [ FROM AUTHOR];Copyright of Scientific Programming is the property of Hindawi Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

14.
China CDC Weekly ; 4:1-3, 2022.
Article in English | China CDC Weekly | ID: covidwho-1706780

ABSTRACT

On January 13, 2022, Zhuhai CDC received a notification that a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case was found in the fever clinic in nearby Zhongshan City. Zhuhai CDC promptly carried out large-scale population screening in three nearby counties. A total of 4 COVID-19 cases were found in Nanping county. 34 cases were screened from close contacts, and 2 cases were reported from close contacts in other cities of Guangdong Province. The 20 cases were sequenced by Guangdong CDC and identified as the variant of concern (VOC)/Omicron variant BA.1. Since January 14, Zhuhai has carried out 8 rounds of nucleic acid screening for COVID-19 in the county where the cases occurred. Four large-scale nucleic acid screening tests for COVID-19 were conducted across the city, and no new community cases were reported after January 15.

15.
Am J Infect Control ; 50(3): 319-324, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1694005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent COVID-19 pandemic highlights the need for efficacious virucidal products to limit the spread of SARS-CoV-2. Several studies have suggested that alcohol-based sanitizers and some disinfectants are effective. While virucidal activity data of low-level disinfectants are lacking and some conclusions are not clear yet. METHODS: We evaluated the virucidal activity of 2 quaternary ammonium compounds (QAC) disinfectants (MICRO-CHEM PLUS and FWD), W30 (an amphoteric surfactant), and Medical EtOH against SARS-CoV-2. Suspension tests covering different concentration and contact time were performed using the integrated cell culture-qPCR method. RESULTS: Each of disinfectants was effective at inactivating SARS-CoV-2. MCP and FWD are highly effective within 15 seconds. W30 is also efficient within 2 minutes at concentration of 1%. Consistent with previous report, our results also demonstrated that 38% ethanol was sufficient to completely inactivate virus, which proved the method used in this study is feasible. CONCLUSIONS AND DISCUSSION: QAC disinfectants, MCP and FWD, are highly effective for the inactivation of SARS-CoV-2, which making them practical for use in health care setting and laboratories where prompt disinfection is important. The low-level disinfectant based on amphoteric surfactant, W30, which may present in commonly available household hygiene agents is also able to inactivate SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disinfectants , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/methods , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323522

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly infectious disease, mainly causing respiratory symptoms. However, a few patients may also have neurological symptoms. Herein, we report a case of COVID-19 infection complicated with Bell’s palsy. Case presentation: A 65-year-old woman was admitted due to left facial drooping. Physical examination showed left peripheral facial paralysis. Brain MRI showed no abnormality. However, the chest CT revealed the ground-glass shadows in the right lower lung. The real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA were positive through throat swabs, while the common influenza virus antigens were tested negative. The symptoms of left facial paralysis relieved after antiviral treatment. She patient was discharged in the context of 3 consecutively negative RT-PCR test results for SARS-CoV-2 RNA and complete absorption of the right lung lesions. Conclusion: This case suggests that COVID-19 may be presented with Bell’s palsy and may be a potential cause of facial paralysis.

17.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312048

ABSTRACT

The increase in children's screen time over the last few decades has concerned parents, educators, and policymakers alike, due to its association with negative developmental outcomes. Interventions have focused on educating parents about the apparent dangers and coaching them on how to limit screen time. Such interventions are unlikely to be effective if screen time is driven less by parental preference than by parental necessity, supplementing insufficient adult caretaker availability. We show that during the COVID crisis, screen time increased dramatically as a direct result of sudden decrease in adult caretaker availability. This indicates that lower screen time rates prior to the pandemic were not (merely) a function of well-informed parenting but of well-resourced parenting. We discuss implications for policy, as well as for the ongoing scientific debate about whether screen time is actually problematic for development.

18.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309031

ABSTRACT

Novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) has been widely spread in China and several other countries. Early finding of this pneumonia from huge numbers of suspects gives clinicians a big challenge. The aim of the study was to develop a rapid screening model for early predicting NCP in a Zhejiang population, as well as its utility in other areas. A total of 880 participants who were initially suspected of NCP from Jan 17 to Feb 19 were included. Potential predictors were selected via stepwise logistic regression analysis. The model was established based on epidemiological features, clinical manifestations, white blood cell count, and pulmonary imaging changes, with the area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curve of 0.920 (95% confidence interval : 0.902-0.938;AUROC=0.915, and its standard deviation of 0.028, as evaluated in 5-fold cross-validation). At a value of whether the predicted score >4.0, the model could detect NCP with a specificity of 98.3%;at a cut-off value of < -0.5, the model could rule out NCP with a sensitivity of 97.9%. The study demonstrated that the rapid screening model was a helpful and cost-effective tool for early predicting NCP and had great clinical significance given the high activity of NCP.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308097

ABSTRACT

The spread of a communicable disease is a complex spatio-temporal process shaped by the specific transmission mechanism, the survivability of the pathogen outside the host under harsh environmental conditions, and access to new viable hosts broadly determined by the local population characteristics, and its compliance to social distancing policies. While the key factors shaping transmission of influenza and COVID-19 are beginning to be broadly understood, making precise forecasts on case count and mortality is still difficult. Despite a diversity of approaches being used to model the COVID-19 pandemic, a single best model is yet to coalesce. In this study we introduce the concept of a universal geo-spatial risk measure, denoted as the Universal Influenza-like Transmission (UnIT) score, to quantify the risk phenotype of US counties facilitating flu-like transmission mechanisms. The UnIT score is computed as a purely information-theoretic function of past incidence data for seasonal flu epidemics, yet emerges as the dominant factor explaining observed county-specific incidence trends over a range of putative demographic and socio-economic factors for the COV-19 pandemic. The predictive ability of the UnIT score is further demonstrated via county-specific weekly case count forecasts which consistently outperform the best models in the current literature. This study demonstrates that knowledge of past epidemics may be used to chart the course of future ones, if transmission mechanisms are broadly similar, despite distinct disease processes and causative pathogens.

20.
Clin Genitourin Cancer ; 20(2): 123-131, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654189

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), which delivers high-dose precision treatment in ≤5 fractions, is a shorter, more convenient, and less expensive alternative to conventionally fractionated radiotherapy (CRFT; ∼44 fractions) or moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy (MFRT; 20-28 fractions). SBRT has not been widely adopted but may have radiobiologic advantages over CFRT/MFRT. We hypothesized that SBRT would be associated with improved overall survival (OS) versus CFRT or MFRT ± androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for unfavorable-intermediate-risk prostate cancer (UIR-PCa). METHODS: Men with UIR-PCa treated with SBRT (35-40Gy in ≤5 fractions) or biologically equivalent doses of CFRT (72-86.4Gy in 1.8-2.0Gy/fraction) or MRFT (≥60Gy in 2.4-3.2Gy/fraction; biologically effective doses ≥120) were identified in the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Unweighted and propensity-weighted multivariable Cox analysis (MVA) was used to compare OS hazard ratios. RESULTS: Of 28,028 men with UIR-PCa who received CFRT with (n = 12,872) or without ADT (n = 12,984); MFRT with (n = 251) or without ADT (n = 281); and SBRT with (n = 212) or without ADT (n = 1,428) were identified. Relative to CFRT without ADT, CFRT+ ADT (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87-0.97, P = .002) and SBRT without ADT (HR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61-0.89, P = .002) were both associated with improved OS on MVA. Relative to CFRT+ADT, SBRT without ADT correlated with improved OS on MVA (HR:0.81, 95% CI 0.67-0.99, P = .04). Propensity-weighted MVA demonstrated that SBRT (HR:0.80, 95% CI 0.65-0.98, P = .036) and ADT (HR:0.91, 95% CI 0.86-0.97, P = .002) correlated with improved OS. SBRT was not associated with improved OS versus MFRT. CONCLUSION: SBRT, which offers a cheaper and shorter treatment course that mitigates COVID-19 exposure, was associated with improved OS versus CFRT for UIR-PCa. These results confirm guideline-based recommendations that SBRT is a viable option for UIR prostate cancer. The results from this large retrospective study require further validation in clinical trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Prostatic Neoplasms , Radiosurgery , Androgen Antagonists/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Prostatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Radiosurgery/methods , Retrospective Studies , Survival Analysis
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL