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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323888

ABSTRACT

Background: Novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an emerging, rapidly evolving situation. At present, the prognosis of severe and critically ill patients has become an important focus of attention. We strived to develop a prognostic prediction model for severe and critically ill COVID-19 patients.MethodsTo assess the factors associated with the prognosis of those patients, we retrospectively investigated the clinical, laboratory characteristics of confirmed 112 cases of COVID-19 admitted between 21 January to 6 March 2020 from Huangshi Central Hospital, Huangshi Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Daye People’s Hospital. We applied machine learning method (survival random forest) to select predictors for 28-day survival and taken into account the dynamic trajectory of laboratory indicators. Results Fifteen candidate prognostic features, including 11 baseline measures (including platelet count (PLT), urea, creatine kinase (CK), fibrinogen, creatine kinase isoenzyme activity, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), activation of partial thromboplastin time (APTT), albumin, standard deviation of erythrocyte distribution width (RBC-SD), neutrophils (%) and red blood cell count (RBC)) and 4 trajectory clusters (changes during hospitalization in the white blood cell (WBC), PLT large cell ratio (P-LCR), PLT distribution width (PDW) and AST), combined with covariates achieved 100% (95%CI: 99%-100%) AUC and reached 87% (95%CI: 84%-91%) AUC in an external validation set. Conclusions Taking advantage of random forest technique and laboratory dynamic measures, we developed a forest model to predict survival outcome of COVID-19 patients, which achieved 87% AUC in the external validation set. Our online tool will help to facilitate the early recognition of patients with high risk.

2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 738532, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686470

ABSTRACT

Background: The benefits of intravenous immunoglobulin administration are controversial for critically ill COVID-19 patients. Methods: We analyzed retrospectively the effects of immunoglobulin administration for critically ill COVID-19 patients. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) with propensity score was used to account for baseline confounders. Cluster analysis was used to perform phenotype analysis. Results: Between January 1 and February 29, 2020, 754 patients with complete data from 19 hospitals were enrolled. Death at 28 days occurred for 408 (54.1%) patients. There were 392 (52.0%) patients who received intravenous immunoglobulin, at 11 (interquartile range (IQR) 8, 16) days after illness onset; 30% of these patients received intravenous immunoglobulin prior to intensive care unit (ICU) admission. By unadjusted analysis, no difference was observed for 28-day mortality between the immunoglobulin and non-immunoglobulin groups. Similar results were found by propensity score matching (n = 506) and by IPTW analysis (n = 731). Also, IPTW analysis did not reveal any significant difference between hyperinflammation and hypoinflammation phenotypes. Conclusion: No significant association was observed for use of intravenous immunoglobulin and decreased mortality of severe COVID-19 patients. Phenotype analysis did not show any survival benefit for patients who received immunoglobulin therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Aged , China , Critical Care/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome
3.
J Biomed Res ; 36(1): 32-38, 2021 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675185

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has spread throughout the world, which becomes a global public health emergency. Undernourishment prolongs its convalescence and has an adverse effect on its prognosis, especially in diabetic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of undernourishment and to determine how it is related to the prognostic outcomes in the diabetic patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A retrospective, multicenter study was conducted in 85 diabetic COVID-19 patients from three hospitals in Hubei Province. All patients were assessed using the European Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002) and other nutritional assessments when admitted. Of them, 35 (41.18%) were at risk of malnutrition (NRS score ≥3). Severe COVID-19 patients had a significantly lower level of serum albumin and prealbumin and higher NRS score than non-severe patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that serum prealbumin and NRS score increased the likelihood of progression into severe status ( P<0.05). Meanwhile, single factor and multivariate analysis determined that grade of illness severity was an independent predictor for malnutrition. Furthermore, prealbumin and NRS score could well predict severe status for COVID-19 patients. The malnutrition group (NRS score ≥3) had more severe illness than the normal nutritional (NRS score <3) group ( P<0.001), and had a longer length of in-hospital stay and higher mortality. Malnutrition is highly prevalent among COVID-19 patients with diabetes. It is associated with severely ill status and poor prognosis. Evaluation of nutritional status should be strengthened, especially the indicators of NRS-2002 and the level of serum prealbumin.

4.
Journal of Intensive Medicine ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1446889

ABSTRACT

Background There have been many studies about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID -19), but the clinical significance of quantitative serum severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2)-specific IgM and IgG levels in COVID-19 patients have not been exhaustively studied. We aimed to study the time profiles of these IgM/IgG levels in COVID-19 patients and their correlations with clinical features. Methods A multicenter clinical study was conducted from February to March 2020. It involved 179 COVID-19 patients (108 males and 71 females) from five hospitals in Huangshi in Hubei Province, China. To detect SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM/IgG, quantitative antibody assays (two-step indirect immunoassays with direct chemiluminescence technology) based on the nucleocapsid protein (NP) and spike protein 1 (S1) were used. For normally distributed data, means were compared using the t test, χ2 test, or exact probability method. For categorical data, medians were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. Results The median age was 57(44-69) years (58(38-69) for males and 57(49-68) for females). The median duration of positive nucleic acid test was 22.32 (17.34-27.43) days. The mortality rate was relatively low (3/179, 1.68%). Serum SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG was detected around week 1 after illness onset, gradually increased until peaking in weeks 4 and 5, and then declined. Serum IgM peaked in weeks 2 and 3, then gradually declined and returned to its normal range by week 7 in all patients. Notably, children had milder respiratory symptoms with lower SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM/IgG levels. The duration of positive nucleic acid test in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) group was 30.36(18.99-34.76) days, which was significantly longer than that in the non-COPD group (21.52(16.75-26.51) days;P=0.011). The peak serum SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG was significantly positively correlated with the duration of positive nucleic acid test. The incidence rate of severe and critical cases in the IgMhi group (using the median IgM level of 29.95 AU/ml as the cutoff for grouping) was about 38% (19/50), which was twice as much as that in the IgMlo group (18.37%;9/49). The patients with positive chest imaging and lymphocytopenia (<1 × 109/L) had a higher SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM level. Conclusions Quantitative SARS-CoV-2-specific IgM and IgG levels are helpful for the diagnosis, severity classification, and management of COVID-19 patients, and they should be monitored in each stage of this disease.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 637747, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346406

ABSTRACT

Background: Different positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) strategies are available for subjects with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation. We aimed to evaluate three conventional PEEP strategies on their effects on respiratory mechanics, gas exchanges, and hemodynamics. Methods: This is a prospective, physiologic, multicenter study conducted in China. We recruited 20 intubated subjects with ARDS and confirmed COVID-19. We first set PEEP by the ARDSnet low PEEP-fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) table. After a recruitment maneuver, PEEP was set at 15, 10, and 5 cm H2O for 10 min, respectively. Among these three PEEP levels, best-compliance PEEP was the one providing the highest respiratory system compliance; best-oxygenation PEEP was the one providing the highest PaO2 (partial pressure of arterial oxygen)/FIO2. Results: At each PEEP level, we assessed respiratory mechanics, arterial blood gas, and hemodynamics. Among three PEEP levels, plateau pressure, driving pressure, mechanical power, and blood pressure improved with lower PEEP. The ARDSnet low PEEP-FIO2 table and the best-oxygenation strategies provided higher PEEP than the best-compliance strategy (11 ± 6 cm H2O vs. 11 ± 3 cm H2O vs. 6 ± 2 cm H2O, p = 0.001), leading to higher plateau pressure, driving pressure, and mechanical power. The three PEEP strategies were not significantly different in gas exchange. The subgroup analysis showed that three PEEP strategies generated different effects in subjects with moderate or severe ARDS (n = 12) but not in subjects with mild ARDS (n = 8). Conclusions: In our cohort with COVID-19-induced ARDS, the ARDSnet low PEEP/FIO2 table and the best-oxygenation strategies led to higher PEEP and potentially higher risk of ventilator-induced lung injury than the best-compliance strategy. Clinical Trial Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT04359251.

6.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 208: 106257, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284010

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the quantitative changes of respiratory functions for critically ill COVID-19 patients with mechanical ventilation, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was performed based on patient-specific three-dimensional airway geometry. METHODS: 37 cases of critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to the ICU of Huangshi Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital from February 1st to March 20th, 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. 5 patients whose clinical data met the specific criteria were finally cataloged into death group (2 patients) and survival group (3 patients). The patient-specific three-dimensional airways were reconstructed from the central airways down to the 4th-5th bifurcation of the tracheobronchial tree. The volume changes of bronchi were calculated during the disease progression according to the comparison of two CT scans. Additionally, the changes of air flow resistance were analyzed using numerical simulation of CFD. RESULTS: Pearson correlation analysis demonstrated that there was negative correlation between the change of volume (ΔV) and the change of resistance (ΔR) for all COVID-19 patients (r=-0.7025). For total airway volume, an average decrease of -11.41±15.71% was observed in death group compared to an average increase of 1.86±10.80% in survival group (p=0.0232). For air flow through airways in lower lobe, the resistance increases for death group by 10.97±77.66% and decreases for survival group by -45.49±42.04% (p=0.0246). CONCLUSION: The variation of flow resistance in the airway could be used as a non-invasive functional evaluation for the prognosis and outcome of critically ill patients with COVID-19. The 'virtual' pulmonary function test by integrating follow-up CT scans with patient-derived CFD analysis could be a potentially powerful way in improving the efficiency of treatment for critically ill patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Airway Resistance , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Hydrodynamics , Lung , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Crit Care ; 62: 265-270, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019249

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: A national cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the severity of burnout and its associated factors among doctors and nurses in ICUs in mainland China. METHOD: This is a cross-sectional survey. A total of 2411 ICU doctors and nurses in mainland China were included. Demographic and psychological data were collected via questionnaire. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used to evaluate burnout. Differences among regions and departments were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to determine the associated factors. RESULTS: Among the participants, 1122 (46.54%) were doctors, and 1289 (53.46%) were nurses. A total of 800 doctors (71.3% of all doctors) and 881 nurses (68.3% of all nurses) were deemed to be burnout. People working in the general ICU were most likely to be burnout. Factors associated with burnout included having low frequency of exercise, having comorbidities, working in a high-quality hospital, having more years of work experience, having more night shifts and having fewer paid vacation days. CONCLUSIONS: The burnout rate of ICU doctors and nurses in mainland China is 69.7%. Our study provides baseline data about burnout among Chinese medical staff predating COVID-19, which could help in the analysis and interpretation of burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Burnout, Professional/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Nurses/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Adult , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 71(Suppl 4): S400-S408, 2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985626

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is crucial for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients and diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in ARDS patients is challenging. Hence, an effective model to predict VAP in ARDS is urgently needed. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of patient-level data from the Early versus Delayed Enteral Nutrition (EDEN) of ARDSNet randomized controlled trials. Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis established a predictive model, incorporating characteristics selected by systematic review and univariate analyses. The model's discrimination, calibration, and clinical usefulness were assessed using the C-index, calibration plot, and decision curve analysis (DCA). RESULTS: Of the 1000 unique patients enrolled in the EDEN trials, 70 (7%) had ARDS complicated with VAP. Mechanical ventilation duration and intensive care unit (ICU) stay were significantly longer in the VAP group than non-VAP group (P < .001 for both) but the 60-day mortality was comparable. Use of neuromuscular blocking agents, severe ARDS, admission for unscheduled surgery, and trauma as primary ARDS causes were independent risk factors for VAP. The area under the curve of the model was .744, and model fit was acceptable (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = .185). The calibration curve indicated that the model had proper discrimination and good calibration. DCA showed that the VAP prediction nomogram was clinically useful when an intervention was decided at a VAP probability threshold between 1% and 61%. CONCLUSIONS: The prediction nomogram for VAP development in ARDS patients can be applied after ICU admission, using available variables. Potential clinical benefits of using this model deserve further assessment.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/diagnosis , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Risk Factors
9.
Virulence ; 11(1): 1394-1401, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872896

ABSTRACT

We previously reported that sputum induction was more sensitive than throat swabs for the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in two convalescent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients; however, the value and safety of induced sputum testing require further study. We conducted a prospective multi-center cross-sectional study to compare induced sputum to throat swabs for SARS-CoV-2 detection. Confirmed COVID-19 patients from six hospitals in six cities across China who received one or more negative RT-PCR result for SARS-CoV-2 were enrolled, and paired specimens (induced sputum and throat swabs; 56 cases) were assayed. In three paired samples, both the induced sputum and throat swabs were positive for SARS-CoV-2. The positive rate for induced sputum was significantly higher than for throat swabs both overall (28.6% vs 5.4%, respectively; p < 0.01). Patients were divided according to time span from onset of illness to sample collection into the more-than-30-day (n = 26) and less-than-30-day (n = 30) groups. The positive rate for induced sputum was also significantly higher than for throat swabs in the less-than-30-day group (53.3% vs 10.0%, respectively; p < 0.001). For the more-than-30-day group, all paired samples were negative for SARS-CoV-2. Blood oxygen saturation, respiratory rate, and heart rate remained stable during sputum induction and no staff were infected. Because induced sputum is more reliable and has a lower false-negative rate than throat swabs, we believe induced sputum is more useful for the confirmation of COVID-19 and is safer as a criterion for release from quarantine.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Sputum/virology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , False Negative Reactions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
11.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-618

ABSTRACT

Background: Until now, the novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused wide dissemination in China and other 72 countries, affecting more than 90,000 peoples

12.
Intensive Care Med ; 46(10): 1863-1872, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725842

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: An ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged in Wuhan since December 2019 and spread globally. However, information about critically ill patients with COVID-19 is still limited. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 and figure out the risk factors of mortality. METHODS: We extracted data retrospectively regarding 733 critically ill adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from 19 hospitals in China through January 1 to February 29, 2020. Demographic data, symptoms, laboratory values, comorbidities, treatments, and clinical outcomes were collected. The primary outcome was 28-day mortality. Data were compared between survivors and non-survivors. RESULTS: Of the 733 patients included in the study, the median (IQR) age was 65 (56-73) years and 256 (34.9%) were female. Among these patients, the median (IQR) APACHE II score was 10 (7 to 14) and 28-day mortality was 53.8%. Respiratory failure was the most common organ failure (597 [81.5%]), followed by shock (20%), thrombocytopenia (18.8%), central nervous system (8.6%) and renal dysfunction (8%). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that older age, malignancies, high APACHE II score, high D-dimer level, low PaO2/FiO2 level, high creatinine level, high hscTnI level and low albumin level were independent risk factors of 28-day mortality in critically ill patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSION: In this case series of critically ill patients with COVID-19 who were admitted into the ICU, more than half patients died at day 28. The higher percentage of organ failure in these patients indicated a significant demand for critical care resources.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Kidney Diseases/epidemiology , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Proportional Hazards Models , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock/epidemiology , Shock/etiology , Thrombocytopenia/epidemiology , Thrombocytopenia/etiology
13.
Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol ; 43(6): 810-819, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-125397

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus 2019 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused wide dissemination across the world. Global health systems are facing the unprecedented challenges. Here we shared the experiences and lessons in emergency responses and management from our hospital, a government-assigned regional anti-Covid-19 general hospital in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, China. METHODS: Our periodic strategies in dealing with Covid-19 were described in detail. An administrative response including the establishment of Emergency Leadership Committee that was in full charge of management was established. Modifications of infrastructure including the Fever Clinic, inpatient ward, outpatient clinic and operation room were carried out. Special arrangements for outpatient services, hospitalization and surgeries were introduced. Medical personnel training and patient educations were performed. Initiations of Covid-19 researches and application of information technology were introduced. FINDINGS: Since January 16, three cases have been confirmed in our hospital and no healthcare-associated infection was found. During the epidemics, 6.46% staffs suffered depression, 9.87% had anxiety, and 98% were satisfied with the infection control policy. Shortages in staffs and medical consumables, and limitation in space were the obstacles we encountered. INTERPRETATION: As the cost of in-hospital transmission is unbearable, our experiences and lessons suggested that prompt actions should be taken immediately to decrease or eliminate potential in-hospital transmission. Experience shared herein may be useful for those facilities that are and may encounter Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Emergency Service, Hospital , Hospital Administration , Hospitals, General , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Workflow
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