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1.
J Perinatol ; 42(10): 1338-1345, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2050310

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Describe 1-month outcomes among newborns of persons with perinatal COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study of pregnant persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 14 days before and 3 days after delivery and their newborns, from 3/2020 to 3/2021 at two urban high-risk academic hospitals. Phone interviews were conducted to determine 1-month newborn outcomes. RESULTS: Among 9748 pregnant persons, 209 (2.1%) tested positive for perinatal SARS-CoV-2. Symptomatically infected persons were more likely to have a preterm delivery due to worsening maternal condition and their newborns were more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with asymptomatic persons. Six of 191 (3.1%) infants tested were positive for SARS-CoV-2; none had attributable illness before discharge. Of 169 eligible families, 132 (78.1%) participated in post-discharge interviews; none reported their newborn tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by 1 month of age. CONCLUSION: Symptomatic perinatal COVID-19 had a substantial effect on maternal health but no apparent short-term effect on newborns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Aftercare , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Patient Discharge , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Pediatrics ; 150(3)2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910742

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Experts hypothesized increased weight gain in children associated with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Our objective was to evaluate whether the rate of change of child body mass index (BMI) increased during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with prepandemic years. METHODS: The study population of 1996 children ages 2 to 19 years with at least 1 BMI measure before and during the COVID-19 pandemic was drawn from 38 pediatric cohorts across the United States participating in the Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes-wide cohort study. We modeled change in BMI using linear mixed models, adjusting for age, sex, race, ethnicity, maternal education, income, baseline BMI category, and type of BMI measure. Data collection and analysis were approved by the local institutional review board of each institution or by the central Environmental Influences on Child Health Outcomes institutional review board. RESULTS: BMI increased during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with previous years (0.24 higher annual gain in BMI during the pandemic compared with previous years, 95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.45). Children with BMI in the obese range compared with the healthy weight range were at higher risk for excess BMI gain during the pandemic, whereas children in higher-income households were at decreased risk of BMI gain. CONCLUSIONS: One effect of the COVID-19 pandemic is an increase in annual BMI gain during the COVID-19 pandemic compared with the 3 previous years among children in our national cohort. This increased risk among US children may worsen a critical threat to public health and health equity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Humans , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology , Weight Gain , Young Adult
3.
BMC Pediatr ; 22(1): 55, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643122

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Newborn care practices that best promote the health and well-being of mother-infant dyads after birth while minimizing transmission of COVID-19 were uncertain at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: Examine variation in COVID-19 newborn care practices among U.S. birth hospitals and by hospital characteristics (U.S. census region, highest level of neonatal level of care, and Baby-Friendly hospital status). STUDY DESIGN: We surveyed physicians via American Academy of Pediatrics email listservs and social media between 5/26/2020-6/8/2020. Physicians identified the birth hospital in which they provided newborn care and their hospital's approach to obstetrical and newborn care related to COVID-19. Chi-square tests were used to examine variation in hospital practices by U.S. census region, highest level of neonatal care, and Baby-Friendly hospital status. RESULTS: Four hundred thirty three physicians responded from 318 hospitals across 46 states. Variation in care of SARS-CoV-2 positive mother-infant dyads was greatest for approaches to location of newborn care (31% separation, 17% rooming-in, and 51% based on shared-decision making), early skin-to-skin care (48% prohibited/discouraged, 11% encouraged, and 40% based on shared-decision making) and direct breastfeeding (37% prohibited/discouraged, 15% encouraged, and 48% based on shared-decision making). Among presumed uninfected dyads, 59% of hospitals discharged at least some mother-infant dyads early. We found variation in practices by U.S. census region. CONCLUSION: Approaches to newborn care and breastfeeding support for mother-infant dyads with positive SARS-CoV-2 testing differed across U.S. birth hospitals during the COVID-19 pandemic. Early discharge of presumed uninfected mother-infant dyads was common.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Breast Feeding , COVID-19 Testing , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
5.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 33(2): 181-187, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455408

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on the consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 infection on the health and perinatal outcomes of pregnant women and their infants. RECENT FINDINGS: The severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection is greater in pregnant compared to nonpregnant women as measured by rates of admission to intensive care units, mechanical ventilation, mortality, and morbidities including myocardial infarction, venous thromboembolic and other thrombotic events, preeclampsia, preterm labor, and preterm birth. The risk of transmission from mother-to-infant is relatively low (1.5-5%) as quantitated by neonatal SARS-CoV-2 testing. Infants appear to be at higher risk of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 if the mother has tested positive within 1 week of delivery or is herself symptomatic at the time of maternity admission. The rate of positivity is not higher in infants who room in with the mother compared to infants who are initially separated and cared for in a SARS-CoV-2-free environment. Infants who test positive in the hospital have no or mild signs of disease, most of which may be attributable to prematurity, and rarely require readmission for clinical signs consistent with COVID-19. SUMMARY: Pregnant women should take precautions to avoid infection with SARS-CoV-2. Infants born to mothers who test positive for SARS-CoV-2 can receive normal neonatal care in-hospital with their mothers if mother and staff adhere to recommended infection control practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Neoreviews ; 22(6): e392-e397, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1256103

ABSTRACT

Breast milk provides optimal nourishment for all infants and has special advantages in preterm infants. Breast milk is associated with lower rates of necrotizing enterocolitis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia and improved neurodevelopmental outcomes in the preterm population. Mothers in the NICU may experience multiple psychological, physical, and social/cultural barriers that impede successful breastfeeding. Professional lactation support is of crucial importance in this population. With the social distancing requirements of the pandemic, many clinicians have adopted novel methods of education and communication to ensure continued timely support for NICU mothers.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Lactation , Referral and Consultation , Telemedicine , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(4): e217523, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198345

ABSTRACT

Importance: The incidence of mother-to-newborn SARS-CoV-2 transmission appears low and may be associated with biological and social factors. However, data are limited on the factors associated with neonatal clinical or viral testing outcomes. Objective: To ascertain the percentage of neonates who were born to mothers with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results during the birth hospitalization, the clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with neonatal test result positivity, and the clinical and virological outcomes for newborns during hospitalization and 30 days after discharge. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter cohort study included 11 academic or community hospitals in Massachusetts and mother-neonate dyads whose delivery and discharge occurred between March 1, 2020, and July 31, 2020. Eligible dyads were identified at each participating hospital through local COVID-19 surveillance and infection control systems. Neonates were born to mothers with positive SARS-CoV-2 test results within 14 days before to 72 hours after delivery, and neonates were followed up for 30 days after birth hospital discharge. Exposures: Hypothesized maternal risk factors in neonatal test result positivity included maternal COVID-19 symptoms, vaginal delivery, rooming-in practice, Black race or Hispanic ethnicity, and zip code-derived social vulnerability index. Delivery indicated by worsening maternal COVID-19 symptoms was hypothesized to increase the risk of adverse neonatal health outcomes. Main Outcomes and Measures: Primary outcomes for neonates were (1) positive SARS-CoV-2 test results, (2) indicators of adverse health, and (3) clinical signs and viral testing. Test result positivity was defined as at least 1 positive result on a specimen obtained by nasopharyngeal swab using a polymerase chain reaction-based method. Clinical and testing data were obtained from electronic medical records of nonroutine health care visits within 30 days after hospital discharge. Results: The cohort included 255 neonates (mean [SD] gestational age at birth, 37.9 [2.6] weeks; 62 [24.3%] with low birth weight or preterm delivery) with 250 mothers (mean [SD] age, 30.4 [6.3] years; 121 [48.4%] were of Hispanic ethnicity). Of the 255 neonates who were born to mothers with SARS-CoV-2 infection, 225 (88.2%) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 and 5 (2.2%) had positive results during the birth hospitalization. High maternal social vulnerability was associated with higher likelihood of neonatal test result positivity (adjusted odds ratio, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.53-16.01; P = .008), adjusted for maternal COVID-19 symptoms, delivery mode, and rooming-in practice. Adverse outcomes during hospitalization were associated with preterm delivery indicated by worsening maternal COVID-19 symptoms. Of the 151 newborns with follow-up data, 28 had nonroutine clinical visits, 7 underwent SARS-CoV-2 testing, and 1 had a positive result. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings emphasize the importance of both biological and social factors in perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection outcomes. Newborns exposed to SARS-CoV-2 were at risk for both direct and indirect adverse health outcomes, supporting efforts of ongoing surveillance of the virus and long-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Delivery, Obstetric , Infant, Newborn, Diseases , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Delivery, Obstetric/statistics & numerical data , Female , Gestational Age , Humans , Infant, Low Birth Weight , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/diagnosis , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn, Diseases/virology , Male , Massachusetts/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors
8.
Am J Cardiol ; 147: 137-142, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101080

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic disproportionately affects females in the home and workplace. This study aimed to acquire information regarding the gender-specific effects of the COVID-19 lockdown on aspects of professional and personal lives of a subset of pediatric cardiologists. We sent an online multiple-choice survey to a listserv of Pediatric Cardiologists. Data collected included demographics, dependent care details, work hours, leave from work, salary cut, childcare hours before and after the COVID-19 peak lockdown/stay at home mandate and partner involvement. Two hundred forty-two pediatric cardiologists with dependent care responsibilities responded (response rate of 20.2%). A significantly higher proportion of females reported a salary cut (29.1% of females vs 17.6% of males, p = 0.04) and scaled back or discontinued work (14% vs 5.3%; p = 0.03). Prior to the COVID-19 lockdown phase, females provided more hours of dependent care. Females also reported a significantly greater increase in childcare hours overall per week (45 hours post/30 hours pre vs 30 hours post/20 hours pre for men; p < 0.001).  Male cardiologists were much more likely to have partners who reduced work hours (67% vs 28%; p < 0.001) and reported that their partners took a salary cut compared with partners of female cardiologists (51% vs 22%; p < 0.001). In conclusion, gender disparity in caregiver responsibilities existed among highly skilled pediatric cardiologists even before the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic has disproportionately affected female pediatric cardiologists with respect to dependent care responsibilities, time at work, and financial compensation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cardiologists/statistics & numerical data , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Pandemics , Workplace , Adult , Child , Comorbidity , Humans , Middle Aged , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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