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1.
Nat Commun ; 13(1):4931, 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2000888

ABSTRACT

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies are mainstay COVID-19 therapeutics. Safety, antiviral, and clinical efficacy of bamlanivimab were evaluated in the randomized controlled trial ACTIV-2/A5401. Non-hospitalized adults were randomized 1:1 within 10 days of COVID-19 symptoms to bamlanivimab or blinded-placebo in two dose-cohorts (7000 mg, n = 94;700 mg, n = 223). No differences in bamlanivimab vs placebo were observed in the primary outcomes: proportion with undetectable nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA at days 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 (risk ratio = 0.82-1.05 for 7000 mg [p(overall) = 0.88] and 0.81-1.21 for 700 mg [p(overall) = 0.49]), time to symptom improvement (median 21 vs 18.5 days [p = 0.97], 7000 mg;24 vs 20.5 days [p = 0.08], 700 mg), or grade 3+ adverse events. However, bamlanivimab was associated with lower day 3 nasopharyngeal viral levels and faster reductions in inflammatory markers and viral decay by modeling. This study provides evidence of faster reductions in nasopharyngeal SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels but not shorter symptom durations in non-hospitalized adults with early variants of SARS-CoV-2.

2.
Journal of Community Nursing ; 36(4):64-66, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1989634

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic prompted changes in the ways that individuals access healthcare services and accelerated the transition to digital methods of care. For some, this opened doors for easier and more convenient access. For people already experiencing exclusion and marginalisation however, digital access can create additional barriers for accessing health care. NHS Digital (2019) identified several groups as more likely to be digitally excluded: © 2022. Journal of Community Nursing. All Rights Reserved.

3.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):173, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880928

ABSTRACT

Background: The discovery and development of SARS-CoV-2 therapies remains a priority. SAB-185 is a Transchromosomic, bovine-derived, fully human polyclonal immunoglobulin product for SARS-CoV-2 being studied in ACTIV-2, randomized controlled platform trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of investigational agents for non-hospitalized adults with mild-moderate COVID-19 Methods: This Phase II trial was a superiority comparison of SAB-185 vs. placebo. Participants with confirmed SAR-CoV-2 infection received intravenous infusion of SAB-185 (3,840 Units/kg) or placebo. Primary outcome measures were proportion of participants with SARS-CoV-2 RNA < lower limit of quantification (LLoQ) in nasopharyngeal (NP) swab, time to improvement in targeted symptoms for 2 consecutive days after Day 0, and safety through Day 28. Secondary outcomes included quantitative NP RNA levels and all-cause hospitalizations and deaths. Antiviral or clinical efficacy and safety criteria for graduation to Phase III were pre-specified. Results: From April to August 2021, randomized participants from 42 sites in the US received SAB-185 (N=107) or placebo (N=106). Median age was 38 years (quartiles: 30,48), 54% female, >98% cis-gender, 7% Black/African-American, 50% Hispanic, and 11% were classified as high-risk for COVID-19 progression, with median 4 days (3,6) from symptom onset. Day 0 NP SARS-CoV-2 RNA levels were similar between SAB-185 and placebo: 4.80 vs 4.80 log10 copies/ml. No differences were observed in the proportion with NP SARS-CoV-2 RNA< lower limit of quantification (LLoQ) in nasopharyngeal (NP) swab, time to improvement in targeted symptoms for 2 consecutive days after Day 0, and safety through Day 28. Secondary outcomes included quantitative NP RNA levels and all-cause hospitalizations and deaths. Antiviral or clinical efficacy and safety criteria for graduation to phase 3 were pre-specified. Conclusion: SAB-185 was safe in this Phase II study. While no significant differences to placebo were seen in symptom duration and proportion of participants with NP SARS-CoV-2 RNA< lower limit of quantification (LLoQ) in nasopharyngeal (NP) swab, time to improvement in targeted symptoms for 2 consecutive days after Day 0, and safety through Day 28. Secondary outcomes included quantitative NP RNA levels and all-cause hospitalizations and deaths. Antiviral or clinical efficacy and safety criteria for graduation to phase 3 were pre-specified.

4.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):187, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880456

ABSTRACT

Background: Single-tablet tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/lamivudine/dolutegravir (TLD) has been rapidly adopted as 1st-line ART for patients initiating treatment and switching from virally-suppressive NNRTI-based 1st regimens in PEPFAR programs. There are limited data, however, on effectiveness and emergence of resistance to TLD in programmatic settings where plasma HIV-1 RNA and drug resistance testing are not used widely. Methods: A prospective observational study is being performed at 13 ACTG sites in six countries (Haiti, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe) coincident with TLD rollout to assess efficacy and emergence of HIV drug resistance following TLD for 1st, 2nd or 3rd-line ART. This report focuses on the 2 Groups that completed enrollment and 6 months of follow-up: Group 1b (Gp1b) participants on NNRTI-based ART for at least 6 months with HIV-1 RNA ≤1000 cps/mL before switch to TLD;and Group 4 (Gp4) ART-naïve participants initiating 1st-line TLD. The primary objective was to estimate the proportions of participants on TLD with HIV-1 RNA ≤1000 cps/mL and with new DTG resistance mutations at 6 months. Results:\From 10/2019-10/2020, we enrolled 600 participants who started TLD: 421 in Gp1b (median age 41years;80% female) and 179 in Gp4 (median age 35years;42% female). In Gp1b, median time on ART was 6.6y (IQR 3.3-10.3);88% were taking EFV with 3TC+TDF or FTC+TDF. In Gp4, median baseline HIV-1 RNA was 4.4 log10 cps/mL (IQR 3.5-5.1). Six participants in Gp1b (1.4%) and 6 in Gp4 (3.4%) discontinued TLD by 6 months, due to withdrawal or loss to follow-up (6 participants), adverse events considered related to TLD (4), and death (2;both Gp4;1 from TB, 1 unknown cause). Among participants followed on TLD to 6 months, 90% in Gp1b (373/415) and 86% in Gp4 (149/173) had a 6-month HIV-1 RNA result (missing values mainly due to COVID-related virtual visits). HIV-1 RNA ≤1000, <200 and <50 cps/mL was achieved in 99%, 98.4%, and 96% of participants in Gp1b and in 90%, 87.2%, and in 84.6% of Gp4, respectively (Table). A new mutation possibly selected by DTG was observed in 1 participant in Gp1b (T97AT) and none in Gp4. Conclusion: TLD was well tolerated and achieved excellent viral suppression in ART-naïve participants and in participants who switched from virally-suppressive 1st-line ART. An emerging InSTI mutation of uncertain significance was seen in only one participant. These data support early tolerability and efficacy of TLD transition in the public sector.

5.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):41, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880388

ABSTRACT

Background: Camostat, a serine protease inhibitor, prevents activation of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and blocks SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro. We studied the safety and antiviral and clinical efficacy of orally administered camostat in non-hospitalized adults with mild-moderate COVID-19. Methods: ACTIV-2/A5401 is a platform trial to evaluate therapies for non-hospitalized adults with mild-moderate COVID-19. In a Phase II portion of the study, participants were enrolled within 10 days of COVID-19 related symptom onset and randomized to camostat 200 mg orally every 6 hours for 7 days or the pooled placebo group. Objectives were to evaluate the safety and efficacy of camostat to reduce the duration of COVID-19 symptoms and increase the proportion of participants with SARS-CoV-2 RNA below the lower limit of quantification (LLoQ) from nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs on days 3, 7, and 14. Participants completed a study diary from day 0 to day 28 scoring COVID-19 symptoms as absent, mild, moderate, or severe. Results: Of the 224 participants enrolled from 54 US sites, 215 participants (108 camostat, 107 placebo) initiated study intervention and formed the modified intent-to-treat population. Fifty-four percent were female, >99% cis-gender, 85% White, 9% Black, and 51% Latinx. Median age was 37 years;47% reported ≤5 days of symptoms at study entry and 26% met the protocol definition of higher risk of progression to severe COVID-19. Most frequent symptoms on day 0 were cough (86%), fatigue (85%), nasal obstruction/congestion (71%) and body/muscle aches (71%). There was no significant difference between camostat and placebo arms in grade 3 or higher adverse events (7.4% vs. 6.5%, respectively). Median (Q1, Q3) time to symptom improvement was 9 days for both camostat (5, 20) and placebo (6, 19). There were no significant differences in the proportion of participants with NP SARS-CoV-2 RNA<="" div=""> Conclusion: Camostat was well-tolerated. Despite compelling in vitro data, camostat did not show evidence of antiviral or clinical efficacy in ACTIV-2/A5401. This highlights the critical importance of randomized controlled trials in the evaluation of therapies for COVID-19.

6.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):246, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880203

ABSTRACT

Background: Randomized COVID-19 trials provide opportunities to describe post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC)-related symptom burden longitudinally and assess the impact of early use of antivirals on PASC prevalence. Methods: ACTIV-2 evaluates safety and efficacy of investigational agents for non-hospitalized adults with mild to moderate COVID-19 in a Phase II/III trial. In Phase II, participants were randomized within 10 days of symptom onset and a positive SARS-CoV-2 virologic test to receive bamlanivimab (BAM) or placebo as a single infusion at 7000mg (n=94) or 700mg (n=225). In a subsequent single-arm open-label study, 1059 participants received 700mg BAM. Participants completed a 13-symptom daily diary from enrollment through Day 28. A long-term (LT) diary (14 additional symptoms) introduced after the study was underway was completed by a subset of individuals every 12 weeks. We report Week 24 findings. Results: Between Aug 2020 to Feb 2021 605 participants enrolled and completed LT diary at Week 24 [Phase II: 7000mg vs. placebo (n=25);700mg vs. placebo (n=68);single-arm open-label cohort: 700mg (n=512)]. Median age was 50 years, 51% female sex, 99% identified as cis-gender, 5% Black/African American, and 35% Hispanic/Latino. At enrollment, 53% reported ≥1 high-risk comorbidity and 0.3% were vaccinated against COVID-19. By Week 24, 14% (87/605) had not returned to their pre-COVID-19 health by self-report, with 57% (50/87) reporting ≥3 PASC symptoms. The most common symptoms were fatigue (45% of 87), smell disorder (36%), breathing difficulties (30%), taste disorders (25%), musculoskeletal pain (26%) or weakness (23%), and cognitive complaints: difficulty concentrating/thinking (30%), difficulty reasoning and solving problems (21%), memory loss (25%) and insomnia (23%). Most reported symptoms as "mild". Participants who reported acute viral illness symptoms between Days 22-28 were more likely to report PASC symptoms at Week 24 than those who did not report symptoms at Days 22-28 [51% (164/320) vs. 27% (76/285);p<0.0001]. Conclusion: In outpatients with mild to moderate COVID-19, 14% had not returned to pre-COVID-19 health by 24 weeks post infection, with generally mild but multiple symptoms. Presence of acute viral illness symptoms at 3-4 weeks was associated with an increased risk of PASC symptoms months later. Larger placebo-controlled studies within ACTIV-2 will assess the potential for early antiviral therapies to mitigate or prevent PASC.

7.
Quality in Ageing and Older Adults ; : 5, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868513

ABSTRACT

Purpose This brief paper aims to examine the extent to which lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, intersex and queer (LGBTIQ+) older adults in Australia used the internet for social, informational and instrumental needs, including how internet use changed during COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach The authors used a survey advertised to LGBTIQ+ older adults (N = 394), recruited as a sample of convenience, on social networking sites and via LGBTIQ+ and aged care organizations. Findings Self-reported internet use decreased during COVID-19, with various significant between-group differences in purposes of internet use and sexuality, gender, living arrangements and time. Originality/value The internet can be a critical form of social contact for LGBTIQ+ older adults, and this is among the first studies in Australia about their internet use during COVID-19. Findings from the study suggest patterns of internet use may be decreasing among LGBTIQ+ older adults during the pandemic.

8.
Competition Law Journal ; 21(1):1-10, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847520

ABSTRACT

Governments in developed countries have responded to the COVID-19 pandemic with an almost unprecedented level of government support, thereby preserving many firms and jobs. However, this government support will be progressively withdrawn, and coupled with recent, and expected further, increases in interest rates and the market impacts associated with changes in consumers’ and firms’ behaviour, there is likely to be restructuring in many sectors. This raises the public policy question as to the appropriate balance between government support facilitating and ameliorating this restructuring and the role played by merger control, including how the COVID-19 pandemic and its aftermath affects the application of the so-called ‘failing’ or ‘exiting’ firm defence or scenario under UK and EU merger control. To consider these questions, this article: addresses the policy considerations underpinning the failing firm defence under UK and EU merger control;describes the extensive government support and State aid provided in the UK in response to COVID-19 and the impact of COVID-19 on various sectors;and provides an overview of the evidence required for the ‘failing firm defence’, given these policy and factual considerations. © 2022 Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd.

9.
Ann Palliat Med ; 11(7): 2302-2313, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Telehealth was expanded worldwide during the COVID-19 pandemic to deliver essential care remotely to patients, including those receiving palliative care. Bipartisan groups of politicians in the United States call for continuing the expanded Medicare coverage of telehealth services beyond the pandemic period. The aim was to understand telehealth's benefits and risks to hospice and palliative care patients and their families. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 595 caregivers of seriously ill patients and interviewed 25 hospice leaders across the United States. We used multiple linear regression to analyze the survey data and qualitative methods to determine themes from the interview data. RESULTS: Our survey showed that a good internet connection, better access to video, and the patient being younger than 65 years old were associated with greater satisfaction with telehealth. The hospice leader interviews highlighted that telehealth can enhance or detract from quality care, depending on the function; confusion over telehealth policies and concern for abuse exists; and telehealth during the pandemic has spurred on technology-enabled innovation and improvements, especially for resource-constrained hospice and palliative care organizations. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth used during the pandemic showed that it may work for certain hospice and palliative care services. As telehealth coverage expands, it is important to address its risks and shortcomings upfront. When designed and implemented with the patient and equity in mind, telehealth has the potential to improve access to hospice and palliative care for all.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospices , Telemedicine , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caregivers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Medicare , Palliative Care/methods , Pandemics , Telemedicine/methods , United States
10.
Journal of Pain and Symptom Management ; 63(5):845, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1783581

ABSTRACT

Outcomes 1. Describe the areas of confusion and concern about using telehealth for hospice and palliative care 2. Explain components related to telehealth (eg, video, internet, and device accessibility) that relate to better satisfaction with telehealth 3. Discuss opportunities for telehealth to enhance care for seriously ill patients receiving hospice and palliative care Telehealth has been expanded during the COVID-19 pandemic to deliver essential care to sick patients, including older adult hospice and palliative care patients. Hospice and palliative care industry leaders and bipartisan groups of politicians call for increasing Medicare coverage of telehealth services to make permanent the reduced restrictions on virtual services during the pandemic. In follow-up to their recent national studies focused on racial and ethnic equity in hospice care, this public health and economics research team presents the reality of telehealth during the pandemic and the confusion and concern going forward for hospice leaders and informal caregivers of seriously ill patients. They will highlight the challenges and opportunities of delivering quality hospice and palliative care by using telehealth to traditionally underserved groups. The session will present findings from the authors’ 2021 survey of 600 informal caregivers and interviews with 25 hospice executives across the United States about telehealth for hospice care. As one interviewee put it, “It's really hard to put the horse back in the barn at this point”;telehealth is not going away. This session will help clinicians gain awareness and understanding of their peers and other stakeholders’ perspectives on experiencing telehealth in hospice care.

11.
J Public Health Res ; 11(2)2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766028

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of a novel coronavirus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), or COVID-19, raised worldwide concern. The present study investigates the association between anti-contagion policies and the spread of COVID-19 across the United States. DESIGN AND METHODS: We selected the most frequently implemented COVID-19 anti-contagion policies in all the U.S. states issued from 29 February 2020. Accordingly, we modified an epidemiological model and combined it with a comprehensive statistical analysis to evaluate the policies' individual and overall likely impact. RESULTS: For the first time, a novel index, evaluates the associations between policy implementation and COVID-19 spread at both statewide and national levels. Our results indicate that governmental policies requiring mask use, businesses social distancing, and quarantining travelers may be most effective for controlling COVID-19 spread. Simultaneously, widespread orders like school closure and safer-at-home that can be particularly disruptive to the economy and social fabric of society may be unnecessary given their lack of association with reducing infection. CONCLUSIONS: The absence of any COVID-19 vaccines during the first several months of its pandemic necessitated using governmental policies to help stop the spread of this disease. Our index showed the association between implemented policies and COVID-19 spread, highlighting the specific policies with the greatest association - mandatory quarantine upon entering a state, businesses implementing social distancing, and mandatory mask use - and those with less association like school closure and safer-at-home orders. This study provided evidence to inform policy choices for the current global crisis and future pandemics.

12.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S807-S808, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746276

ABSTRACT

Background. SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread and the development of safe and effective therapeutics for the prevention of severe disease remains a priority. BRII-196 and BRII-198 are non-competing anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs with YTE triple amino acid substitution in Fc to extend half-life and reduce receptor binding, that are being studied for treatment of COVID-19 in the ACTIV-2 Trial, sponsored by NIAID and led by ACTG. Methods. ACTIV-2 evaluates safety/efficacy of investigational agents for treatment of non-hospitalized adults with mild-moderate COVID-19 under a randomized, blinded, controlled adaptive platform. BRII-196/BRII-198 (1000 mg each) as a single dose given as sequential infusions, or placebo to those at high risk of clinical progression (i.e., age ≥ 60 years or presence of other medical conditions) within 10 days of symptom onset and positive test for SARS-CoV-2. The primary endpoint was hospitalization and/or death through day 28. We report Phase 3 BRII-196/BRII-198 trial results per DSMB recommendation following an interim analysis. Results. Between January and July 2021, 837 participants (418 active, 419 placebo) from sites in the US (66%), Brazil, South Africa, Mexico, Argentina and the Philippines were randomized and received study product at time of emerging variants. Median age 49 years (Q1, Q3: 39, 58), 51% female, 17% Black/African-American and 49% Hispanic/Latino, with median 6 days from symptom onset. At interim analysis 71% and 97% had a day 28 and 7 visit, respectively. For all available data at interim review, BRII-196/BRII-198 compared to placebo had fewer hospitalizations (12 vs. 45) and deaths (1 vs. 9). At day 28 of follow-up, there was an estimated 78% reduction in hospitalization and/or death (2.4 vs. 11.1%), relative risk 0.22 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.86), P=0.00001 (nominal one-sided). Grade 3 or higher adverse events (AEs) were observed less frequently among BRII-196/BRII-198 participants than placebo (3.8% vs. 13.4%) with no severe infusion reactions or drug related serious AEs. Conclusion. BRII-196/BRII-198 was safe, well-tolerated, and demonstrated significant reduction compared to placebo in the risk of hospitalization and/or death among adults with mild-moderate COVID-19 at high risk for progression to severe disease.

14.
MEDLINE;
Preprint in English | MEDLINE | ID: ppcovidwho-326686

ABSTRACT

Resistance mutations to monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy has been reported, but in the non-immunosuppressed population, it is unclear if in vivo emergence of SARS-CoV-2 resistance mutations alters either viral replication dynamics or therapeutic efficacy. In ACTIV-2/A5401, non-hospitalized participants with symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection were randomized to bamlanivimab (700mg or 7000mg) or placebo. Treatment-emergent resistance mutations were significantly more likely detected after bamlanivimab 700mg treatment than placebo (7% of 111 vs 0% of 112 participants, P=0.003). There were no treatment-emergent resistance mutations among the 48 participants who received bamlanivimab 7000mg. Participants with emerging mAb resistant virus had significantly higher pre-treatment nasopharyngeal and anterior nasal viral load. Intensive respiratory tract viral sampling revealed the dynamic nature of SARS-CoV-2 evolution, with evidence of rapid and sustained viral rebound after emergence of resistance mutations, and worsened symptom severity. Participants with emerging bamlanivimab resistance often accumulated additional polymorphisms found in current variants of concern/interest and associated with immune escape. These results highlight the potential for rapid emergence of resistance during mAb monotherapy treatment, resulting in prolonged high level respiratory tract viral loads and clinical worsening. Careful virologic assessment should be prioritized during the development and clinical implementation of antiviral treatments for COVID-19.

15.
Neurology ; 98(1S):S17-S17, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1663069
17.
J Intellect Disabil ; : 17446295211062400, 2022 Jan 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1625299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To learn about the challenges, policies, and needed resources to serve people with intellectual disability and protect staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. From the perspective of intellectual disability service providers. METHODS: We conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 16 intellectual disability organization administrators throughout Illinois, USA from November 2020 through February 2021. We coded and analyzed the data using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Three major themes emerged: (1) COVID-19 caused considerable challenges to people with intellectual disability and staff and service providers, (2) intellectual disability organizations reinvented service provisions in response to COVID-19 challenges, and (3) the interrelatedness of intellectual disability organizations, public policies, and community entities became evident. CONCLUSIONS: Exhibiting responsiveness to needs and developing innovative solutions were strategies championed by intellectual disability organizations during the pandemic. Fostering collaboration with community entities may assist these organizations in navigating pandemic challenges and developing resilient infrastructure for future environmental threats.

18.
Blood ; 138:2445, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582198

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients (pts) with cancer are at higher risk for complications and mortality related to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Although mRNA vaccines have been granted Food and Drug Administration emergency use authorization (EUA) for prevention of COVID-19, the pivotal trials largely excluded pts with active cancer. Emerging data suggests suboptimal efficacy of these vaccines in pts with hematologic malignancies. There are also theoretical concerns that programmed cell death protein 1 inhibitors (PD-1i) could potentiate vaccine-related adverse events (AEs);conversely, these vaccines could activate the immune system, increasing the risk for immune-related reactions (IRRs) after PD-1i treatment. Pts with classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) receiving PD-1i represent a unique cohort and should be investigated for safety and efficacy issues with SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of pts with cHL who were treated with PD-1i within the past 12 months. Our primary objective was to determine the frequency of vaccine-related AEs and also subsequent IRRs to PD-1i after vaccination as reported in the medical records. Our secondary objective was to determine efficacy based on post-vaccine COVID-19 infection rates and by presence of adequate receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG antibody level to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. This assay was a clinically available institutional assay developed under EUA. While the level of antibody that is associated with immune protection has not yet been defined, we used RBD IgG > 0.700 AU as positive since it was previously correlated with virus neutralization titer in vitro. Results: From July 1, 2020 through June 31, 2021, we identified 27 pts who received PD-1i for cHL and were seen at the University of Pennsylvania. Seventeen (63%) pts received nivolumab and 10 (37%) received pembrolizumab. The median age was 42 years (23-86), median number of therapies was 4 (2-15), and 7 (26%) had prior history of COVID-19 infection (none required hospitalization). Twenty-three pts (85% of total) were vaccinated: 17 (74%) received Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 and 6 (26%) had Moderna mRNA-1273 formulations. Of 19 (83%) pts who received at least one dose of PD-1i prior vaccine, the median time between last PD-1i infusion and first vaccine administration was 20 days (2-157). Of 19 (83%) pts who received any PD-1i after vaccine, the median time to infusion was 18 days (4-89). In pts who had prior COVID-19 infection, the median time between the prior infection and vaccine was 91 days (range 78-350). There were no unexpected toxicities noted and no severe adverse events or hospitalizations directly related to vaccination. No patient discontinued the vaccination series due to side effects. In 12 vaccinated pts who had vaccine-related AEs solicited by the medical provider, 7 (58%) developed injection site reaction/pain: grade 1 (6/12) and grade 2 (1/12). Six (50%) pts had systemic AEs: grade 1 fatigue (4/12), grade 2 fatigue (1/12), transient generalized lymphadenopathy (1/12), fever (1/12). No new IRRs occurred in pts receiving subsequent PD-1i after vaccination. Two weeks after second vaccination, 1 patient developed worsening cough with imaging suggestive of pneumonitis but improved with antibiotics. There were no post-vaccine COVID-19 infections noted. RBD IgG antibody levels were available in 12/23 (52%) of all vaccinated pts;11/12 (92%) pts had positive antibody titers. The only patient who did not mount positive RBD IgG antibody titers received brentuximab vedotin concurrently with PD-1i prior to vaccination. There were insufficient events to correlate pre-vaccine factors with AEs or efficacy. Conclusion: Pts with relapsed/refractory cHL on PD-1i who received SARS-CoV-2 vaccines had no unexpected toxicities and tolerated subsequent PD-1i without new IRRs. The efficacy based on post-vaccination COVID-19 rates and RBD IgG levels is encouraging in these heavily pretreated pts. We plan an additional prospective component of this study using atient reported outcomes and long-term safety and efficacy follow-up. Disclosures: Svoboda: Incyte: Research Funding;Genmab: Consultancy;Merck: Research Funding;Pharmacyclics: Consultancy, Research Funding;BMS: Consultancy, Research Funding;TG: Research Funding;Imbrium: Consultancy;Seattle Genetics: Consultancy, Research Funding;Astra Zeneca: Consultancy, Research Funding;Atara: Consultancy;Adaptive: Consultancy, Research Funding. Dwivedy Nasta: Roche: Research Funding;Merck: Other: Data safety monitoring board;Incyte: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;AstraZeneca: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Pharmacyclics: Research Funding;ATARA: Research Funding;Millenium: Research Funding;Rafael: Research Funding;Debiopharm: Research Funding. Ruella: AbClon: Consultancy, Research Funding;BMS, BAYER, GSK: Consultancy;Novartis: Patents & Royalties;Tmunity: Patents & Royalties;viTToria biotherapeutics: Research Funding. Landsburg: Triphase: Research Funding;Takeda: Research Funding;Curis: Research Funding;ADCT: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Incyte: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees;Karyopharm: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees, Other: DSMB member;Morphosys: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Barta: Seagen: Honoraria;Daiichi Sankyo: Honoraria;Acrotech: Honoraria;Kyowa Kirin: Honoraria. Gerson: TG Therapeutics: Consultancy;Kite: Consultancy;Abbvie: Consultancy;Pharmacyclics: Consultancy. Schuster: Loxo Oncology: Consultancy;Nordic Nanovector: Consultancy;Genentech/Roche: Consultancy, Research Funding;Novartis: Consultancy, Honoraria, Patents & Royalties, Research Funding;Celgene: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding;Acerta Pharma/AstraZeneca: Consultancy;BeiGene: Consultancy;Juno Theraputics: Consultancy, Research Funding;Tessa Theraputics: Consultancy;Pharmaclyclics: Research Funding;Abbvie: Consultancy, Research Funding;Alimera Sciences: Consultancy;Adaptive Biotechnologies: Research Funding;Merck: Research Funding;Incyte: Research Funding;TG Theraputics: Research Funding;DTRM: Research Funding.

19.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294231

ABSTRACT

Rational Infection with the SARS-CoV2 virus is associated with elevated neutrophil counts. Evidence of neutrophil dysfunction in COVID-19 is based predominantly on transcriptomics or single functional assays. Cell functions are interwoven pathways, and so understanding the effect of COVID-19 across the spectrum of neutrophil function may identify tractable therapeutic targets. Objectives Examine neutrophil phenotype and functional capacity in COVID-19 patients versus age-matched controls (AMC) Methods Isolated neutrophils from 41 hospitalised, non-ICU COVID-19 patients and 23 AMC underwent ex vivo analyses for migration, bacterial phagocytosis, ROS generation, NET formation (NETosis) and cell surface receptor expression. DNAse 1 activity was measured, alongside circulating levels of cfDNA, MPO, VEGF, IL-6 and sTNFRI. All measurements were correlated to clinical outcome. Serial sampling on day 3-5 post hospitalisation were also measured. Results Compared to AMC, COVID-19 neutrophils demonstrated elevated transmigration (p=0.0397) and NETosis (p=0.0366), but impaired phagocytosis (p=0.0236) associated with impaired ROS generation (p<0.0001). Surface expression of CD54 (p<0.0001) and CD11c (p=0.0008) was significantly increased and CD11b significantly decreased (p=0.0229) on COVID-19 patient neutrophils. COVID-19 patients showed increased systemic markers of NETosis including increased cfDNA (p=0.0153) and impaired DNAse activity (p<0.0.001). MPO (p<0.0001), VEGF (p<0.0001), TNFRI (p<0.0001) and IL-6 (p=0.009) were elevated in COVID-19, which positively correlated with disease severity by 4C score. Conclusion COVID-19 is associated with neutrophil dysfunction across all main effector functions, with altered phenotype, elevated migration, impaired antimicrobial responses and elevated NETosis. These changes represent a clear mechanism for tissue damage and highlight that targeting neutrophil function may help modulate COVID-19 severity.

20.
Thorax ; 76(Suppl 2):A37, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1505636

ABSTRACT

RationalInfection with the SARS-CoV2 virus is associated with elevated neutrophil counts. Evidence of neutrophil dysfunction in COVID-19 is based predominantly on transcriptomics or single functional assays. Cell functions are interwoven pathways, and so understanding the effect of COVID-19 across the spectrum of neutrophil function may identify therapeutic targets to treat disease.ObjectivesExamine neutrophil phenotype and functional capacity in COVID-19 patients versus age-matched controls (AMC).MethodsIsolated neutrophils from 41 non-ICU COVID-19 patients and 23 AMC underwent ex vivo analyses for migration, phagocytosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, neutrophil extracellular trap formation (NETosis) and cell surface receptor expression. Serum DNAse 1 activity was measured, alongside circulating levels of cell-free (cf)DNA, myeloperoxidase (MPO), VEGF, IL-6 and sTNFRI. All measurements were correlated to clinical outcome. Serial sampling on day 3–5 post hospitalisation were also measured.ResultsCompared to AMC, COVID-19 neutrophils demonstrated elevated transmigration (p=0.0397) and NETosis (p=0.0366), but impaired phagocytosis (p=0.0236) associated with impaired ROS generation (p<0.0001). Surface expression of CD54 (p<0.0001) and CD11c (p=0.0008) was significantly increased and CD11b significantly decreased (p=0.0229) on COVID-19 patient neutrophils. On day 3–5 follow-up, levels of senescent neutrophils increased compared to day 1 (indicated by decreased CXCR2 and elevated CXCR4 expression (p=0.0332)). COVID-19 patients showed increased systemic markers of NETosis including increased cfDNA (p=0.0153) and impaired DNAse activity (p<0.0.001). MPO, VEGF, sTNFRI, and IL-6 (p<0001) were elevated in COVID-19, which positively correlated with disease severity by 4C score.ConclusionCOVID-19 is associated with neutrophil dysfunction across all main effector functions, with altered phenotype, elevated migration, impaired antimicrobial responses and elevated NETosis. These changes represent a clear mechanism for tissue damage and highlight that targeting neutrophil function may help modulate COVID-19 severity.Please refer to page A189 for declarations of interest related to this abstract.

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