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1.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1664-1671, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978179

ABSTRACT

To reach the WHO target of hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination by 2025, Taiwan started to implement free-of-charge direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment programme in 2017. Evaluating the progress of HCV microelimination among people living with HIV (PLWH) is a critical step to identify the barriers to HCV elimination. PLWH seeking care at a major hospital designated for HIV care in Taiwan between January 2011 and December 2021 were retrospectively included. For PLWH with HCV-seropositive or HCV seroconversion during the study period, serial HCV RNA testing was performed using archived samples to confirm the presence of HCV viremia and estimate the prevalence and incidence of HCV viremia. Overall, 4199 PLWH contributed to a total of 27,258.75 person-years of follow-up (PYFU). With the reimbursement of DAAs and improvement of access to treatments, the prevalence of HCV viremia has declined from its peak of 6.21% (95% CI, 5.39-7.12%) in 2018 to 2.09% (95% CI, 1.60-2.77%) in 2021 (decline by 66.4% [95% CI, 55.4-74.7%]); the incidence has declined from 25.94 per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 20.44-32.47) in 2019 to 12.15% per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 8.14-17.44) (decline by 53.2% [95% CI, 27.3-70.6%]). However, the proportion of HCV reinfections continued to increase and accounted for 82.8% of incident HCV infections in 2021. We observed significant declines of HCV viremia among PLWH with the expansion of the DAA treatment programme in Taiwan. Further improvement of the access to DAA retreatments is warranted to achieve the goal of HCV microelimination.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Taiwan/epidemiology , Viremia/drug therapy , Viremia/epidemiology
2.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(3): 535-539, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819544

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for at-risk populations, but the vaccine effectiveness in people living with HIV (PLWH) remains incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that COVID-19 vaccination was clinically effective among PLWH during the outbreak setting with a low endemicity of COVID-19 where non-pharmaceutical interventions were strictly implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Vaccination
3.
Advanced Materials Technologies ; n/a(n/a):2100842, 2021.
Article in English | Wiley | ID: covidwho-1408260

ABSTRACT

Abstract In light of the swift outspread and considerable mortality, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) necessitates a rapid screening tool and a precise diagnosis. Saliva is considered as an alternative specimen to detect the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) since the viral load is comparable to what are found in a throat and a nasal cavity. The electrical double layer (EDL)-gated field-effect transistor-based biosensor (BioFET) emerges as a promising candidate for salivary COVID-19 tests due to a high sensitivity, a portable configuration, a label-free operation, and a matrix insensitivity. In this work, the authors utilize EDL-gated BioFETs to detect complementary DNAs (cDNAs) and viral RNAs with various testing conditions such as switches of probes, temperature treatments, and matrices. The selectivity is confirmed with cDNA and noncomplementary DNA (ncDNA), exhibiting an eightfold difference in electrical signals. The matrix insensitivity is evaluated, and BioFETs successfully validate the detection of SARS-CoV-2 N-gene RNA down to 1 fm in diluted human saliva with a 95°C- and a 25°C-treatment, respectively. This proposed system has a high potential to be deployed for an on-site COVID-19 screening, improving the disease control and benefitting frontline healthcare system.

4.
Adv Mater Technol ; 7(1): 2100842, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1404534

ABSTRACT

In light of the swift outspread and considerable mortality, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) necessitates a rapid screening tool and a precise diagnosis. Saliva is considered as an alternative specimen to detect the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) since the viral load is comparable to what are found in a throat and a nasal cavity. The electrical double layer (EDL)-gated field-effect transistor-based biosensor (BioFET) emerges as a promising candidate for salivary COVID-19 tests due to a high sensitivity, a portable configuration, a label-free operation, and a matrix insensitivity. In this work, the authors utilize EDL-gated BioFETs to detect complementary DNAs (cDNAs) and viral RNAs with various testing conditions such as switches of probes, temperature treatments, and matrices. The selectivity is confirmed with cDNA and noncomplementary DNA (ncDNA), exhibiting an eightfold difference in electrical signals. The matrix insensitivity is evaluated, and BioFETs successfully validate the detection of SARS-CoV-2 N-gene RNA down to 1 fm in diluted human saliva with a 95°C- and a 25°C-treatment, respectively. This proposed system has a high potential to be deployed for an on-site COVID-19 screening, improving the disease control and benefitting frontline healthcare system.

5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 38: 100989, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1375926

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This was a phase 1, dose-escalation open-label trial to evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of MVC-COV1901, a SARS-CoV-2 S-2P protein vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide and CpG 1018. METHODS: Between September 28 and November 13 2020, 77 participants were screened. Of these, 45 healthy adults from 20 to 49 years of age were to be administered two doses of MVC-COV1901 in doses of 5 µg, 15 µg, or 25 µg of spike protein at 28 days apart. There were 15 participants in each dose group; all were followed for 28 days after the second dose at the time of the interim analysis. Adverse events and laboratory data were recorded for the safety evaluation. Blood samples were collected for humoral, and cellular immune response at various time points. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04487210. FINDINGS: Solicited adverse events were mostly mild and similar. No subject experienced fever. After the second dose, the geometric mean titers (GMTs) for SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific immunoglobulin G were 7178.2, 7746.1, 11,220.6 in the 5 µg, 15 µg, and 25 µg dose groups, respectively. The neutralizing activity were detected in both methods. (Day 43 GMTs, 538.5, 993.1, and 1905.8 for pseudovirus; and 33.3, 76.3, and 167.4 for wild-type virus). The cellular immune response induced by MVC-COV1901 demonstrated substantially higher numbers of IFN-γ- producing cells, suggesting a Th1-skewed immune response. INTERPRETATION: The MVC-COV1901 vaccine was well tolerated and elicited robust immune responses and is suitable for further development. FUNDING: Medigen Vaccine Biologics Corporation.

7.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-3668

ABSTRACT

Background: The Coronavirus -19 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 ( SARS-CoV-2 ) is an ongoing world-wide plague. The viral spike (S) coat protein of SARS-CoV-2 engages the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) cell surface receptor to infect the host cells. Thus, concerns arose regarding theoretically higher risk for COVID-19 in patients taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI)/ angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (ARBs). Methods: We systematically assessed case-population and cohort studies from MEDLINE (Ovid), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews PubMed, Embase, medRXIV, the World Health Organization data-base of COVID-19 publications and ClinicalTrials.gov through Jun 1, 2020, with planned ongoing surveillance. We rated the certainty of evidence according to Cochrane methods and the GRADE approach. This study has been registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020190666. Findings: 14,921 ACEi users and 149,163 non-users were included. In the eligible studies, 2,756 ACEi users tested positive among a total of 22,114 patients of SARS-CoV-2 infection. 22,685 ARBs users and 141,399 non-users were included. In the eligible studies, 3,352 ARBs users tested positive among 22,114 patients of SARS-CoV-2 infection. After pooling the adjusted odds ratios (aOR), no significant increase was noted in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by ACEi (aOR, 0.95;95% CI, 0.86-1.05) or ARBs (aOR, 1.05;95% CI, 0.97-1.14) users. However, the random-effects meta-regression revealed that age may modify the SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in subjects with ARBs usage (coefficient, -0.006;95% CI, -0.016 to 0.004)-i.e.: the use of ARBs, as opposed to ACEi, specifically augmented the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in subjects 60 years-old. In the COVID-19 outcome analysis, neither ACEi (aOR, 1.00;95% CI, 0.80-1.26) nor ARBs (aOR, 0.99;95% CI, 0.83-1.18) usage aggravated disease severity or mortality of COVID-19. Interpretation: ACEi usage might not increase the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity of disease and mortality in case-population and cohort studies. Additionally, we found for the first time that the usage of ARBs, as opposed to ACEi, specifically augmented the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in younger subjects;without obvious effects on COVID-19 outcomes. Funding Statement: This study was supported by Taiwan National Science Council (grants NSC 101- 2314-B-002-132-MY3, NSC100-2314-B-002-119, NSC 101-2314-B-002-085-MY3, MOST 104-2314-B-002 -125 -MY3) and NTUH 100-N1776, 101-M1953, 102- S2097. Declaration of Interests: The authors declare that they have no competing interest.

8.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(7): 1459-1463, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1014623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at the frontline during the pandemic of COVID-19 globally. According to the WHO situation report at April 17, there were 22, 073 HCWs contracted the infection. Whether the infection control policy and practice in the hospital setting can protect the HCWs is an important issue. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional serology study in a tertiary care hospital in Taiwan to explore the sero-prevalence rate among HCWs. The participants are enrolled on a voluntary basis. A structured questionnaire was collected to gather the epidemiology character and risk factors for potential exposure. ELISA tests as Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG (Abbott) and Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay (Roche) were used to detect antibody responses. If any of the tests was positive, a western blot assay was used for confirmation. RESULTS: There were 194 HCWs participated during July 1 to Aug. 31, 2020. The mean age was 36.3 ± 10.4. More than half of the participants had possible hospital associated risk for COVID-19 exposure (110/192, 57.3%) and 64 had possible community risk for COVID-19 exposure (64/194, 33.0%). There was only one participant had positive test by Architect IgG test and confirmed to be negative for seasonal coronavirus and SARS-CoV-2 antibody. (Mikrogen Diagnostik, Germany). CONCLUSION: The cross-sectional serology study in a tertiary care hospital in Taiwan revealed no HCWs had positive serology response to SARS-CoV-2. We believe that the infection control policy and practice in the hospital and in the community are both important to prevent the disease transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hospitals , Humans , Middle Aged , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Taiwan/epidemiology
9.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1563-1571, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992140

ABSTRACT

The viral spike coat protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) engages the human ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) 2 cell surface receptor to infect the host cells. Thus, concerns arose regarding theoretically higher risk for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) in patients taking ACE inhibitors/angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs]). We systematically assessed case-population and cohort studies from MEDLINE (Ovid), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews PubMed, Embase, medRXIV, the World Health Organization database of COVID-19 publications, and ClinicalTrials.gov through June 1, 2020, with planned ongoing surveillance. We rated the certainty of evidence according to Cochrane methods and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach. After pooling the adjusted odds ratios from the included studies, no significant increase was noted in the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection by the use of ACE inhibitors (adjusted odds ratio, 0.95 [95% CI, 0.86-1.05]) or ARBs (adjusted odds ratio, 1.05 [95% CI, 0.97-1.14]). However, the random-effects meta-regression revealed that age may modify the SARS-CoV-2 infection risk in subjects with the use of ARBs (coefficient, -0.006 [95% CI, -0.016 to 0.004]), that is, the use of ARBs, as opposed to ACE inhibitors, specifically augmented the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in younger subjects (<60 years old). The use of ACE inhibitors might not increase the susceptibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity of disease, and mortality in case-population and cohort studies. Additionally, we discovered for the first time that the use of ARBs, as opposed to ACE inhibitors, specifically augmented the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection in younger subjects, without obvious effects on COVID-19 outcomes.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/adverse effects , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/adverse effects , Hypertension/drug therapy , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/chemically induced , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Cause of Death , Female , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Prognosis , Risk Assessment , Survival Analysis
10.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(5): 1269-1273, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728694

ABSTRACT

Until now, there are no approved treatment against COVID-19. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was hypothesized to be active against SARS-CoV2 via antiviral and anti-inflammatory effect; however, HCQ for COVID-19 in clinical use remained debating. In this preliminary report, we presented six patients with mild to moderate COVID-19. They were treated with HCQ for 14 days from the day of COVID-19 diagnosis. Serial viral load from respiratory specimens were performed every other day. Cytokine profile was checked before HCQ initiation and on the 14th day of HCQ treatment. All patients receiving HCQ completed 14-day course without complication. Among the six patients, the mean duration from symptom onset to last detectable viral load was 34 ± 12 days, which was similar to those without specific treatment in previous reports. Low level of interferon-gamma was noted in all patients of different stage of infection and three patients had elevation of IL-17 level. Prolonged virus shedding is still observed regardless HCQ. The impact of HCQ on cytokine kinetics remained unclear; however, IL-17 could be an inflammatory marker for disease status monitor and a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxychloroquine , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Cytokines , Humans , Kinetics , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load
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