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1.
Atmos Pollut Res ; 13(7): 101473, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944213

ABSTRACT

The spread of respiratory diseases via aerosol particles in indoor settings is of significant concern. The SARS-CoV-2 virus has been found to spread widely in confined enclosures like hotels, hospitals, cruise ships, prisons, and churches. Particles exhaled from a person indoors can remain suspended long enough for increasing the opportunity for particles to spread spatially. Careful consideration of the ventilation system is essential to minimise the spread of particles containing infectious pathogens. Previous studies have shown that indoor airflow induced by opened windows would minimise the spread of particles. However, how outdoor airflow through an open window influences the indoor airflow has not been considered. The aim of this study is to provide a clear understanding of the indoor particle spread across multiple rooms, in a situation similar to what is found in quarantine hotels and cruise ships, using a combination of HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air-Conditioning) ventilation and an opening window. Using a previously validated mathematical model, we used 3D CFD (computational fluid dynamics) simulations to investigate to what extent different indoor airflow scenarios contribute to the transport of a single injection of particles ( 1 . 3 µ m ) in a basic 3D multi-room indoor environment. Although this study is limited to short times, we demonstrate that in certain conditions approximately 80% of the particles move from one room to the corridor and over 60% move to the nearby room within 5 to 15 s. Our results provide additional information to help identifying relevant recommendations to limit particles from spreading in enclosures.

2.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S731, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746305

ABSTRACT

Background. We report on a 56 year-old male with prolonged COVID-19 pneumonia who initially improved with dexamethasone and intubation but quickly decompensated. Clinical and radiologic features were consistent with VAP. Tracheal aspirate cultures grew carbapenem-resistant Enterobacter cloacae;meropenem (MEM) MIC was >8 ug/ml (resistant) while ceftazidime-avibactam (CZA) MIC was 2/4 ug/ml (susceptible). Lateral flow antigen assay detected a KPC enzyme. The patient was treated with CZA with steady improvement in respiratory function over the next two weeks. He then experienced an episode of tachycardia, prompting repeat culture. At this point the patient had been extubated: sputum culture grew KPC+ E. cloacae that now showed CZA-resistance (MIC >8/4 ug/ml) and paradoxical decrease in MEM MIC (4 ug/ml);meropenem-vaborbactam (< 2/8 ug/ml) was susceptible. Methods. The pre- & post-CZA therapy E. cloacae isolates underwent whole genome sequencing using the Illumina 150bp paired end protocol;sequences were quality trimmed and compared. Results. A point mutation in the plasmid blaKPC3 gene was identified in the post-CZA therapy isolate, an R163S mutation in the omega loop of the enzyme. ompC and ompF porin genes were analyzed to rule-out decreased influx as a mechanism for CZA-resistance: the pre- and post-CZA isolates had identical porin sequences. Conclusion. This case highlights emerging mutations within KPC carbapenemases that lead to resistance to 'last-line' antimicrobials like CZA. The presumptive mechanism is increased KPC active site promiscuity due to increased omega loop flexibility, allowing increased ceftazidime binding and hydrolysis, and decreased avibactam binding and beta lactamase inhibition. Paradoxically, MEM susceptibility improves after such omega loop mutations, likely due to decreased active site binding affinity, a 'seesaw' effect between MEM and CZA. While authors have reported MEM MICs falling into the 'susceptible' category after an omega loop variant, these bacteria invariably develop secondary mutations leading to MEM treatment failure. Fortunately, given our patient's improved respiratory status, the post-CZA E. cloacae isolate was felt to reflect colonization and the patient was discharged home without antimicrobial therapy.

4.
Anaesthesia ; 77(1): 22-27, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483808

ABSTRACT

Manual facemask ventilation, a core component of elective and emergency airway management, is classified as an aerosol-generating procedure. This designation is based on one epidemiological study suggesting an association between facemask ventilation and transmission during the SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2003. There is no direct evidence to indicate whether facemask ventilation is a high-risk procedure for aerosol generation. We conducted aerosol monitoring during routine facemask ventilation and facemask ventilation with an intentionally generated leak in anaesthetised patients. Recordings were made in ultraclean operating theatres and compared against the aerosol generated by tidal breathing and cough manoeuvres. Respiratory aerosol from tidal breathing in 11 patients was reliably detected above the very low background particle concentrations with median [IQR (range)] particle counts of 191 (77-486 [4-1313]) and 2 (1-5 [0-13]) particles.l-1 , respectively, p = 0.002. The median (IQR [range]) aerosol concentration detected during facemask ventilation without a leak (3 (0-9 [0-43]) particles.l-1 ) and with an intentional leak (11 (7-26 [1-62]) particles.l-1 ) was 64-fold (p = 0.001) and 17-fold (p = 0.002) lower than that of tidal breathing, respectively. Median (IQR [range]) peak particle concentration during facemask ventilation both without a leak (60 (0-60 [0-120]) particles.l-1 ) and with a leak (120 (60-180 [60-480]) particles.l-1 ) were 20-fold (p = 0.002) and 10-fold (0.001) lower than a cough (1260 (800-3242 [100-3682]) particles.l-1 ), respectively. This study demonstrates that facemask ventilation, even when performed with an intentional leak, does not generate high levels of bioaerosol. On the basis of this evidence, we argue facemask ventilation should not be considered an aerosol-generating procedure.


Subject(s)
Masks , /chemistry , Adult , Aged , Cough/etiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS Virus/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology
6.
Anaesthesia ; 76 Suppl 3: 22-23, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1105197
7.
Anaesthesia ; 76(2): 182-188, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852200

ABSTRACT

Aerosol-generating procedures such as tracheal intubation and extubation pose a potential risk to healthcare workers because of the possibility of airborne transmission of infection. Detailed characterisation of aerosol quantities, particle size and generating activities has been undertaken in a number of simulations but not in actual clinical practice. The aim of this study was to determine whether the processes of facemask ventilation, tracheal intubation and extubation generate aerosols in clinical practice, and to characterise any aerosols produced. In this observational study, patients scheduled to undergo elective endonasal pituitary surgery without symptoms of COVID-19 were recruited. Airway management including tracheal intubation and extubation was performed in a standard positive pressure operating room with aerosols detected using laser-based particle image velocimetry to detect larger particles, and spectrometry with continuous air sampling to detect smaller particles. A total of 482,960 data points were assessed for complete procedures in three patients. Facemask ventilation, tracheal tube insertion and cuff inflation generated small particles 30-300 times above background noise that remained suspended in airflows and spread from the patient's facial region throughout the confines of the operating theatre. Safe clinical practice of these procedures should reflect these particle profiles. This adds to data that inform decisions regarding the appropriate precautions to take in a real-world setting.


Subject(s)
Aerosols , Airway Extubation , Intubation, Intratracheal , Operating Rooms , Airway Management , Anesthesia, Inhalation , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Particle Size , Personal Protective Equipment , Respiration, Artificial
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