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1.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 149(3): 677-690, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35041630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Craniosynostosis may lead to elevated intracranial pressure, which may be implicated with impaired neurocognitive development. However, accurately measuring intracranial pressure is challenging, and patterns in craniosynostosis patients are poorly characterized. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography may enable noninvasive assessment of intracranial pressure in pediatric patients with craniosynostosis. METHODS: Pediatric patients with craniosynostosis undergoing surgical intervention between 2014 and 2019 prospectively underwent optical coherence tomographic evaluation. Intracranial pressure was directly measured intraoperatively in a subset of cases. Optical coherence tomographic parameters were compared to directly measured intracranial pressure and used for pattern assessment. RESULTS: Optical coherence tomography was performed in 158 subjects, among which 42 underwent direct intracranial pressure measurement during an initial cranial procedure. Maximal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, maximal retinal thickness, and maximal anterior projection optical coherence tomographic parameters were positively correlated with intracranial pressure (p ≤ 0.001), with all parameters showing significantly higher values in patients with intracranial pressure thresholds of 15 mmHg (p < 0.001) and 20 mmHg (p ≤ 0.007). Patients with maximal retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and maximal anterior projection exceeding set thresholds in optical coherence tomography of either eye demonstrated 77.3 percent sensitivity and 95.0 percent specificity for detecting intracranial pressure above 15 mmHg, and 90.0 percent sensitivity and 81.3 percent specificity for detecting intracranial pressure above 20 mmHg. Patients with associated syndromes or multiple suture involvement and patients aged 9 months or older were significantly more likely to have elevated intracranial pressure above 15 mmHg (p ≤ 0.030) and above 20 mmHg (p ≤ 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography can noninvasively detect elevated intracranial pressure in patients with craniosynostosis with reliable sensitivity and specificity. This technology may help guide decisions about the appropriate type and timing of surgical treatment. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Diagnostic, I.


Subject(s)
Craniosynostoses/complications , Intracranial Hypertension/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Hypertension/etiology , Tomography, Optical Coherence , Child, Preschool , Craniosynostoses/surgery , Female , Humans , Infant , Intracranial Hypertension/surgery , Male
2.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 149(1): 169-182, 2022 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34936619

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The relationship between poverty and incidence of cleft lip and cleft palate remains unclear. The authors investigated the association between socioeconomic status and cleft lip with or without cleft palate and cleft palate only in the United States after controlling for demographic and environmental risk factors. METHODS: The U.S. 2016 and 2017 natality data were utilized. Proxies for socioeconomic status included maternal education, use of the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, and payment source for delivery. Multiple logistic regression controlled for household demographics, prenatal care, maternal health, and infant characteristics. RESULTS: Of 6,251,308 live births included, 2984 (0.05 percent) had cleft lip with or without cleft palate and 1180 (0.02 percent) had cleft palate only. Maternal education of bachelor's degree or higher was protective against, and delayed prenatal care associated with, cleft lip with or without cleft palate (adjusted ORs = 0.73 and 1.14 to 1.23, respectively; p < 0.02). Receiving assistance under the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children was associated with cleft palate only (adjusted OR = 1.25; p = 0.003). Male sex, first-trimester tobacco smoking, and maternal gestational diabetes were also associated with cleft lip with or without cleft palate (adjusted ORs = 1.60, 1.01, and 1.19, respectively; p < 0.05). Female sex, prepregnancy tobacco smoking, and maternal infections during pregnancy were associated with cleft palate only (adjusted ORs = 0.74, 1.02, and 1.60, respectively; p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased incidence of orofacial clefts was associated with indicators of lower socioeconomic status, with different indicators associated with different cleft phenotypes. Notably, early prenatal care was protective against the development of cleft lip with or without cleft palate. CLIINCAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Risk, III.


Subject(s)
Birth Certificates , Cleft Lip/economics , Cleft Palate/economics , Poverty/economics , Adult , Cleft Lip/epidemiology , Cleft Palate/epidemiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Social Class , United States/epidemiology
4.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(8): 2615-2620, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34727466

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Spring-mediated cranial vault expansion (SMC) may enable less invasive treatment of sagittal craniosynostosis than conventional methods. The influence of spring characteristics such as force, length, and quantity on cranial vault outcomes are not well understood. Using in vivo and ex vivo models, we evaluate the interaction between spring force, length, and quantity on correction of scaphocephalic deformity in patients undergoing SMC. METHODS: The authors retrospectively studied subjects with isolated sagittal craniosynostosis who underwent SMC between 2011 and 2019. The primary outcome measure of in vivo analysis was head shape determined by cephalic index (CI). Ex vivo experimentation analyzed the impact of spring length, bend, and thickness on resultant force. RESULTS: Eighty-nine subjects underwent SMC at median 3.4 months with median preoperative CI 69% (interquartile range: 66, 71%). Twenty-six and 63 subjects underwent SMC with 2 and 3 springs, with mean total force 20.1 and 27.6 N, respectively (P < 0.001).Postoperative CI increased from 71% to 74% and 68% to 77% in subjects undergoing 2- and 3-spring cranioplasty at the 6-month timepoint, respectively (P < 0.001). Total spring force correlated to increased change in CI (P < 0.002). Spring length was inversely related to transverse cranial expansion at Postoperative day 1, however, directly related at 1 and 3 months (P < 0.001). Ex vivo modeling of spring length was inversely related to spring force regardless of spring number (P < 0.0001). Ex vivo analysis demonstrated greater resultant force when utilizing wider, thicker springs independent of spring arm length and degree of compression. CONCLUSIONS: A dynamic relationship among spring characteristics including length, bend, thickness, and quantity appear to influence SMC outcomes.


Subject(s)
Craniosynostoses , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Craniosynostoses/surgery , Craniotomy , Humans , Infant , Retrospective Studies , Skull/surgery
5.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 148(6): 973e-982e, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34705810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fusion of cranial-base sutures/synchondroses presents a clinical conundrum, given their often unclear "normal" timing of closure. This study investigates the physiologic fusion timelines of cranial-base sutures/synchondroses. METHODS: Twenty-three age intervals were analyzed in subjects aged 0 to 18 years. For each age interval, 10 head computed tomographic scans of healthy subjects were assessed. Thirteen cranial-base sutures/synchondroses were evaluated for patency. Partial closure in greater than or equal to 50 percent of subjects and complete bilateral closure in less than 50 percent of subjects defined the fusion "midpoint." Factor analysis identified clusters of related fusion patterns. RESULTS: Two hundred thirty scans met inclusion criteria. The sutures' fusion midpoints and completion ages, respectively, were as follows: frontoethmoidal, 0 to 2 months and 4 years; frontosphenoidal, 6 to 8 months and 12 years; and sphenoparietal, 6 to 8 months and 4 years. Sphenosquamosal, sphenopetrosal, parietosquamosal, and parietomastoid sutures reached the midpoint at 6 to 8 months, 8 years, 9 to 11 months, and 12 years, respectively, but rarely completed fusion. The occipitomastoid suture partially closed in less than or equal to 30 percent of subjects. The synchondroses' fusion midpoints and completion ages, respectively, were as follows: sphenoethmoidal, 3 to 5 months and 5 years; spheno-occipital, 9 years and 17 years; anterior intraoccipital, 4 years and 10 years; and posterior intraoccipital, 18 to 23 months and 4 years. The petro-occipital synchondrosis reached the midpoint at 11 years and completely fused in less than 50 percent of subjects. Order of fusion of the sutures, but not the synchondroses, followed the anterior-to-posterior direction. Factor analysis suggested three separate fusion patterns. CONCLUSIONS: The fusion timelines of cranial-base sutures/synchondroses may help providers interpret computed tomographic data of patients with head-shape abnormalities. Future work should elucidate the mechanisms and sequelae of cranial-base suture fusion that deviates from normal timelines.


Subject(s)
Cranial Sutures/growth & development , Skull Base/growth & development , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cranial Sutures/diagnostic imaging , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Retrospective Studies , Skull Base/diagnostic imaging , Time Factors , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/statistics & numerical data
6.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(7): 2393-2396, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582379

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) of the anterior skull and orbital bandeau is standard of care for craniosynostosis with anterior morphology. Fronto-orbital retrusion, temporal hollowing, and bony contour irregularities are commonly seen in long-term follow-up. In this study, we report several technical adaptations of a new FOA technique described in Fearon et al that help facilitate adaptation of the single-segment neo-bandeau FOA technique in preparation of use in younger patients, and perform a craniometric analysis of the technique. Five consecutive patients who underwent the single-segment neo-bandeau FOA in 2020 with available pre- and post-operative three-dimensional head computed tomography scans were studied. Using Materialise Mimics (Materialise, Ghent, Belgium), cranial length, cranial height, cranial widths, and intracranial volume were measured. Two (40%) patients were male and all were non-Hispanic White with a median age at surgery of 18.6 months (interquartile range 10.4-45.7). Three patients (60%) had bicoronal or other multi-suture craniosynostosis, and 1 each had metopic and sagittal craniosynostosis. Intraoperatively measured intracranial pressure decreased from 17.8 mmHg (R 13.0-20.0) before craniectomy to 4.8 mmHg (R 2.0-11.0; P = 0.038) after craniectomy. Anterior cranial width increased postoperatively (mean 92.6 mm; R 74.9-111.5 versus 117.6 mm; R 109.8-135.2, P = 0.005). Intracranial volume increased from preoperative (mean 1211 cm3; R 782-1949 cm3) to postoperative (1387 cm3; R 1022-2108 cm3; P = 0.009). The authors find in this small sample that a single-segment neo-bandeau FOA demonstrates volumetric expansion similar to conventional FOA techniques and is feasible in infants under 1 year of age.


Subject(s)
Craniosynostoses , Cephalometry , Child , Craniosynostoses/diagnostic imaging , Craniosynostoses/surgery , Craniotomy , Humans , Infant , Male , Retrospective Studies , Skull/surgery , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
7.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(8): 2641-2645, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582378

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to compare perioperative safety and efficacy of posterior vault distraction osteogenesis (PVDO) in patients with primary nonsynostotic cephalo-cranial disproportion, namely slit ventricle syndrome and idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), to a cohort of patients with craniosynostosis (CS). A retrospective review of patients undergoing PVDO from 2009 to 2019 at our institution was performed. Craniosynostosis patients were matched by sex and age at PVDO to the nonsynostotic cohort. Operative details, perioperative outcomes, and distraction patterns were analyzed with appropriate statistics. Nine patients met inclusion criteria for the non-CS cohort. Six patients (67%) underwent PVDO for slit ventricle and the remaining 3 patients (33%) underwent PVDO for IIH. The majority of CS patients were syndromic (n = 6, 67%) and had multisuture synostosis (n = 7, 78%). The non-CS cohort underwent PVDO at a median 56.1 months old [Q1 41.1, Q3 86.6] versus the CS cohort at 55.7 months [Q1 39.6, Q3 76.0] (P = 0.931). Total hospital length of stay was longer in the non-CS patients (median days 5 [Q1 4, Q3 6] versus 3 [Q1 3, Q3 4], P = 0.021). Non-CS patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts had significantly less shunt operations for ICP concerns post-PVDO (median rate: 1.74/year [Q1 1.30, Q3 3.00] versus median: 0.18/year [Q1 0.0, Q3 0.7]; P = 0.046). In this pilot study using PVDO to treat slit ventricle syndrome and IIH, safety appears similar to PVDO in the synostotic setting. The cohort lacks adequate follow-up to assess long term efficacy, although short-midterm follow-up demonstrates promising results with less need for shunt revision and symptomatic relief. Future studies are warranted to identify the preferred surgical approach in these complex patients.


Subject(s)
Craniosynostoses , Dental Implants , Intracranial Hypertension , Osteogenesis, Distraction , Pseudotumor Cerebri , Child, Preschool , Craniosynostoses/surgery , Humans , Pilot Projects , Retrospective Studies , Skull , Slit Ventricle Syndrome/surgery
8.
Clin Plast Surg ; 48(3): 455-471, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051898

ABSTRACT

Posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis is a powerful, reliable, low-morbidity method to achieve intracranial expansion. It is particularly useful in treating turribrachycephaly seen in syndromic craniosynostosis, allowing for gradual expansion of the bone while stretching the soft tissues over several weeks allowing greater volumetric expansion than conventional techniques. Posterior cranial vault distraction osteogenesis constitutes a more gradual remodeling modality, with infrequent complications. As a first step in intracranial expansion, it preserves the frontal cranium for future frontofacial procedures. A drawback is the need for a second surgery to remove the device, and this must be taken into account during counseling.


Subject(s)
Craniosynostoses/surgery , Osteogenesis, Distraction/methods , Skull/surgery , Abnormalities, Multiple/surgery , Female , Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Male
9.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 147(6): 978e-989e, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019509

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigates the associations between local anesthesia practice and perioperative complication, length of stay, and hospital cost for palatoplasty in the United States. METHODS: Patients undergoing cleft palate repair between 2004 and 2015 were abstracted from the Pediatric Health Information System database. Perioperative complication, length of stay, and hospital cost were compared by local anesthesia status. Multiple logistic regressions controlled for patient demographics, comorbidities, and hospital characteristics. RESULTS: Of 17,888 patients from 49 institutions who met selection criteria, 8631 (48 percent), 4447 (25 percent), and 2149 (12 percent) received epinephrine-containing lidocaine, epinephrine-containing bupivacaine, and bupivacaine or ropivacaine alone, respectively. The use of epinephrine-containing bupivacaine or bupivacaine or ropivacaine alone was associated with decreased perioperative complication [adjusted OR, 0.75 (95 percent CI, 0.61 to 0.91) and 0.63 (95 percent CI, 0.47 to 0.83); p = 0.004 and p = 0.001, respectively]. Only bupivacaine- or ropivacaine-alone recipients experienced a significantly reduced risk of prolonged length of stay on adjusted analysis [adjusted OR, 0.71 (95 percent CI, 0.55 to 0.90); p = 0.005]. Risk of increased cost was reduced in users of any local anesthetic (p < 0.001 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Epinephrine-containing bupivacaine or bupivacaine or ropivacaine alone was associated with reduced perioperative complication following palatoplasty, while only the latter predicted a decreased postoperative length of stay. Uses of epinephrine-containing lidocaine, epinephrine-containing bupivacaine, and bupivacaine or ropivacaine alone were all associated with decreased hospital costs. Future prospective studies are warranted to further delineate the role of local anesthesia in palatal surgery. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Local/economics , Cleft Palate/surgery , Hospital Costs/statistics & numerical data , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Anesthesia, Local/statistics & numerical data , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Length of Stay/economics , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Male , Pain, Procedural/diagnosis , Pain, Procedural/economics , Pain, Procedural/etiology , Pain, Procedural/prevention & control , Postoperative Complications/economics , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/economics , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , United States
10.
Childs Nerv Syst ; 37(7): 2313-2318, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970330

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The treatment of patients with multisuture craniosynostosis is complex and patient-dependent. Cranial distraction osteogenesis is a relatively new procedure for treatment of these patients, with its use increasing in many centers. With this increased use comes an expanding range of indications. Surgical management of multisuture craniosynostosis in therapeutically immunosuppressed patients following a solid organ transplant presents unique challenges. We describe our experience with posterior cranial vault distraction in two patients with multisuture craniosynostosis that had previously undergone organ transplantation. METHODS: Two solid-organ transplant recipient patients with multisuture craniosynostosis were identified. A detailed examination of their medical/transplant history and perioperative details were recorded. RESULTS: The first patient was a 3-year-old girl who received a kidney transplantation in infancy and subsequently presented with a symptomatic Chiari malformation and papilledema. Imaging revealed pansynostosis. She underwent posterior cranial vault distraction extending into a Chiari decompression. Her postoperative course was complicated by distractor site infection at the beginning of consolidation, necessitating early removal of distractors. The second patient was a 2-year-old boy who received a heart transplantation at the age of 3 months and subsequently presented with head shape concerns. Imaging revealed bicoronal and sagittal craniosynostosis. He underwent a posterior cranial vault distraction without complication. Following removal of the distractors, he developed an infection at one of the distractor sites with associated fever and leukocytosis, necessitating washout and drain placement. Both patients achieved successful cranial vault expansion with distraction osteogenesis and at a 2-year follow-up do not have evidence of elevated intracranial pressure. CONCLUSIONS: Immunosuppressive therapy has the potential to inhibit wound healing and place patients at risk for wound infection. Although we have demonstrated successful cranial vault expansion with distraction in two immunosuppressed children, extra care must be taken with these patients when placing semi-buried hardware. Specifically, prompt identification and proactive management of potential infectious complications is critical to applying this technique safely in these patients.


Subject(s)
Craniosynostoses , Osteogenesis, Distraction , Child , Child, Preschool , Craniosynostoses/diagnostic imaging , Craniosynostoses/surgery , Facial Bones , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Infant , Male , Skull
11.
Cleft Palate Craniofac J ; 58(5): 603-611, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33840261

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the association between risk of secondary surgery for oronasal fistula following primary cleft palate repair and 2 hospital characteristics-cost-to-charge ratio (RCC) and case volume of cleft palate repair. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: This study utilized the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database, which consists of clinical and resource-utilization data from >49 hospitals in the United States. PATIENTS AND PARTICIPANTS: Patients undergoing primary cleft palate repair from 2004 to 2009 were abstracted from the PHIS database and followed up for oronasal fistula repair between 2004 and 2015. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): The primary outcome measure was whether patients underwent oronasal fistula repair after primary cleft palate repair. RESULTS: Among 5745 patients from 45 institutions whom met inclusion criteria, 166 (3%) underwent oronasal fistula repair within 6 to 11 years of primary cleft palate repair. Primary palatoplasty at high-RCC facilities was associated with a higher rate of subsequent oronasal fistula repair (odds ratio [OR] = 1.84 [1.32-2.56], adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.81 [1.28-2.59]; P ≤ .001). Likelihood of surgery for oronasal fistula was independent of hospital case volume (OR = 0.83 [0.61-1.13], P = .233; AOR = 0.86 [0.62-1.20], P = .386). Patients with complete unilateral or bilateral cleft palate were more likely to receive oronasal fistula closure compared to those with unilateral-incomplete cleft palate (AOR = 2.09 [1.27-3.56], P = .005; AOR = 3.14 [1.80-5.58], P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Subsequent need for oronasal fistula repair, while independent of hospital case volume for cleft palate repair, increased with increasing hospital RCC. Our study also corroborates complete cleft palate and cleft lip as risk factors for oronasal fistula.


Subject(s)
Cleft Lip , Cleft Palate , Fistula , Child , Cleft Palate/surgery , Hospitals , Humans , Infant , Oral Fistula/surgery , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
12.
J Craniofac Surg ; 32(3): 947-951, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33654048

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: In the pediatric general surgery literature, it has been shown that prenatal diagnosis of a congenital anomaly is an independent predictor of parental psychological distress. Surgical prenatal counseling can decrease parental anxiety by helping families understand the surgical needs and potential outcomes of their infant. In this retrospective analysis (n = 440), the authors sought to present our care pathway for prenatally diagnosed cleft lip and palate (CL/P) and explore the impact of cleft lip and palate-specific prenatal counseling on patient care by comparing the timing of clinical and surgical care between a cohort of patients who received prenatal CL/P consultation and a cohort of patients only seen postnatally. The authors hypothesize that our multidisciplinary prenatal care intervention is associated with earlier postnatal clinic visits and surgical repair. The care of all patients whose mother's presented for prenatal CL/P consultation (prenatal cohort, n = 118) was compared to all new CL/P patients without prenatal consultation at our institution (postnatal cohort, n = 322) from January 2015 through August 2019. 81.4% (n = 96) of the prenatal cohort returned for care postnatally while 2 pregnancies were interrupted, four neonates died, and 15 patients did not return for care. Prenatal consultation was associated with earlier postnatal clinic appointments (P < 0.001) as well as a shorter time to CL repair in patients with CL only (P = 0.002) and CLP (P = 0.047). Our described pre- and postnatal CL/P pathway is a multidisciplinary model associated with high retention rates from the prenatal period through complete surgical repair.


Subject(s)
Cleft Lip , Cleft Palate , Child , Cleft Lip/surgery , Cleft Palate/surgery , Counseling , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Retrospective Studies
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(4): 859-862, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970008

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to delineate optimal age to perform unilateral or bilateral cleft lip repair in premature patients. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Pediatric data set was queried for unilateral and bilateral cleft lip repairs performed between 2012 and 2017. Complications, readmissions, and reoperations were analyzed in the context of prematurity with appropriate statistics. Degree of prematurity was significantly associated with adverse events (p = 0.001, rs = 0.44). Premature patients with unilateral cleft lip had a significantly decreased risk of adverse events when performing cleft lip repair after 150 days of age [OR, 18.1; p = 0.004; before cutoff, n = 10 of 140 (7.1 percent); after cutoff, n = 0 of 112 (0.0 percent)] in the absence of other risk factors. Premature patients with bilateral cleft lip had a significantly decreased risk of adverse events when performing cleft lip repair after 175 days of age (OR, 16.1; p = 0.010; before cutoff, n = 7 of 33 (21.2 percent); after cutoff, n = 0 of 28 (0.0 percent)] in the absence of other risk factors. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:: Risk, II.


Subject(s)
Cleft Lip/surgery , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/methods , Age Factors , Cohort Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Patient Readmission/statistics & numerical data , Patient Safety , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Postoperative Complications/prevention & control , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Reoperation/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment
16.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(7): 2106-2111, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing cranial expansion including spring-mediated cranioplasty (SMC) and cranial vault remodeling (CVR) receive costly and high acuity post-operative intensive care (ICU) given concerns over neurologic and hemodynamic vulnerability. The authors analyzed perioperative and post-operative events for patients presenting with sagittal craniosynostosis (CS) undergoing SMC and CVR in order to compare complication profiles. METHODS: The authors performed a single center retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing SMC and CVR for the treatment of nonsyndromic, isolated sagittal CS from 2011 to 2018. Perioperative and post-operative factors were collected, focusing on hemodynamic instability and events necessitating ICU care. Mann-Whitney U and Fisher exact tests were used to compare data with significance defined as P < 0.05. RESULTS: Among 106 patients, 65 (61%) underwent SMC and 41 (39%) CVR. All CVR patients received prophylactic whole blood transfusion at time of scalp incision. Acute blood loss anemia was the most common post-operative complication, prompting n = 6 (9.2%) and n = 7 (17.1%) blood transfusions in the SMC and CVR cohorts, respectively (P < 0.24). Hemodynamic instability requiring blood transfusion was rare, occurring post-operatively in n = 2 (3.1%) and n = 2 (4.9%) patients in the SMC and CVR cohorts, respectively (P < 0.64). Two patients in the CVR cohort exhibited new neurologic symptoms that self-resolved, compared to no patients in the SMC cohort (P < 0.15). CONCLUSION: Despite differing degrees of operative invasiveness, post-operative hemodynamic and neurologic decompensation following CVR and SMC for isolated sagittal CS repair remains similarly rare. Indications necessitating post-operative intensive care are infrequent. Post-operative hemoglobin monitoring may enable early prediction for hemodynamic instability.


Subject(s)
Craniosynostoses/surgery , Blood Transfusion , Craniotomy , Critical Care , Humans , Infant , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Postoperative Period , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Skull/surgery , Surgical Equipment , Treatment Outcome
17.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(5): 609e-621e, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing orthognathic skeletal correction present with a variety of comorbidities that may affect surgical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine how patient risk factors and operative technique contribute to complication rates after orthognathic surgery in the era of patient-specific implants. METHODS: Retrospective cohort analysis was conducted of pediatric patients undergoing Le Fort I osteotomy, bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, and/or genioplasty from 2014 to 2018. Patient risk factors, operative characteristics, and postoperative outcomes were gathered and compared with appropriate statistics. RESULTS: Ninety-four patients met inclusion criteria, with an overall 1-year complication rate of 11.7 percent (11 of 94). Patient-specific mandibular plates are significantly associated with infection (p = 0.009; OR, 8.8), occurrence of any complication (p = 0.003; OR, 8.3), readmission (p < 0.001; OR, 11.1), and reoperation (p < 0.001; OR, 11.4). In patients with syndromes or history of cleft lip/palate, patient-specific mandibular plates are associated with infection (p = 0.006; OR, 10.3), readmission (p < 0.001; OR, 21.6), and reoperation (p < 0.001; OR, 22.9). In multivariate regression controlling for age, sex, syndrome status, and orofacial cleft history, use of patient-specific mandibular plates was associated with infection (p = 0.017; adjusted OR, 12.5), any complication (p = 0.007; adjusted OR, 11.8), readmission (p = 0.001; adjusted OR, 17.9), and reoperation (p = 0.001; adjusted OR, 18.9). CONCLUSIONS: In the era of patient-specific orthognathic surgery, syndromic status and use of patient-specific mandibular plates are associated with increased infection, readmission, and reoperation because of hardware-related complications. The authors' data support increased caution and counseling with use of patient-specific mandibular implants in patients with syndromic status, history of orofacial cleft, and history of previous maxillomandibular surgery given increased risk of hardware-related complications. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, III.


Subject(s)
Bone Plates/adverse effects , Genioplasty/adverse effects , Osteotomy, Le Fort/adverse effects , Osteotomy, Sagittal Split Ramus/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Stomatognathic System Abnormalities/surgery , Adolescent , Cleft Lip , Comorbidity , Female , Genioplasty/instrumentation , Humans , Male , Osteotomy, Le Fort/instrumentation , Osteotomy, Sagittal Split Ramus/instrumentation , Patient-Specific Modeling , Postoperative Complications/etiology , Postoperative Complications/surgery , Prosthesis Design/adverse effects , Reoperation/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stomatognathic System Abnormalities/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
18.
Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open ; 8(7): e2902, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802642

ABSTRACT

This study investigates laypersons' perceptions of congenital ear deformities and preferences for treatment, particularly with ear molding therapy-an effective, noninvasive, yet time-sensitive treatment. METHODS: Laypersons were recruited via crowdsourcing to view photographs of normal ears or one of the following ear deformities, pre- and post-molding: constricted, cryptotia, cupped/lopped, helical rim deformity, prominent, and Stahl. Participants answered questions regarding perceptions and treatment preferences for the ear. Statistical analyses included multiple linear and logistic regressions and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. RESULTS: A total of 983 individuals participated in the study. All deformities were perceived as significantly abnormal, likely to impair hearing, and associated with lower psychosocial quality of life (all P < 0.001). For all deformities, participants were likely to choose ear molding over surgery despite the logistical and financial implications of ear molding (all P < 0.02). Participants were significantly more satisfied with the outcome of ear molding in all deformities compared with control, except constricted ears (all P < 0.002, except Pconstricted = 0.073). Concern for hearing impairment due to ear deformity was associated with increased likelihoods of seeing a physician (P < 0.001) and choosing ear molding despite treatment logistics and costs (all P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Laypersons perceived all ear deformities as abnormal and associated with low psychosocial quality of life. Despite logistical and financial implications, laypersons generally desired molding therapy for ear deformities; treatment outcomes were satisfactory for all deformities except constricted ears. Timely diagnosis of this condition is crucial to reaping the benefits of ear molding therapy.

19.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(7): 2079-2083, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32796307

ABSTRACT

Spring-mediated cranial vault expansion (SMC) has become a primary treatment modality at our institution to correct scaphocephalic head shape in the setting of isolated sagittal craniosynostosis (CS). Spring-mediated cranioplasty is associated with minimal procedural morbidity and reliable clinical efficacy, although long-term outcomes are not well elucidated. Herein we describe our institutional experience and lessons learned with SMC. We hypothesize that SMC performed in young infants offers durable scaphocephalic correction as measured by cephalic index (CI) at the 1, 3, and 5-year postoperative timepoints.Patients with isolated sagittal CS who underwent SMC at our institution during an 8-year period were retrospectively studied. The primary outcome measure was long-term head shape determined by CI at the 1, 3, and 5-year postoperative timepoints. Secondary outcomes included patient and spring factors associated with change in CI, including age and spring force. All statistical tests were 2-tailed with P < 0.05 denoting significance.In total, 88 patients underwent SMC at a median age of 3.3 months with a median preoperative CI 69 (interquartile range: [66, 71]). The postoperative CI increased to 73 [71, 76] at postoperative day 1. At 1 month, the CI increased by 8.6 to 77 (P < 0.0001) and appeared to reach a plateau at 3 months (76, [74, 78]) without further improvement (P < 0.10). At 5 years, CI remained stable without relapse (76, [75, 81], demonstrating an 8.9 increase from preoperative CI. Age at time of spring placement and change in CI were inversely related (P < 0.005). Total spring force directly correlated with increased change in postoperative CI at the 6-month postoperative timepoint (P < 0.02).In summary, SMC offers durable correction of scaphocephaly as measured by CI for patients with isolated sagittal CS at the 5-year postoperative timepoint. The cranial expansion observed 1-month post-spring implantation may serve as a proxy for long-term CI.


Subject(s)
Jaw Abnormalities/surgery , Craniosynostoses/surgery , Craniotomy , Female , Head/surgery , Humans , Infant , Male , Postoperative Period , Reconstructive Surgical Procedures , Retrospective Studies , Skull/surgery , Surgical Equipment
20.
J Craniofac Surg ; 31(7): 1900-1905, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604283

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: While the use of virtual surgical planning (VSP) has been well described in the adult craniofacial literature, there has been little written about pediatric uses or trends. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the evolving utilization of VSP for pediatric craniofacial procedures. METHODS: The authors' prospective institutional review board-approved craniofacial registry was queried for index craniofacial procedures from January 2011 through December 2018. Data was collected regarding utilization of traditional surgical planning versus VSP, as well as the extent of VSP's influence on the operative procedure. These data were analyzed for trends over time and compared using appropriate statistics. RESULTS: During the study period, a total of 1131 index craniofacial cases were performed, of which 160 cases (14.1%) utilized VSP. Utilization of VSP collectively increased over time, from 2.0% in 2011 to 18.6% in 2018 (P < 0.001). Utilization rates of VSP varied across procedures from 0% of craniosynostosis cases and fronto-orbital advancement cases to 67% of osteocutaneous free tissue transfers (P < 0.001). The most profound contributor to increase in VSP utilization was orthognathic surgery, utilized in 0% of orthognathic procedures in 2011 to 68.3% of orthognathic procedures in 2018 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Utilization of virtual surgical planning for pediatric craniofacial procedures is increasing, especially for complex orthognathic procedures and osteocutaneous free tissue transfers. Utilization patterns of individual components of the VSP system demonstrate unique footprints across the spectrum of craniofacial procedures, which reinforces the specific and variable benefits of this workflow for treating pediatric craniofacial disorders.


Subject(s)
Orthognathic Surgical Procedures , Child , Humans , Prospective Studies , Specialties, Surgical , Surgery, Computer-Assisted/methods , Workflow
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