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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2264924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVIH-study is a prospective SARS-CoV-2 vaccination study in 1154 people with HIV (PWH), of whom 14% showed a reduced or absent antibody response after primary vaccination. We evaluated whether an additional vaccination boosts immune responses in these hyporesponders. METHODS: Consenting hyporesponders received an additional 100µg mRNA-1273 vaccination. The primary endpoint was the increase in antibodies 28 days thereafter. Secondary endpoints were the correlation between participant characteristics and antibody response, levels of neutralizing antibodies, S-specific T-cell and B-cell responses, and reactogenicity. RESULTS: Of the 66 participants, 40 previously received two doses ChAdOx1-S, 22 two doses BNT162b2, and four a single dose Ad26.COV2.S. The median age was 63[IQR:60-66], 86% were male, pre-vaccination CD4+ T-cell count was median 650/µL[IQR:423-941] and 96% had HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL. The mean S1-specific antibody level increased from 35 BAU/mL (95%CI:24-46) to 4317 BAU/mL (95%CI:3275-5360) post-vaccination (p < 0.0001). Of all participants, 97% showed an adequate response (>300 BAU/mL) and the 45 antibody negative participants all seroconverted (>33.8 BAU/mL). A significant increase in the proportion of PWH with detectable ancestral S-specific CD4+ T-cells (p = 0.04) and S-specific B-cells (p = 0.02) was observed. CONCLUSION: An additional mRNA-1273 vaccination induced a robust serological response in 97% of PWH with a hyporesponse after primary vaccination.

2.
Nat Immunol ; 23(1): 23-32, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1585822

ABSTRACT

Systemic immune cell dynamics during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are extensively documented, but these are less well studied in the (upper) respiratory tract, where severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) replicates1-6. Here, we characterized nasal and systemic immune cells in individuals with COVID-19 who were hospitalized or convalescent and compared the immune cells to those seen in healthy donors. We observed increased nasal granulocytes, monocytes, CD11c+ natural killer (NK) cells and CD4+ T effector cells during acute COVID-19. The mucosal proinflammatory populations positively associated with peripheral blood human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DRlow monocytes, CD38+PD1+CD4+ T effector (Teff) cells and plasmablasts. However, there was no general lymphopenia in nasal mucosa, unlike in peripheral blood. Moreover, nasal neutrophils negatively associated with oxygen saturation levels in blood. Following convalescence, nasal immune cells mostly normalized, except for CD127+ granulocytes and CD38+CD8+ tissue-resident memory T cells (TRM). SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells persisted at least 2 months after viral clearance in the nasal mucosa, indicating that COVID-19 has both transient and long-term effects on upper respiratory tract immune responses.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Nasopharynx/immunology , Nose/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Granulocytes/immunology , HLA-DR Antigens/metabolism , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Memory T Cells/immunology , Monocytes/immunology , Nasopharynx/cytology , Nasopharynx/virology , Neutrophils/immunology , Nose/immunology , Nose/virology , Prospective Studies , Respiratory Mucosa/cytology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology
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