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1.
PeerJ ; 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2164152

ABSTRACT

Introduction Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causes high mortality. The objective of this study is to determine whether the arterial pressure of oxygen/inspiratory fraction of oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) 24 h after invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and the difference between PaO2/FiO2 at 24 h after IMV and PaO2/FiO2 before admission to IMV (ΔPaO2/FiO2 24 h) are predictors of survival in patients with ARDS due to COVID-19. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted that included patients with ARDS due to COVID-19 in IMV admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a hospital in southern Peru from April 2020 to April 2021. The ROC curves and the Youden index were used to establish the cut-off point for PaO2/FiO2 at 24 h of IMV and ΔPaO2/FiO2 at 24 h associated with mortality. The association with mortality was determined by Cox regression, calculating the crude (cHR) and adjusted (aHR) risk ratios, with their respective 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Two hundred patients were analyzed. The average age was 54.29 years, 79% were men, and 25.5% (n = 51) died. The cut-off point calculated for PaO2/FiO2 24 h after IMV and ΔPaO2/FiO2 24 h was 222.5 and 109.5, respectively. Those participants with a value below the cut-off point of ΔPaO2/FiO2 24 h and PaO2/FiO2 24 h after IMV had higher mortality, aHR = 3.32 (CI 95% [1.82–6.07]) and aHR = 2.87 (CI 95% [1.48–5.57]) respectively. Conclusion PaO2/FiO2 24 h after IMV and ΔPaO2/FiO2 24 h in patients diagnosed with ARDS due to COVID-19 on IMV were associated with higher hospital mortality. These findings are helpful to identify those patients with a higher risk of dying on admission to the ICU.

2.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(11)2022 Oct 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2090351

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic circumstances have varied the pathogens related to acute respiratory infections (ARI), and most specialists have ignored them due to SARS-CoV-2's similar symptomatology. We identify respiratory pathogens with multiplex PCR in samples with presumptive SARS-CoV-2 but negative RT-qPCR results. We performed a retrospective transversal study employing clinical data and nasopharyngeal swab samples from patients with suspected clinical SARS-CoV-2 infection and a negative PCR result in a private laboratory in Lima, Peru. The samples were analyzed using the FilmArray™ respiratory panel. Of 342 samples, we detected at least one pathogen in 50% of the samples. The main ones were rhinovirus (54.38%), influenza A(H3N2) (22.80%), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (14.04%). The clinical characteristics were sore throat (70.18%), cough (58.48%), nasal congestion (56.43%), and fever (40.06%). Only 41.46% and 48.78% of patients with influenza met the definition of influenza-like illness (ILI) by the World Health Organization (WHO) (characterized by cough and fever) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) (characterized by fever and cough and sore throat), respectively. A higher prevalence of influenza was associated with ILI by WHO (aPR: 2.331) and ILI by CDC (aPR: 1.892), which was not observed with other respiratory viruses. The clinical characteristic associated with the increased prevalence of rhinovirus was nasal congestion (aPR: 1.84). For patients with ARI and negative PCR results, the leading respiratory pathogens detected were rhinovirus, influenza, and RSV. Less than half of patients with influenza presented ILI, although its presence was specific to the disease.

3.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(10)2022 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2043862

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Sleep disorders are a common public health problem among college students. The objective of this study was to evaluate sleep quality and its associated factors in medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: Cross-sectional analytical study-we conducted a secondary analysis of the survey "Nomophobia in medical students in Peru" database between 2020 and 2021. Sleep disturbances were assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). To evaluate associated factors, crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (aPR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. Results: We analyzed data from 3139 participants from 18 cities in Peru (61.1% were women, median age: 22 years). 43.4% had a quality of sleep that could require medical attention; the PSQI dimension with the highest score was daytime dysfunction. The poor sleep quality was associated with symptoms of anxiety (aPR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.27-1.72), depression (aPR: 2.03; 1.72-2.39), or nomophobia (aPR: 1.28; 1.09-1.51). Conclusions: Sleep disorders were a common problem among Peruvian medical students and were associated with anxiety, depression, or nomophobia symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Students, Medical , Female , Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Male , Peru/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/diagnosis
4.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(5)2022 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847406

ABSTRACT

Insufficient data have been reported about the effect of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (BBIBP-CorV) on the humoral response through time in healthcare workers (HCW). This retrospective cohort studied the information of 252 HCW from a private laboratory, comparing the antibody-mediated response provoked by BBIBP-CorV between HCW previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 (PI) and not previously infected (NPI), employing the Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S and the cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody Detection kit at intervals of 21, 90, and 180 days after vaccination. The presence of neutralizing antibodies in HCW 21 days after full vaccination was 100% in PI and 91.60% in NPI. We observed a progressive decrease in antibody levels over time in both groups. Comparing HCW PI with NPI, PI had a 10.9, 14.3, and 8.6-fold higher antibody titer with the Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S at 21 (p < 0.001), 90 (p< 0.001) and 180 days (p <0.001) respectively, compared to NPI. Using the percent of signal inhibition (PSI) of the antibody neutralization cPass™, HCW PI showed a level of 1.3, 2.0, and 3.1 times more antibodies, at 21 (p <0.001), 90 (p <0.001), and 180 days (p <0.001) respectively, compared to NPI. We determined a progressive decrease in humoral immunity over time, particularly higher in those NPI.

5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(4)2022 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822453

ABSTRACT

Information on the effects of a heterologous booster in adult patients first vaccinated with the BBIBP-CorV vaccine is limited. This prospective cohort study evaluated the humoral response of 152 healthcare workers (HCWs) from a private laboratory in Lima (Peru) before and after receiving the BNT162b2 vaccine, with a seven-month interval since the BBIBP-CorV doses. We employed the Elecsys® anti-SARS-CoV-2 S and the cPass™ SARS-CoV-2 Neutralization Antibody (NAbs) assays to evaluate anti-S-RBD IgG and NAbs, respectively. Of the 152 HCWs, 79 (51.98%) were previously infected (PI) with SARS-CoV-2 and 73 (48.02%) were not previously infected (NPI). The proportion of HCWs with positive NAbs, seven months after the BBIBP-CorV immunization, was 49.31% in NPI and 92.40% in PI. After the booster, this ratio increased to 100% in both groups. The anti-S-RBD IgG and NAbs in the HCWs' NPI increased by 32.7 and 3.95 times more, respectively. In HCWs' PI, this increment was 5 and 1.42 times more, respectively. There was no statistical association between the history of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and the titer of anti-S-RBD IgG and NAbs after the booster. The humoral immunity presented a robust increase after receiving the BNT162b2 booster and was more pronounced in NPI.

6.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 21(1): 11, 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741944

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 has created a shortage of supplies of reagents for its detection throughout the world, especially in Latin America. The pooling of samples consists of combining individual patient samples in a block and analyzing the group as a particular sample. This strategy has been shown to reduce the burden of laboratory material and logistical resources by up to 80%. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the pool of samples analyzed by RT-PCR to detect SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of diagnostic tests was carried out. We individually evaluated 420 samples, and 42 clusters were formed, each one with ten samples. These clusters could contain 0, 1 or 2 positive samples to simulate a positivity of 0, 10 and 20%, respectively. RT-PCR analyzed the groups for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. The area under the ROC curve (AUC), the Youden index, the global and subgroup sensitivity and specificity were calculated according to their Ct values that were classified as high (H: ≤ 25), moderate (M: 26-30) and low (L: 31-35) concentration of viral RNA. RESULTS: From a total of 42 pools, 41 (97.6%) obtained the same result as the samples they contained (positive or negative). The AUC for pooling, Youden index, sensitivity, and specificity were 0.98 (95% CI, 0.95-1); 0.97 (95% CI, 0.90-1.03); 96.67% (95% CI; 88.58-100%) and 100% (95% CI; 95.83-100%) respectively. In the stratified analysis of the pools containing samples with Ct ≤ 25, the sensitivity was 100% (95% CI; 90-100%), while with the pools containing samples with Ct ≥ 31, the sensitivity was 80% (95% CI, 34.94-100%). Finally, a higher median was observed in the Ct of the clusters, with respect to the individual samples (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The strategy of pooling nasopharyngeal swab samples for analysis by SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR showed high diagnostic performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 38(2): 214-223, 2021.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381502

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, laboratory and treatment characteristics of COVID-19 patients and to determine the factors associated with mortality during hospital stay. Materials and Methods: Retrospective cohort study of adult COVID-19 inpatients. The clinical, laboratory and treatment data were obtained from the medical records of patients from the Hospital Nivel III Daniel Alcides Carrión in Tacna. For the survival analysis we used the Cox proportional hazards model, and we calculated crude and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). RESULTS: We evaluated 351 patients; 74.1% of them were men. The most common comorbidities were obesity (31.6%), hypertension (27.1%) and diabetes mellitus (24.5%). The median time of hospitalization was 8 days (IQR: 4-15). From the total of patients, 32.9% died during follow-up. The multivariate analysis showed an increased risk of dying associated with the following: age ≥65 years, HR = 3.55 (95% CI: 1.70-7.40); increase in lactate dehydrogenase >720 U/L, HR = 2.08 (95% CI: 1.34-3.22); and oxygen saturation less than 90%, mainly when it was less than 80%, HR = 4.07 (95% CI: 2.10-7.88). In addition, the use of colchicine during treatment showed a protective effect, HR = 0.46 (95% CI: 0.23-0.91). CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for mortality due to COVID-19 included being older than 65 years, having oxygen saturation less than 90%, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase >720 U/L; colchicine treatment could improve the prognosis of patients.


OBJETIVO: Describir las características demográficas, clínicas, laboratoriales y de tratamiento de pacientes hospitalizados por la COVID-19 y determinar los factores asociados a la mortalidad hospitalaria. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo de pacientes adultos hospitalizados por la COVID-19. Se extrajeron datos demográficos, clínicos, laboratoriales y de tratamiento de las historias clínicas de pacientes que ingresaron al Hospital III Daniel Alcides Carrión de Tacna. Para el análisis de supervivencia se empleó el modelo de riesgos proporcionales de Cox y se calcularon los cocientes de riesgo instantáneos (HR) crudos y ajustados con sus respectivos intervalos de confianza al 95% (IC 95%). RESULTADOS: Se evaluó a 351 pacientes, el 74,1% eran hombres; las comorbilidades más comunes fueron obesidad (31,6%), hipertensión (27,1%) y diabetes mellitus (24,5%). La mediana de tiempo de hospitalización fue 8 días (RIC: 4-15). El 32,9% falleció durante el seguimiento. El análisis multivariado mostró un aumento del riesgo de morir asociado a la edad ≥65 años, HR = 3,55 (IC 95%: 1,70-7,40); al incremento de lactato deshidrogenasa >720 U/L, HR = 2,08 (IC 95%: 1,34-3,22); y a la saturación de oxígeno por debajo del 90%, principalmente cuando fue menor al 80%, HR = 4,07 (IC 95%: 2,10-7,88). Además, el uso de colchicina en el tratamiento tuvo un efecto protector, HR = 0,46 (IC 95%: 0,23-0,91). CONCLUSIONES: Los factores asociados a muerte por la COVID-19 incluyeron ser mayor de 65 años, tener saturación de oxígeno menor de 90% y elevación del lactato deshidrogenasa >720 U/L; el tratamiento con colchicina podría mejorar el pronóstico de los pacientes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Male , Peru/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
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