Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3351, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908222

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has spread globally since its emergence in 2019. Most SARS-CoV-2 infections generate immune responses leading to rising levels of immunoglobulins (Ig) M, A and G which can be detected using diagnostic tests including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Whilst implying previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, the detection of Ig by ELISA does not guarantee the presence of neutralising antibodies (NAb) that can prevent the virus infecting cells. Plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNT) detect NAb, but are not amenable to mass testing as they take several days and require use of SARS-CoV-2 in high biocontainment laboratories. We evaluated the ability of IgG and IgM ELISAs targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike subunit 1 receptor binding domain (S1-RBD), and spike subunit 2 (S2) and nucleocapsid protein (NP), at predicting the presence and magnitude of NAb determined by PRNT. IgG S2 + NP ELISA was 96.8% [95% CI 83.8-99.9] sensitive and 88.9% [95% CI 51.8-99.7] specific at predicting the presence of NAbs (PRNT80 > 1:40). IgG and IgM S1-RBD ELISAs correlated with PRNT titre, with higher ELISA results increasing the likelihood of a robust neutralising response. The IgM S1-RBD assay can be used as a rapid, high throughput test to approximate the magnitude of NAb titre.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Aged , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
2.
Viruses ; 14(5)2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869805

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) not only affects the respiratory tract but also causes neurological symptoms such as loss of smell and taste, headache, fatigue or severe cerebrovascular complications. Using transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2), we investigated the spatiotemporal distribution and pathomorphological features in the CNS following intranasal infection with SARS-CoV-2 variants, as well as after prior influenza A virus infection. Apart from Omicron, we found all variants to frequently spread to and within the CNS. Infection was restricted to neurons and appeared to spread from the olfactory bulb mainly in basally oriented regions in the brain and into the spinal cord, independent of ACE2 expression and without evidence of neuronal cell death, axonal damage or demyelination. However, microglial activation, microgliosis and a mild macrophage and T cell dominated inflammatory response was consistently observed, accompanied by apoptotic death of endothelial, microglial and immune cells, without their apparent infection. Microgliosis and immune cell apoptosis indicate a potential role of microglia for pathogenesis and viral effect in COVID-19 and the possible impairment of neurological functions, especially in long COVID. These data may also be informative for the selection of therapeutic candidates and broadly support the investigation of agents with adequate penetration into relevant regions of the CNS.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Central Nervous System , Viral Tropism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/complications , Central Nervous System/physiopathology , Central Nervous System/virology , Humans , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 465-473, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844280

ABSTRACT

Inactivation methods allow for hazard group 3 (HG3) pathogens to be disposed of and used safely in downstream experiments and assays to be carried out at lower containment levels. Commonly used viral inactivation methods include heat inactivation, fixation methods, ultraviolet (UV) light and detergent inactivation. Here we describe known methods used to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 for safe downstream biological assays.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Ultraviolet Rays , Vero Cells , Virus Inactivation
4.
mSphere ; 7(3): e0091321, 2022 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832362

ABSTRACT

New variants of SARS-CoV-2 are continuing to emerge and dominate the global sequence landscapes. Several variants have been labeled variants of concern (VOCs) because they may have a transmission advantage, increased risk of morbidity and/or mortality, or immune evasion upon a background of prior infection or vaccination. Placing the VOCs in context with the underlying variability of SARS-CoV-2 is essential in understanding virus evolution and selection pressures. Dominant genome sequences and the population genetics of SARS-CoV-2 in nasopharyngeal swabs from hospitalized patients were characterized. Nonsynonymous changes at a minor variant level were identified. These populations were generally preserved when isolates were amplified in cell culture. To place the Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron VOCs in context, their growth was compared to clinical isolates of different lineages from earlier in the pandemic. The data indicated that the growth in cell culture of the Beta variant was more than that of the other variants in Vero E6 cells but not in hACE2-A549 cells. Looking at each time point, Beta grew more than the other VOCs in hACE2-A549 cells at 24 to 48 h postinfection. At 72 h postinfection there was no difference in the growth of any of the variants in either cell line. Overall, this work suggested that exploring the biology of SARS-CoV-2 is complicated by population dynamics and that these need to be considered with new variants. In the context of variation seen in other coronaviruses, the variants currently observed for SARS-CoV-2 are very similar in terms of their clinical spectrum of disease. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19. The virus has spread across the planet, causing a global pandemic. In common with other coronaviruses, SARS-CoV-2 genomes can become quite diverse as a consequence of replicating inside cells. This has given rise to multiple variants from the original virus that infected humans. These variants may have different properties and in the context of a widespread vaccination program may render vaccines less effective. Our research confirms the degree of genetic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 in patients. By comparing the growth of previous variants to the pattern seen with four variants of concern (VOCs) (Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron), we show that, at least in cells, Beta variant growth exceeds that of Alpha, Delta, and Omicron VOCs at 24 to 48 h in both Vero E6 and hACE2-A549 cells, but by 72 h postinfection, the amount of virus is not different from that of the other VOCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Pandemics , Phenotype , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
J Med Microbiol ; 71(2)2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1709252

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The importance of human saliva in aerosol-based transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is now widely recognized. However, little is known about the efficacy of virucidal mouthwash formulations against emergent SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and in the presence of saliva.Hypothesis. Mouthwashes containing virucidal actives will have similar inactivation effects against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern and will retain efficacy in the presence of human saliva.Aim. To examine in vitro efficacy of mouthwash formulations to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 variants.Methodology. Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 variants by mouthwash formulations in the presence or absence of human saliva was assayed using ASTM International Standard E1052-20 methodology.Results. Appropriately formulated mouthwashes containing 0.07 % cetylpyridinium chloride but not 0.2 % chlorhexidine completely inactivated SARS-CoV-2 (USA-WA1/2020, Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta) up to the limit of detection in suspension assays. Tests using USA-WA1/2020 indicates that efficacy is maintained in the presence of human saliva.Conclusions. Together these data suggest cetylpyridinium chloride-based mouthwashes are effective at inactivating SARS-CoV-2 variants. This indicates potential to reduce viral load in the oral cavity and mitigate transmission via salivary aerosols.


Subject(s)
Cetylpyridinium , Mouthwashes , SARS-CoV-2 , Saliva , COVID-19 , Cetylpyridinium/pharmacology , Humans , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saliva/virology
6.
mBio ; : e0371821, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691420

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) extensively N-glycosylates its spike proteins, which are necessary for host cell invasion and the target of both vaccines and immunotherapies. These N-glycans are predicted to modulate spike binding to the host receptor by stabilizing its open conformation and host immunity evasion. Here, we investigated the essentiality of both the host N-glycosylation pathway and SARS-CoV-2 N-glycans for infection. Ablation of host N-glycosylation using RNA interference or inhibitors, including FDA-approved drugs, reduced the spread of the infection, including that of variants B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma) and B.1.617.2 (Delta). Under these conditions, cells produced fewer virions and some completely lost their infectivity. Furthermore, partial enzymatic deglycosylation of intact virions showed that surface-exposed N-glycans are critical for cell invasion. Altogether, we propose protein N-glycosylation as a targetable pathway with clinical potential for treatment of COVID-19. IMPORTANCE The coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 uses its spike surface proteins to infect human cells. Spike proteins are heavily modified with several N-glycans, which are predicted to modulate their function. In this work, we show that interfering with either the synthesis or attachment of spike N-glycans significantly reduces the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro, including that of several variants. As new SARS-CoV-2 variants, with various degrees of resistance against current vaccines, are likely to continue appearing, halting virus glycosylation using repurposed human drugs could result in a complementary strategy to reducing the spread of COVID-19 worldwide.

7.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 59(3): 106542, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1654507

ABSTRACT

A key element for the prevention and management of coronavirus disease 2019 is the development of effective therapeutics. Drug combination strategies offer several advantages over monotherapies. They have the potential to achieve greater efficacy, to increase the therapeutic index of drugs and to reduce the emergence of drug resistance. We assessed the in vitro synergistic interaction between remdesivir and ivermectin, both approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, and demonstrated enhanced antiviral activity against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2. Whilst the in vitro synergistic activity reported here does not support the clinical application of this combination treatment strategy due to insufficient exposure of ivermectin in vivo, the data do warrant further investigation. Efforts to define the mechanisms underpinning the observed synergistic action could lead to the development of novel treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Ivermectin/pharmacology , Ivermectin/therapeutic use
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18313, 2021 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1412108

ABSTRACT

In the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic there has been an increase of the use of antigen-detection rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDT). The performance of Ag-RDT vary greatly between manufacturers and evaluating their analytical limit of detection (LOD) has become high priority. Here we describe a manufacturer-independent evaluation of the LOD of 19 marketed Ag-RDT using live SARS-CoV-2 spiked in different matrices: direct culture supernatant, a dry swab, and a swab in Amies. Additionally, the LOD using dry swab was investigated after 7 days' storage at - 80 °C of the SARS-CoV-2 serial dilutions. An LOD of ≈ 5.0 × 102 pfu/ml (1.0 × 106 genome copies/ml) in culture media is defined as acceptable by the World Health Organization. Fourteen of 19 Ag-RDTs (ActiveXpress, Espline, Excalibur, Innova, Joysbio, Mologic, NowCheck, Orient, PanBio, RespiStrip, Roche, Standard-F, Standard-Q and Sure-Status) exceeded this performance criteria using direct culture supernatant applied to the Ag-RDT. Six Ag-RDT were not compatible with Amies media and a decreased sensitivity of 2 to 20-fold was observed for eleven tests on the stored dilutions at - 80 °C for 7 days. Here, we provide analytical sensitivity data to guide appropriate test and sample type selection for use and for future Ag-RDT evaluations.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Chlorocebus aethiops , Humans , Limit of Detection , Reagent Kits, Diagnostic , Specimen Handling , Vero Cells
9.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2021 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381142

ABSTRACT

We monitored the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 antibody response in seven dogs and two cats by using two multispecies ELISA tests, plaque reduction neutralisation test and virus neutralization. SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies in pets persisted up to 10 months since the first positive testing, thus replicating observations in COVID-19 human patients.

10.
Curr Res Virol Sci ; 2: 100011, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1340608

ABSTRACT

Companion animals are susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and sporadic cases of pet infections have occurred in the United Kingdom. Here we present the first large-scale serological survey of SARS-CoV-2 neutralising antibodies in dogs and cats in the UK. Results are reported for 688 sera (454 canine, 234 feline) collected by a large veterinary diagnostic laboratory for routine haematology during three time periods; pre-COVID-19 (January 2020), during the first wave of UK human infections (April-May 2020) and during the second wave of UK human infections (September 2020-February 2021). Both pre-COVID-19 sera and those from the first wave tested negative. However, in sera collected during the second wave, 1.4% (n â€‹= â€‹4) of dogs and 2.2% (n â€‹= â€‹2) of cats tested positive for neutralising antibodies. The low numbers of animals testing positive suggests pet animals are unlikely to be a major reservoir for human infection in the UK. However, continued surveillance of in-contact susceptible animals should be performed as part of ongoing population health surveillance initiatives.

11.
Stem Cells ; 39(10): 1310-1321, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274785

ABSTRACT

As one of the primary points of entry of xenobiotic substances and infectious agents into the body, the lungs are subject to a range of dysfunctions and diseases that together account for a significant number of patient deaths. In view of this, there is an outstanding need for in vitro systems in which to assess the impact of both infectious agents and xenobiotic substances of the lungs. To address this issue, we have developed a protocol to generate airway epithelial basal-like cells from induced pluripotent stem cells, which simplifies the manufacture of cellular models of the human upper airways. Basal-like cells generated in this study were cultured on transwell inserts to allow formation of a confluent monolayer and then exposed to an air-liquid interface to induce differentiation into a pseudostratified epithelial construct with a marked similarity to the upper airway epithelium in vivo. These constructs contain the component cell types required of an epithelial model system, produce mucus and functional cilia, and can support SARS-CoV-2 infection/replication and the secretion of cytokines in a manner similar to that of in vivo airways. This method offers a readily accessible and highly scalable protocol for the manufacture of upper airway models that could find applications in development of therapies for respiratory viral infections and the assessment of drug toxicity on the human lungs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells/pathology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Models, Biological , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Cell Line , Cytokines/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/pathology , Epithelial Cells/virology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology
12.
Access Microbiol ; 3(4): 000228, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276305

ABSTRACT

Until an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is available on a widespread scale, the control of the COVID-19 pandemic is reliant upon effective pandemic control measures. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to remain viable on surfaces and in aerosols, means indirect contact transmission can occur and there is an opportunity to reduce transmission using effective disinfectants in public and communal spaces. Virusend (TX-10), a novel disinfectant, has been developed as a highly effective disinfectant against a range of microbial agents. Here we investigate the ability of Virusend to inactivate SARS-CoV-2. Using surface and solution inactivation assays, we show that Virusend is able to reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral titre by 4 log10 p.f.u. ml-1 within 1 min of contact. Ensuring disinfectants are highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 is important in eliminating environmental sources of the virus to control the COVID-19 pandemic.

13.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(7): 1981-1984, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225855

ABSTRACT

We detected severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in an otherwise healthy poodle living with 4 family members who had coronavirus disease. We observed antibodies in serum samples taken from the dog, indicating seroconversion. Full-length genome sequencing showed that the canine and human viruses were identical, suggesting human-to-animal transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Dogs , Humans , Italy/epidemiology
14.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167754

ABSTRACT

The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought many questions over the origin of the virus, the threat it poses to animals both in the wild and captivity, and the risks of a permanent viral reservoir developing in animals. Animal experiments have shown that a variety of animals can become infected with the virus. While coronaviruses have been known to infect animals for decades, the true intermediate host of the virus has not been identified, with no cases of SARS-CoV-2 in wild animals. The screening of wild, farmed, and domesticated animals is necessary to help us understand the virus and its origins and prevent future outbreaks of both COVID-19 and other diseases. There is intriguing evidence that farmed mink infections (acquired from humans) have led to infection of other farm workers in turn, with a recent outbreak of a mink variant in humans in Denmark. A thorough examination of the current knowledge and evidence of the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect different animal species is therefore vital to evaluate the threat of animal to human transmission and reverse zoonosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/veterinary , Disease Reservoirs/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Zoonoses/virology , Animals , Animals, Wild/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Zoonoses/transmission
15.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-955712

ABSTRACT

Until an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 is available on a widespread scale, the control of the COVID-19 pandemic is reliant upon effective pandemic control measures. The ability of SARS-CoV-2 to remain viable on surfaces and in aerosols, means indirect contact transmission can occur and so there is an opportunity to reduce transmission using effective disinfectants in public and communal spaces. Virusend (TX-10), a novel disinfectant, has been developed as a highly effective disinfectant against a range of microbial agents. Here we investigate the ability of Virusend (TX-10) to inactivation SARS-CoV-2. Using surface and solution inactivation assays, we show that Virusend (TX-10) is able to reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral titre by 4log 10 PFU/mL within 1 minute of contact. Ensuring disinfectants are highly effective against SARS-CoV-2 is important in eliminating environmental sources of the virus to control the COVID-19 pandemic.

16.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(11): 2770-2771, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760833

ABSTRACT

PCR of upper respiratory specimens is the diagnostic standard for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. However, saliva sampling is an easy alternative to nasal and throat swabbing. We found similar viral loads in saliva samples and in nasal and throat swab samples from 110 patients with coronavirus disease.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Saliva/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nose/virology , Pandemics , Pharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load
17.
J Infect Dis ; 222(9): 1462-1467, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-714024

ABSTRACT

The scientific community has responded to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic by rapidly undertaking research to find effective strategies to reduce the burden of this disease. Encouragingly, researchers from a diverse array of fields are collectively working towards this goal. Research with infectious severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is undertaken in high-containment laboratories; however, it is often desirable to work with samples at lower-containment levels. To facilitate the transfer of infectious samples from high-containment laboratories, we have tested methods commonly used to inactivate virus and prepare the sample for additional experiments. Incubation at 80°C, a range of detergents, Trizol reagents, and UV energies were successful at inactivating a high titer of SARS-CoV-2. Methanol and paraformaldehyde incubation of infected cells also inactivated the virus. These protocols can provide a framework for in-house inactivation of SARS-CoV-2 in other laboratories, ensuring the safe use of samples in lower-containment levels.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/growth & development , Virus Inactivation , Animals , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/radiation effects , Biological Assay , Biomedical Research , Chlorocebus aethiops , Detergents , Formaldehyde , Guanidines , Hot Temperature , Methanol , Phenols , Polymers , SARS-CoV-2 , Ultraviolet Rays , Vero Cells , Viral Plaque Assay
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL