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1.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104062, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1899688

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need of a new generation of vaccine that are able to enhance protection against SARS-CoV-2 and related variants of concern (VOC) and emerging coronaviruses. METHODS: We identified conserved T- and B-cell epitopes from Spike (S) and Nucleocapsid (N) highly homologous to 38 sarbecoviruses, including SARS-CoV-2 VOCs, to design a protein subunit vaccine targeting antigens to Dendritic Cells (DC) via CD40 surface receptor (CD40.CoV2). FINDINGS: CD40.CoV2 immunization elicited high levels of cross-neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, VOCs, and SARS-CoV-1 in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice, associated with viral control and survival after SARS-CoV-2 challenge. A direct comparison of CD40.CoV2 with the mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine showed that the two vaccines were equally immunogenic in mice. We demonstrated the potency of CD40.CoV2 to recall in vitro human multi-epitope, functional, and cytotoxic SARS-CoV-2 S- and N-specific T-cell responses that are unaffected by VOC mutations and cross-reactive with SARS-CoV-1 and, to a lesser extent, MERS epitopes. INTERPRETATION: We report the immunogenicity and antiviral efficacy of the CD40.CoV2 vaccine in a preclinical model providing a framework for a pan-sarbecovirus vaccine. FUNDINGS: This work was supported by INSERM and the Investissements d'Avenir program, Vaccine Research Institute (VRI), managed by the ANR and the CARE project funded from the Innovative Medicines Initiative 2 Joint Undertaking (JU).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Mice , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
2.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104077, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867076

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe COVID-19 is associated with a high circulating level of calprotectin, the S100A8/S100A9 alarmin heterodimer. Baseline calprotectin amount measured in peripheral blood at diagnosis correlates with disease severity. The optimal use of this biomarker along COVID-19 course remains to be delineated. METHODS: We focused on patients with a WHO-defined moderate COVID-19 requiring hospitalization in a medical ward. We collected plasma and serum from three independent cohorts (N = 626 patients) and measured calprotectin amount at admission. We performed longitudinal measures of calprotectin in 457 of these patients (1461 samples) and used a joint latent class mixture model in which classes were defined by age, body mass index and comorbidities to identify calprotectin trajectories predicting the risk of transfer into an intensive care unit or death. FINDINGS: After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index and comorbidities, the predictive value of baseline calprotectin in patients with moderate COVID19 could be refined by serial monitoring of the biomarker. We discriminated three calprotectin trajectories associated with low, moderate, and high risk of poor outcome, and we designed an algorithm available as online software (https://calpla.gustaveroussy.fr:8443/) to monitor the probability of a poor outcome in individual patients with moderate COVID-19. INTERPRETATION: These results emphasize the clinical interest of serial monitoring of calprotectin amount in the peripheral blood to anticipate the risk of poor outcomes in patients with moderate COVID-19 hospitalized in a standard care unit. FUNDING: The study received support (research grants) from ThermoFisher immunodiagnostics (France) and Gustave Roussy Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Leukocyte L1 Antigen Complex/blood , Severity of Illness Index
3.
Respir Res ; 23(1): 68, 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759751

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patient hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pulmonary infection can have sequelae such as impaired exercise capacity. We aimed to determine the frequency of long-term exercise capacity limitation in survivors of severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection and the factors associated with this limitation. METHODS: Patients with severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection were enrolled 3 months after hospital discharge in COVulnerability, a prospective cohort. They underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, pulmonary function test, echocardiography, and skeletal muscle mass evaluation. RESULTS: Among 105 patients included, 35% had a reduced exercise capacity (VO2peak < 80% of predicted). Compared to patients with a normal exercise capacity, patients with reduced exercise capacity were more often men (89.2% vs. 67.6%, p = 0.015), with diabetes (45.9% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.002) and renal dysfunction (21.6% vs. 17.6%, p = 0.006), but did not differ in terms of initial acute disease severity. An altered exercise capacity was associated with an impaired respiratory function as assessed by a decrease in forced vital capacity (p < 0.0001), FEV1 (p < 0.0001), total lung capacity (p < 0.0001) and DLCO (p = 0.015). Moreover, we uncovered a decrease of muscular mass index and grip test in the reduced exercise capacity group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.047 respectively), whilst 38.9% of patients with low exercise capacity had a sarcopenia, compared to 10.9% in those with normal exercise capacity (p = 0.001). Myocardial function was normal with similar systolic and diastolic parameters between groups whilst reduced exercise capacity was associated with a slightly shorter pulmonary acceleration time, despite no pulmonary hypertension. CONCLUSION: Three months after a severe COVID-19 pulmonary infection, more than one third of patients had an impairment of exercise capacity which was associated with a reduced pulmonary function, a reduced skeletal muscle mass and function but without any significant impairment in cardiac function.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Exercise Tolerance/physiology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Aged , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Echocardiography/methods , Echocardiography/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Test/methods , Exercise Test/statistics & numerical data , Exercise Tolerance/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France , Humans , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/etiology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Function Tests/methods , Respiratory Function Tests/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology
5.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 23, 2021 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151679

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Biomarkers of disease severity might help individualizing the management of patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Whether the alveolar compartmentalization of biomarkers has a clinical significance in patients with pneumonia-related ARDS is unknown. This study aimed at assessing the interrelation of ARDS/sepsis biomarkers in the alveolar and blood compartments and explored their association with clinical outcomes. METHODS: Immunocompetent patients with pneumonia-related ARDS admitted between 2014 and 2018 were included in a prospective monocentric study. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and blood samples were obtained within 48 h of admission. Twenty-two biomarkers were quantified in BAL fluid and serum. HLA-DR+ monocytes and CD8+ PD-1+ lymphocytes were quantified using flow cytometry. The primary clinical endpoint of the study was hospital mortality. Patients undergoing a bronchoscopy as part of routine care were included as controls. RESULTS: Seventy ARDS patients were included. Hospital mortality was 21.4%. The BAL fluid-to-serum ratio of IL-8 was 20 times higher in ARDS patients than in controls (p < 0.0001). ARDS patients with shock had lower BAL fluid-to-serum ratio of IL-1Ra (p = 0.026), IL-6 (p = 0.002), IP-10/CXCL10 (p = 0.024) and IL-10 (p = 0.023) than others. The BAL fluid-to-serum ratio of IL-1Ra was more elevated in hospital survivors than decedents (p = 0.006), even after adjusting for SOFA and driving pressure (p = 0.036). There was no significant association between alveolar or alveolar/blood monocytic HLA-DR or CD8+ lymphocytes PD-1 expression and hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: IL-8 was the most compartmentalized cytokine and lower BAL fluid-to-serum concentration ratios of IL-1Ra were associated with hospital mortality in patients with pneumonia-associated ARDS.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , Pulmonary Alveoli/drug effects , Aged , Analysis of Variance , Biomarkers/blood , Bronchoalveolar Lavage/methods , Cohort Studies , Female , Flow Cytometry/methods , France , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/complications , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Statistics, Nonparametric
6.
Cell ; 184(5): 1201-1213.e14, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062272

ABSTRACT

Memory B cells play a fundamental role in host defenses against viruses, but to date, their role has been relatively unsettled in the context of SARS-CoV-2. We report here a longitudinal single-cell and repertoire profiling of the B cell response up to 6 months in mild and severe COVID-19 patients. Distinct SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific activated B cell clones fueled an early antibody-secreting cell burst as well as a durable synchronous germinal center response. While highly mutated memory B cells, including pre-existing cross-reactive seasonal Betacoronavirus-specific clones, were recruited early in the response, neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 RBD-specific clones accumulated with time and largely contributed to the late, remarkably stable, memory B cell pool. Highlighting germinal center maturation, these cells displayed clear accumulation of somatic mutations in their variable region genes over time. Overall, these findings demonstrate that an antigen-driven activation persisted and matured up to 6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection and may provide long-term protection.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , Flow Cytometry , Germinal Center/cytology , Humans , Lymphocyte Activation , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Single-Cell Analysis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry
9.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 202(11): 1509-1519, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952528

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Uncontrolled inflammatory innate response and impaired adaptive immune response are associated with clinical severity in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19).Objectives: To compare the immunopathology of COVID-19 acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with that of non-COVID-19 ARDS, and to identify biomarkers associated with mortality in patients with COVID-19 ARDS.Methods: Prospective observational monocenter study. Immunocompetent patients diagnosed with RT-PCR-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and ARDS admitted between March 8 and March 30, 2020, were included and compared with patients with non-COVID-19 ARDS. The primary clinical endpoint of the study was mortality at Day 28. Flow cytometry analyses and serum cytokine measurements were performed at Days 1-2 and 4-6 of ICU admission.Measurements and Main Results: As compared with patients with non-COVID-19 ARDS (n = 36), those with COVID-19 (n = 38) were not significantly different regarding age, sex, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II scores but exhibited a higher Day-28 mortality (34% vs. 11%, P = 0.030). Patients with COVID-19 showed profound and sustained T CD4+ (P = 0.002), CD8+ (P < 0.0001), and B (P < 0.0001) lymphopenia, higher HLA-DR expression on monocytes (P < 0.001) and higher serum concentrations of EGF (epithelial growth factor), GM-CSF, IL-10, CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1a, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL5/RANTES, and CCL20/MIP-3a. After adjusting on age and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, serum CXCL10/IP-10 (P = 0.047) and GM-CSF (P = 0.050) were higher and nasopharyngeal RT-PCR cycle threshold values lower (P = 0.010) in patients with COVID-19 who were dead at Day 28.Conclusions: Profound global lymphopenia and a "chemokine signature" were observed in COVID-19 ARDS. Increased serum concentrations of CXCL10/IP-10 and GM-CSF, together with higher nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 viral load, were associated with Day-28 mortality.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chemokines/blood , Immunity, Innate , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Viral Load
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