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1.
Life Sci ; 301: 120602, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1814923

ABSTRACT

Megakaryocytes (MKs) are typical cellular components in the circulating blood flowing from the heart into the lungs. Physiologically, MKs function as an important regulator of platelet production and immunoregulation. However, dysfunction in MKs is considered a trigger in various diseases. It has been described that the lung is an important site of platelet biogenesis from extramedullary MKs, which may play an essential role in various pulmonary diseases. With detailed studies, there are different degrees of numerical changes of MKs in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, pulmonary fibrosis (PF), and other pulmonary diseases. Also, MKs inhibit or promote the development of pulmonary diseases through various pathways. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of MKs in pulmonary diseases, highlighting the physiological functions and integrated molecular mechanisms. We aim to shine new light on not only the subsequent study of MKs but also the diagnosis and treatment of pulmonary diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Blood Platelets , Humans , Lung , Megakaryocytes , Thrombopoiesis
2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312698

ABSTRACT

Background: No specific therapeutic agents or vaccines are available for the treatment of Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) yet. In this study, we aimed to assess the efficacy of high dose ulinastatin for patients with Covid-19. Methods: Twelve patients hospitalized with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were treated with high dose of ulinastatin beyond standard care. The changes of clinical manifestations, laboratory examinations and chest images were retrospectively analyzed. Results: A total of 10 patients with severe Covid-19 and 2 patients with moderate Covid-19 received ulinastatin treatment. The average age of the patients was 68.0 ± 11.9 years, ranging from 48 to 87 years. Nine of 12 patients (75.0%) had one or more comorbidities. The most common symptoms on admission were fever (8/12, 66.7%), cough (5/12, 41.7%) and dyspnea (5/12, 41.7%). The percentage of lymphocytes was decreased in 41.7% of patients (5/12), and 58.3% of patients (7/12) had elevated hypersensitive C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (mean, 49.70 ± 77.70 mg/L). The white blood cell levels and the percentage of lymphocytes returned to normal in all of the patients, and CRP decreased significantly and returned to normal in 83.3% of patients (10/12;mean, 6.87 ± 6.63 mg/L) on the seventh day after ulinastatin treatment. Clinical symptoms were relieved synchronously. The peripheral oxygen saturation improved and 66.7% of the patients (8/12) did not need further oxygen therapy seven days after ulinastatin treatment. No patients required intensive care unit admission or mechanical ventilation. All patients revealed different degrees of absorption of pulmonary lesions after treatment. No obvious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Our preliminary data revealed that high dose of ulinastatin treatment was safe and showed a potential beneficial effect for patients with Covid-19.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312501

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) spread throughout the world and caused hundreds of thousands of infected people to death. However, the pathogenesis of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS COV-2) is poorly understood. The objective of this study is to retrospectively explore the pathogenesis of COVID-19 from clinical laboratory findings, taking disease progression into account. Methods: A single-centered, retrospective study was carried out, which included moderate (n=76) and severe COVID-19 cases (n=22). The difference of laboratory findings from blood routine examination and hepatorenal function test were retrospectively evaluated between the state of moderate and severe. The disease progression was indicated by oxygenation index. Results: Age is a risk factor for disease progression from moderate to severe. Lymphocytopenia, neutrophilia, liver and kidney function decreasement occurred in severe patients on admission, compared with moderate patients. Lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia deteriorated at the lowest oxygenation index timepoint in the severe patients. And the oxygenation index was associated with ratio of lymphocyte and neutrophil in COVID-19 patients. Conclusions: Lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia, which deteriorate in the progression of severe patients, are the main pathogenesis of COVID-19. More measures need to be taken to control lymphocytopenia and neutrophilia in severe COVID-19. Oxygenation index presented potentiality as predictor on the progression of COVID-19.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-325173

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 continues to spread globally and results in additional challenges for perioperative management in parturients. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and identify associated factors for neuraxial anaesthesia-related hypotension in COVDI-19 parturients during caesarean delivery. Methods: : We performed a multicenter case-control study at 3 medical institutions in Hubei province, China form 1th January to 30th May 2020. All ASA Physical Status II full termed pregnant women who received caesarean delivery under neuraxial anaesthesia were eligible for inclusion. The univariate analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to identified the independent predictors of neuraxial anaesthesia-related hypotension. Results: : Present study included 102 COVID-19 parturients. The incidence of neuraxial anaesthesia-related hypotension was 58%. Maternal abnormal lymphocyte count (OR = 3.41, p = 0.03), full stomach (OR = 3.22, p = 0.04), baseline heart rate (OR = 1.04, p = 0.03), experience of anaesthetist (OR = 0.86, p = 0.02) and surgeon (OR = 0.76, p = 0.03), and combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia technique (OR = 3.27, p = 0.02) were associated with neuraxial anaesthesia-related hypotension. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve achieved 0.83 which was significantly higher than 0.5 (p < 0.001). And the sensitivity, specificity and percentage correct were 75%, 79% and 75%, respectively. The Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed a good calibration of the model (H = 2.01, DF = 8, p = 0.98). Conclusions: : Maternal abnormal lymphocyte count, full stomach, baseline heart rate, experience of anaesthetist and surgeon, and combined spinal-epidural anaesthesia technique were identified as the independent predictors of neuraxial anaesthesia-related hypotension.

5.
Rare Metals ; 41(4): 1129-1141, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1635959

ABSTRACT

Abstract: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has posed severe threats to human health, public safety, and the global economy. Metal nutrient elements can directly or indirectly take part in human immune responses, and metal-related drugs have served as antiviral drugs and/or enzyme inhibitors for many years, providing potential solutions to the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. Metal-based drugs are currently under a variety of chemical structures and exhibit wide-range bioactivities, demonstrating irreplaceable advantages in pharmacology. This review is an intention to summarize recent progress in the prevention and treatment strategies against COVID-19 from the perspective of metal pharmacology. The current and potential utilization of metal-based drugs is briefly introduced. Specifically, metallohydrogels that have been shown to present superior antiviral activities are stressed in the paper as potential drugs for the treatment of COVID-19.

6.
IEEE Rev Biomed Eng ; 14: 16-29, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501334

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading rapidly around the world, resulting in a massive death toll. Lung infection or pneumonia is the common complication of COVID-19, and imaging techniques, especially computed tomography (CT), have played an important role in diagnosis and treatment assessment of the disease. Herein, we review the imaging characteristics and computing models that have been applied for the management of COVID-19. CT, positron emission tomography - CT (PET/CT), lung ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been used for detection, treatment, and follow-up. The quantitative analysis of imaging data using artificial intelligence (AI) is also explored. Our findings indicate that typical imaging characteristics and their changes can play crucial roles in the detection and management of COVID-19. In addition, AI or other quantitative image analysis methods are urgently needed to maximize the value of imaging in the management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Artificial Intelligence , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Lung/virology , Positron Emission Tomography Computed Tomography/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Ultrasonography/methods
7.
J Mol Liq ; 341: 117430, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392460

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus pandemic is caused by intense acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Identifying the atomic structure of this virus can lead to the treatment of related diseases in medical cases. In the current computational study, the atomic evolution of the coronavirus in an aqueous environment using the Molecular Dynamics (MD) approach is explained. The virus behaviors by reporting the physical attributes such as total energy, temperature, potential energy, interaction energy, volume, entropy, and radius of gyration of the modeled virus are reported. The MD results indicated the atomic stability of the simulated virus significantly reduced after 25.33 ns. Furthermore, the volume of simulated virus changes from 182397 Å3 to 372589 Å3 after t = 30 ns. This result shows the atomic interaction between various atoms in coronavirus structure decreases in the vicinity of H2O molecules. Numerically, the interaction energy between virus and aqueous environment converges to -12387 eV and -251 eV values in the initial and final time steps of the MD study procedure, respectively.

8.
Cell Rep ; 35(6): 109091, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1213072

ABSTRACT

It is urgent and important to understand the relationship of the widespread severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus clade 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with host immune response and study the underlining molecular mechanism. N6-methylation of adenosine (m6A) in RNA regulates many physiological and disease processes. Here, we investigate m6A modification of the SARS-CoV-2 gene in regulating the host cell innate immune response. Our data show that the SARS-CoV-2 virus has m6A modifications that are enriched in the 3' end of the viral genome. We find that depletion of the host cell m6A methyltransferase METTL3 decreases m6A levels in SARS-CoV-2 and host genes, and m6A reduction in viral RNA increases RIG-I binding and subsequently enhances the downstream innate immune signaling pathway and inflammatory gene expression. METTL3 expression is reduced and inflammatory genes are induced in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). These findings will aid in the understanding of COVID-19 pathogenesis and the design of future studies regulating innate immunity for COVID-19 treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Methyltransferases/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenosine/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Line , DEAD Box Protein 58/genetics , DEAD Box Protein 58/metabolism , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Methylation , Methyltransferases/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/genetics , Receptors, Immunologic/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction
9.
Psychol Health Med ; 27(2): 333-342, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193666

ABSTRACT

Fangcang hospitals, as tentative hospitals built to treat a huge turnover of patients with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections, have played a pivotal role to slow down the pandemic spread in China in 2020. However, anxiety and sleep disorders remain tough to address during the treatments. In this study, group psychological intervention in combination with pulmonary rehabilitation exercises were conducted in the trial group for the patients with mild COVID-19 infections in a Fangcang Hospital to mitigate the patients' anxiety and sleep disorders, while conventional nursing methods were done in the control group, with 70 randomly picked patients in each group. Effects were assessed through questionnaire method using state anxiety questionnaire (SAI) and Pittsburgh sleep quality index scale (PQSI) rating investigation. Results showed that both SAI and PSQI scores of the trial group were significantly lower than those of the control group (P < 0.05). The SAI scores of the trial group and the control group were 38.5 ± 13.2 and 45.8 ± 10.4 points (t = 3.600, P < 0.001), respectively, and the PSQI scores were 5.6 ± 3.0 and 7.1 ± 3.0 points (t = 2.982, P < 0.01), respectively. Our methods have significant advantages over conventional nursing methods to mitigate anxiety and sleep disorders for the patients with mild COVID-19 infections in the Fangcang Hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Wake Disorders , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/therapy , China/epidemiology , Depression/therapy , Exercise Therapy , Hospitals , Humans , Psychosocial Intervention , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep , Sleep Wake Disorders/epidemiology , Sleep Wake Disorders/therapy
10.
EMBO J ; 39(21): e106057, 2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846583

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-CoV-2 and has spread across the globe. SARS-CoV-2 is a highly infectious virus with no vaccine or antiviral therapy available to control the pandemic; therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms of viral pathogenesis and the host immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. SARS-CoV-2 is a new member of the betacoronavirus genus like other closely related viruses including SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Both SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV have caused serious outbreaks and epidemics in the past eighteen years. Here, we report that one of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), cholesterol 25-hydroxylase (CH25H), is induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in vitro and in COVID-19-infected patients. CH25H converts cholesterol to 25-hydrocholesterol (25HC) and 25HC shows broad anti-coronavirus activity by blocking membrane fusion. Furthermore, 25HC inhibits USA-WA1/2020 SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung epithelial cells and viral entry in human lung organoids. Mechanistically, 25HC inhibits viral membrane fusion by activating the ER-localized acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) which leads to the depletion of accessible cholesterol from the plasma membrane. Altogether, our results shed light on a potentially broad antiviral mechanism by 25HC through depleting accessible cholesterol on the plasma membrane to suppress virus-cell fusion. Since 25HC is a natural product with no known toxicity at effective concentrations, it provides a potential therapeutic candidate for COVID-19 and emerging viral diseases in the future.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Cholesterol/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Steroid Hydroxylases/pharmacology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Acetyl-CoA C-Acetyltransferase/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Chlorocebus aethiops , Enzyme Activation/drug effects , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Organoids/virology , Pandemics , Respiratory Mucosa/drug effects , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells
11.
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu ; 45(5): 345-50, 2020 May 25.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-345250

ABSTRACT

The situation of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still severe at present. In order to better fight against the epidemic and give full play to the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine, we explored the feasibility of acupuncture therapy in the intervention of COVID-19 through analyzing the relevant literature in both ancient and modern time. Additionally, we analyzed the intervention scheme of acupuncture for COVID-19 developed by China Association of Acupuncture and Moxibustion and supplemented the protocol of the intervention with auricular acupuncture. It was proposed that the advantages of acupuncture and moxibustion should be fully displayed while Chinese herbal medications have been applied in the treatment of COVID-19. During treatment, acupuncture physicians should be rationally allocated to a certain proportion so as to adequately utilize comprehensive therapeutic approaches and guarantee people's safety to the greatest extent. Eventually, the clinical therapeutic effect may be improved, the national resources be economized on and the COVID-19 epidemic be conquered early.


Subject(s)
Acupuncture Therapy , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , COVID-19 , China , Feasibility Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Eur J Radiol ; 128: 109041, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175990

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To develop a deep learning-based method to assist radiologists to fast and accurately identify patients with COVID-19 by CT images. METHODS: We retrospectively collected chest CT images of 495 patients from three hospitals in China. 495 datasets were randomly divided into 395 cases (80%, 294 of COVID-19, 101 of other pneumonia) of the training set, 50 cases (10%, 37 of COVID-19, 13 of other pneumonia) of the validation set and 50 cases (10%, 37 of COVID-19, 13 of other pneumonia) of the testing set. We trained a multi-view fusion model using deep learning network to screen patients with COVID-19 using CT images with the maximum lung regions in axial, coronal and sagittal views. The performance of the proposed model was evaluated by both the validation and testing sets. RESULTS: The multi-view deep learning fusion model achieved the area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.732, accuracy of 0.700, sensitivity of 0.730 and specificity of 0.615 in validation set. In the testing set, we can achieve AUC, accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of 0.819, 0.760, 0.811 and 0.615 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Based on deep learning method, the proposed diagnosis model trained on multi-view images of chest CT images showed great potential to improve the efficacy of diagnosis and mitigate the heavy workload of radiologists for the initial screening of COVID-19 pneumonia.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Deep Learning , Mass Screening/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
13.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20042176

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo analyse the clinical features of COVID-19 parturients, and to compare anaesthetic regimen and clinical outcomes in parturients with or without COVID-19 undergoing cesarean delivery. MethodData were extracted from the electronic medical record of 3 medical institutions in Hubei Province, China, from June 1, 2019 to March 20, 2020 according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. After propensity score matching with demographics, the clinical and laboratory characteristics of parturients with or without COVID-19 were analysed. The anaesthetic regimen and clinical outcomes of themselves and their infants were compared in these two groups of parturients. ResultsA total of 1,588 patients without SARS-CoV-2 infection undergoing cesarean delivery were retrospectively included. After achieving a balanced cohort through propensity score matching, 89 patients (COVID-19 group), who were diagnosed with COVID-19 by SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid test and CT scan matched with 173 patients without COVID-19 (Control group). The SARS-CoV-2 infected parturients in the early stages of COVID-19 outbreak was much more than during the later stage. The main clinical characteristics of parturients with COVID-19 were fever (34.8%), cough (33.7%), an increased plasma CRP (52.8%) and a decreased lymphocyte counting (33.7%). A high rate of emergency and a high incidence of anaesthesia-related complications, such as pharyngalgia, multiple puncture, intraoperative hypotension, nausea, vomiting, vertigo and chills in the COVID-19 parturients. In addition, the parturients with COVID-19 had a long duration of operation and hospital stay, and an increased intraoperative oxytocin utilization and postoperative oxygen therapy. The newborns from the SARS-CoV-2 infected mothers, who received general anaesthesia, had a high risk of Apgar score [≤] 8 at 1 and 5 minutes after delivery and a higher rate of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. ConclusionsAnaesthesia-related complications occur more frequently in the COVID-19 parturients and their newborns have a high risk of distress.

14.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20027052

ABSTRACT

ObjectiveTo investigate the correlation between clinical characteristics and cardiac injury of COVID-2019 pneumonia. MethodsIn this retrospective, single-center study, 41 consecutive corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-2019) patients (including 2 deaths) of COVID-2019 in Beijing Youan Hospital, China Jan 21 to Feb 03, 2020, were involved in this study. The high risk factors of cardiac injury in different COVID-2019 patients were analyzed. Computed tomographic (CT) imaging of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) has been used to demonstrate the cardiac inflammation of COVID-2019. ResultsOf the 41 COVID-2019 patients, 2 (4.88%), 32 (78.05%), 4 (9.75%) and 3 (7.32%) patients were clinically diagnosed as light, mild, severe and critical cases, according to the 6th guidance issued by the National Health Commission of China. 10 (24.4%) patients had underlying complications, such as hypertension, CAD, type 2 diabetes mellites and tumor. The peak value of TnI in critical patients is 40-fold more than normal value. 2 patients in the critical group had the onset of atrial fibrillation, and the peak heart rates reached up to 160 bpm. CT scan showed low EAT density in severe and critical patients. ConclusionOur results indicated that cardiac injury of COVID-2019 was rare in light and mild patients, while common in severe and critical patients. Therefore, the monitoring of the heart functions of COVID-2019 patients and applying potential interventions for those with abnormal cardiac injury related characteristics, is vital to prevent the fatality.

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