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Blood Cancer J ; 11(12): 191, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545601


Multiple myeloma (MM) patients have increased risk of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) when infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), the precursor of MM has been associated with immune dysfunction which may lead to severe COVID-19. No systematic data have been published on COVID-19 in individuals with MGUS. We conducted a large population-based cohort study evaluating the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 among individuals with MGUS. We included 75,422 Icelanders born before 1976, who had been screened for MGUS in the Iceland Screens Treats or Prevents Multiple Myeloma study (iStopMM). Data on SARS-CoV-2 testing and COVID-19 severity were acquired from the Icelandic COVID-19 Study Group. Using a test-negative study design, we included 32,047 iStopMM participants who had been tested for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 1754 had MGUS. Among these participants, 1100 participants, tested positive, 65 of whom had MGUS. Severe COVID-19 developed in 230 participants, including 16 with MGUS. MGUS was not associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection (Odds ratio (OR): 1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-1.36; p = 0.72) or severe COVID-19 (OR: 0.99; 95%CI: 0.52-1.91; p = 0.99). These findings indicate that MGUS does not affect the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 or the severity of COVID-19.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
Blood Cancer Discov ; 2(6): 568-576, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518189


Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) vaccine response data for patients with hematologic malignancy, who carry high risk for severe COVID-19 illness, are incomplete. In a study of 551 hematologic malignancy patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma, anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers and neutralizing activity were measured at 1 and 3 months from initial vaccination. Compared with healthy controls, patients with hematologic malignancy had attenuated antibody titers at 1 and 3 months. Furthermore, patients with hematologic malignancy had markedly diminished neutralizing capacity of 26.3% at 1 month and 43.6% at 3 months, despite positive seroconversion rates of 51.5% and 68.9% at the respective time points. Healthy controls had 93.2% and 100% neutralizing capacity at 1 and 3 months, respectively. Patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma on observation had uniformly blunted responses. Treatment with Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitors, venetoclax, phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors, anti-CD19/CD20-directed therapies, and anti-CD38/B-cell maturation antigen-directed therapies substantially hindered responses, but single-agent immunomodulatory agents did not. Significance: Patients with hematologic malignancy have compromised COVID-19 vaccine responses at baseline that are further suppressed by active therapy, with many patients having insufficient neutralizing capacity despite positive antibody titers. Refining vaccine response parameters is critical to guiding clinical care, including the indication for booster vaccines, for this vulnerable population.See related article by Tamari et al., p. 577. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 549.

COVID-19 , Hematologic Neoplasms , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
Blood Cancer Discov ; 1(3): 234-243, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470534


Patients with multiple myeloma have a compromised immune system, due to both the disease and antimyeloma therapies, and may therefore be particularly susceptible to COVID-19. Here, we report outcomes and risk factors for serious disease in patients with multiple myeloma treated at five large academic centers in New York City in the spring of 2020, during which it was a global epicenter of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Of 100 patients with multiple myeloma (male 58%; median age 68) diagnosed with COVID-19, 75 were admitted; of these, 13 patients (17%) were placed on invasive mechanical ventilation, and 22 patients (29%) expired. Of the 25 nonadmitted patients, 4 were asymptomatic. There was a higher risk of adverse outcome (intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, or death) in Hispanics/Latinos (n = 21), OR = 4.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.3-16.7), and African American Blacks (n = 33), OR = 3.5 (1.1-11.5), as compared with White patients (n = 36). Patients who met the adverse combined endpoint had overall higher levels of inflammatory markers and cytokine activation. None of the other studied risk factors were significantly associated (P > 0.05) with adverse outcome: hypertension (n = 56), OR = 2.2 (0.9-5.4); diabetes (n = 18), OR = 0.9 (0.3-2.9); age >65 years (n = 63), OR = 1.8 (0.7-4.6); high-dose melphalan with autologous stem cell transplant <12 months (n = 7), OR = 0.9 (0.2-5.4); and immunoglobulin G <650 mg/dL (n = 42), OR = 0.9 (0.3-2.2). In this largest cohort to date of patients with multiple myeloma and COVID-19, we found the case fatality rate to be 29% among hospitalized patients and that race/ethnicity was the most significant risk factor for adverse outcome. Significance: Patients with multiple myeloma are immunocompromised, raising the question whether they are at higher risk of severe COVID-19 disease. In this large case series on COVID-19 in patients with multiple myeloma, we report 29% mortality rates among hospitalized patients and identify race/ethnicity as the most significant risk factor for severe outcome.See related commentary by Munshi and Anderson, p. 218. This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 215.