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Placenta ; 112: 97-104, 2021 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333705


INTRODUCTION: Pregnant women with covid-19 are more likely to experience preterm birth. The virus seems to be associated with a wide range of placental lesions, none of them specific. METHOD: We collected cases of Covid-19 maternal infection during pregnancy associated with poor pregnancy outcomes, for which we received the placenta. We studied clinical data and described pathological findings of placenta and post-mortem examination of fetuses. We performed an immunohistochemical study and RT-PCR of SARS-Cov-2 on placenta samples. RESULTS: We report 5 cases of poor fetal outcome, 3 fetal deaths and 2 extreme premature neonates, one with growth restriction, without clinical and biological sign of SARS-Cov-2 infection. All placenta presented massive perivillous fibrin deposition and large intervillous thrombi associated with strong SARS-Cov-2 expression in trophoblast and SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity in amniotic fluid or on placenta samples. Chronic histiocytic intervillositis was present in 4/5 cases. Placental ultrasound was abnormal and the sFLT1-PIGF ratio was increased in one case. Timing between mothers' infection and the poor fetal outcome was ≤10 days in 4 cases. The massive placental damage are directly induced by the virus whose receptors are expressed on trophoblast, leading to trophoblast necrosis and massive inflammation in villous chamber, in a similar way it occurs in diffuse alveolar damage in adults infected by SARS-Cov-2. DISCUSSION: SARS-Cov-2 can be associated to a rare set of placental lesions which can lead to fetal demise, preterm birth, or growth restriction. Stronger surveillance of mothers infected by SARS-Cov-2 is required.

COVID-19/complications , Placenta Diseases/etiology , Premature Birth/etiology , Stillbirth , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Fetal Death/etiology , France , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Perinatal Death/etiology , Placenta/pathology , Placenta/virology , Placenta Diseases/diagnosis , Placenta Diseases/pathology , Placenta Diseases/virology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/pathology , Pregnancy Outcome , Premature Birth/pathology , Premature Birth/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Trophoblasts/pathology , Trophoblasts/virology
Gynécologie Obstétrique Fertilité & Sénologie  ; 2020.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016840


A new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) highlighted at the end of 2019 in China is spreading across all continents. Most often at the origin of a mild infectious syndrome, associating mild symptoms (fever, cough, myalgia, headache and possible digestive disorders) to different degrees, SARS-Covid-2 can cause serious pulmonary pathologies and sometimes death.Data on the consequences during pregnancy are limited. The first Chinese data published seem to show that the symptoms in pregnant women are the same as those of the general population. There are no cases of intrauterine maternal-fetal transmission, but cases of newborns infected early suggest that there could be vertical perpartum or neonatal transmission. Induced prematurity and cases of respiratory distress in newborns of infected mothers have been described.Pregnancy is known as a period at higher risk for the consequences of respiratory infections, as for influenza, so it seems important to screen for Covid-19 in the presence of symptoms and to monitor closely pregnant women.In this context of the SARS-Covid-2 epidemic, the societies of gynecology-obstetrics, infectious diseases and neonatalogy have proposed a French protocol for the management of possible and proven cases of SARS-Covid-2 in pregnant women. These proposals may evolve on a daily basis with the advancement of the epidemic and knowledge in pregnant women. Subsequently, an in-depth analysis of cases in pregnant women will be necessary in order to improve knowledge on the subject.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod ; 49(7): 101826, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526540


OBJECTIVE: To describe the course over time of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in French women from the beginning of the pandemic until mid-April, the risk profile of women with respiratory complications, and short-term pregnancy outcomes. METHODS: We collected a case series of pregnant women with COVID-19 in a research network of 33 French maternity units between March 1 and April 14, 2020. All cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection confirmed by a positive result on real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests of a nasal sample and/or diagnosed by a computed tomography chest scan were included and analyzed. The primary outcome measures were COVID-19 requiring oxygen (oxygen therapy or noninvasive ventilation) and critical COVID-19 (requiring invasive mechanical ventilation or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ECMO). Demographic data, baseline comorbidities, and pregnancy outcomes were also collected. RESULTS: Active cases of COVID-19 increased exponentially during March 1-31, 2020; the numbers fell during April 1-14, after lockdown was imposed on March 17. The shape of the curve of active critical COVID-19 mirrored that of all active cases. By April 14, among the 617 pregnant women with COVID-19, 93 women (15.1 %; 95 %CI 12.3-18.1) had required oxygen therapy and 35 others (5.7 %; 95 %CI 4.0-7.8) had had a critical form of COVID-19. The severity of the disease was associated with age older than 35 years and obesity, as well as preexisting diabetes, previous preeclampsia, and gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. One woman with critical COVID-19 died (0.2 %; 95 %CI 0-0.9). Among the women who gave birth, rates of preterm birth in women with non-severe, oxygen-requiring, and critical COVID-19 were 13/123 (10.6 %), 14/29 (48.3 %), and 23/29 (79.3 %) before 37 weeks and 3/123 (2.4 %), 4/29 (13.8 %), and 14/29 (48.3 %) before 32 weeks, respectively. One neonate (0.5 %; 95 %CI 0.01-2.9) in the critical group died from prematurity. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 can be responsible for significant rates of severe acute, potentially deadly, respiratory distress syndromes. The most vulnerable pregnant women, those with comorbidities, may benefit particularly from prevention measures such as a lockdown.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Maternal Age , Noninvasive Ventilation , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Oxygen/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index