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1.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 122(8): 766-775, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2254596

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 rebound is usually reported among patients experiencing concurrent symptomatic and viral rebound. But longitudinal viral RT-PCR results from early stage to rebound of COVID-19 was less characterized. Further, identifying the factors associated with viral rebound after nirmatrelvir-ritonavir (NMV/r) and molnupiravir may expand understanding of COVID-19 rebound. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed clinical data and sequential viral RT-PCR results from COVID-19 patients receiving oral antivirals between April and May, 2022. Viral rebound was defined by the degree of viral load increase (ΔCt ≥ 5 units). RESULTS: A total of 58 and 27 COVID-19 patients taking NMV/r and molnupiravir, respectively, were enrolled. Patients receiving NMV/r were younger, had fewer risk factors for disease progression and faster viral clearance rate compared to those receiving molnupiravr (All P < 0.05). The overall proportion of viral rebound (n = 11) was 12.9%, which was more common among patients receiving NMV/r (10 [17.2%] vs. 1 [3.7%], P = 0.16). Of them, 5 patients experienced symptomatic rebound, suggesting the proportion of COVID-19 rebound was 5.9%. The median interval to viral rebound was 5.0 (interquartile range, 2.0-8.0) days after completion of antivirals. Initial lymphopenia (<0.8 × 109/L) was associated with viral rebound among overall population (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 5.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-21.71), and remained significant (aOR, 4.50; 95% CI, 1.05-19.25) even when patients receiving NMV/r were considered. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest viral rebound after oral antivirals may be more commonly observed among lymphopenic individuals in the context of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron BA.2 variant.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2022 Mar 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2180762

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV services in Taiwan. METHODS: An online, cross-sectional survey was conducted among people living with HIV (PLWH), individuals at risk of HIV infection (IAR), and service prescribers between 20th October and 30th November, 2020. Representatives from patient advocacy groups were interviewed. RESULTS: In total, 66 PLWH, 104 IAR, and 32 prescribers from Taiwan completed the survey. Mild to moderate disruptions to HIV-related services (including medical consultation, HIV-related testing, and medications) were found by the survey, with IAR appearing more affected than PLWH. Nine (13.6%) PLWH and 31 (29.8%) IAR reported disruptions in hospital/clinic visits and two (3.0%) PLWH and 25 (24.0%) IAR reported decreased frequency of HIV testing. Similar observations were also made by four patient advocacy group representatives interviewed. Telehealth services were received by only limited proportions of PLWH and IAR who participated in the survey. CONCLUSION: HIV services in Taiwan were not severely affected by the initial wave of COVID-19, but notable disruptions were still observed in HIV screening and prevention services. Multi-pronged strategies, including telehealth services, are warranted to overcome new challenges in HIV care in the COVID-19 era.

3.
J Virus Erad ; 8(4): 100308, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2181183

ABSTRACT

Background: A community COVID-19 outbreak caused by the B.1.1.7 SARS-CoV-2 variant occurred in Taiwan in May 2021. High-risk populations such as people living with HIV (PLWH) were recommended to receive two doses of COVID-19 vaccines. While SARS-CoV-2 vaccines have demonstrated promising results in general population, real-world information on the serological responses remains limited among PLWH. Methods: PLWH receiving the first dose of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine from 2020 to 2021 were enrolled. Determinations of anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike IgG titers were performed every one to three months, the third dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. All serum samples were tested for anti-nucleocapsid antibody and those tested positive were excluded from analysis. Results: A total of 1189 PLWH were enrolled: 829 (69.7%) receiving two doses of the AZD1222 vaccine, 232 (19.5%) of the mRNA-1273 vaccine, and 128 (10.8%) of the BNT162b2 vaccine. At all time-points, PLWH receiving two doses of mRNA vaccines had consistently higher antibody levels than those receiving the AZD1222 vaccine (p <0.001 for all time-point comparisons). Factors associated with failure to achieve an anti-spike IgG titer >141 BAU/mL within 12 weeks, included type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.24; 95% CI, 1.25-4), a CD4 T cell count <200 cells/mm3 upon receipt of the first dose of vaccination (aOR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.31-9) and two homologous AZD1222 vaccinations (aOR, 16.85; 95%CI, 10.13-28). For those receiving two doses of mRNA vaccines, factors associated with failure to achieve an anti-spike IgG titer >899 BAU/mL within 12 weeks were a CD4 T cell count <200 cells/mm3 on first-dose vaccination (aOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 1.08-14.42) and dual BNT162b2 vaccination (aOR, 4.21; 95% CI, 2.57-6.89). Conclusions: Two doses of homologous mRNA vaccination achieved significantly higher serological responses than vaccination with AZD1222 among PLWH. Those with CD4 T cell counts <200 cells/mm3 and DM had consistently lower serological responses.

4.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 122(8): 714-722, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients recovering from COVID-19 may need vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 because acquired immunity from primary infection may wane, given the emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants. Understanding the trends of anti-spike IgG and neutralizing antibody titers in patients recovering from COVID-19 may inform the decision made on the appropriate interval between recovery and vaccination. METHODS: Participants aged 20 years or older and diagnosed with COVID-19 between January and December, 2020 were enrolled. Serum specimens were collected every three months from 10 days to 12 months after the onset of symptom for determinations of anti-spike IgG and neutralizing antibody titers against SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain with D614G mutation, alpha, gamma and delta variants. RESULTS: Of 19 participants, we found a decreasing trend of geometric mean titers of anti-spike IgG from 560.9 to 217 and 92 BAU/mL after a 4-month and a 7-month follow-up, respectively. The anti-spike IgG titers declined more quickly in the ten participants with severe or critical disease than the nine participants with only mild to moderate disease between one month and seven months after SARS-CoV-2 infection (-8.49 vs - 2.34-fold, p < 0.001). The neutralizing activity of the convalescent serum specimens collected from participants recovering from wild-type SARS-CoV-2 infection against different variants was lower, especially against the delta variants (p < 0.01 for each variant with Wuhan strain as reference). CONCLUSION: Acquired immunity from primary infection with SARS-CoV-2 waned within 4-7 months in COVID-19 patients, and neutralizing cross-activities against different SARS-CoV-2 variants were lower compared with those against wild-type strain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing , COVID-19 Serotherapy , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Viral
5.
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069363

ABSTRACT

Background To contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, non-pharmacologic interventions, including lockdown and social distancing, may have adverse impact on access to HIV testing and care. This study investigated the impact of Covid-19 on HIV testing and care at a major hospital in Taiwan in 2020-2021. Methods The numbers of clients seeking anonymous HIV voluntary counseling and testing were compared 2 years before (2018-2019) and 2 years after Covid-19 outbreak (2020-2021). People living with HIV (PLWH) who sought care at the hospital during 2018-2021 were included to examine the status of HIV care delivery and disposition. Results The annual number of HIV screening tests performed had significantly decreased from 2,507 and 2,794 in 2018 and 2019, respectively, to 2,161 and 1,737 in 2020 and 2021, respectively. The rate of discontinuation of HIV care among PLWH was 3.7% in 2019, which remained unchanged in 2020 (3.7%) and 2021 (3.8%). The respective percentage of annual plasma HIV RNA testing <2 times increased from 8.4% and 7.8% in 2018 and 2019 to 7.0% and 10.7% in 2020 and 2021, so was that of annual syphilis testing <2 times (10.1% and 8.8% to 7.9% and 12.0%). The rates of plasma HIV RNA <200 copies/ml ranged from 97.0% to 98.1% in 2018-2021. Conclusions During the Covid-19 pandemic, access to HIV counseling and testing was significantly limited. While the number of HIV-related testing decreased, the impact of Covid-19 on the continuity of antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression among PLWH appeared to be minimal in Taiwan.

6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1664-1671, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978179

ABSTRACT

To reach the WHO target of hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination by 2025, Taiwan started to implement free-of-charge direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment programme in 2017. Evaluating the progress of HCV microelimination among people living with HIV (PLWH) is a critical step to identify the barriers to HCV elimination. PLWH seeking care at a major hospital designated for HIV care in Taiwan between January 2011 and December 2021 were retrospectively included. For PLWH with HCV-seropositive or HCV seroconversion during the study period, serial HCV RNA testing was performed using archived samples to confirm the presence of HCV viremia and estimate the prevalence and incidence of HCV viremia. Overall, 4199 PLWH contributed to a total of 27,258.75 person-years of follow-up (PYFU). With the reimbursement of DAAs and improvement of access to treatments, the prevalence of HCV viremia has declined from its peak of 6.21% (95% CI, 5.39-7.12%) in 2018 to 2.09% (95% CI, 1.60-2.77%) in 2021 (decline by 66.4% [95% CI, 55.4-74.7%]); the incidence has declined from 25.94 per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 20.44-32.47) in 2019 to 12.15% per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 8.14-17.44) (decline by 53.2% [95% CI, 27.3-70.6%]). However, the proportion of HCV reinfections continued to increase and accounted for 82.8% of incident HCV infections in 2021. We observed significant declines of HCV viremia among PLWH with the expansion of the DAA treatment programme in Taiwan. Further improvement of the access to DAA retreatments is warranted to achieve the goal of HCV microelimination.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Taiwan/epidemiology , Viremia/drug therapy , Viremia/epidemiology
7.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S77-S85, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: A synthesis design and multistate analysis is required for assessing the clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy on dynamics of multistate disease progression and in reducing the mortality and enhancing the recovery of patients with COVID-19. A case study on remdesivir was illustrated for the clinical application of such a novel design and analysis. METHODS: A Bayesian synthesis design was applied to integrating the empirical evidence on the one-arm compassion study and the two-arm ACTT-1 trial for COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir. A multistate model was developed to model the dynamics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from three transient states of low, medium-, and high-risk until the two outcomes of recovery and death. The outcome measures for clinical efficacy comprised high-risk state, death, and discharge. RESULTS: The efficacy of remdesivir in reducing the risk of death and enhancing the odds of recovery were estimated as 31% (95% CI, 18-44%) and 10% (95% CI, 1-18%), respectively. Remdesivir therapy for patients with low-risk state showed the efficacy in reducing subsequent progression to high-risk state and death by 26% (relative rate (RR), 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.93) and 62% (RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.29-0.48), respectively. Less but still statistically significant efficacy in mortality reduction was noted for the medium- and high-risk patients. Remdesivir treated patients had a significantly shorter period of hospitalization (9.9 days) compared with standard care group (12.9 days). CONCLUSION: The clinical efficacy of remdesvir therapy in reducing mortality and accelerating discharge has been proved by the Bayesian synthesis design and multistate analysis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
8.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270831, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has threatened continued access to public health services worldwide, including HIV prevention and care. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV service access and delivery in the Asia region. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional, online study, conducted between October-November 2020, assessed the impact of COVID-19 on HIV prevention and care among people living with HIV (PLHIV), key populations (KPs), and healthcare providers (HCPs). The study populations were recruited across ten Asian countries/territories, covering Hong Kong, India, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. RESULTS: Across the region, 702 PLHIV, 551 KPs, and 145 HCPs were recruited. Both PLHIV and KPs reported decreased or had yet to visit hospitals/clinics (PLHIV: 35.9%; KPs: 57.5%), reduced HIV RNA viral load testing (21.9%; 47.3%), and interruptions in antiretroviral therapy (ART) (22.3%) or decreased/complete stop of HIV prevention medication consumption (40.9%). Travel constraints (40.6%), financial issues (28.9%), and not receiving prescription refills (26.9%) were common reasons for interrupted ART access, whereas reduced engagements in behaviours that could increase the risks of HIV acquisition and transmission (57.7%), travel constraints (41.8%), and less hospital/clinic visits (36.7%) underlie the disruptions in HIV preventive medications. Decreased visits from PLHIV/KPs and rescheduled appointments due to clinic closure were respectively reported by 50.7%-52.1% and 15.6%-17.0% of HCPs; 43.6%-61.9% observed decreased ART/preventive medication refills. Although 85.0% of HCPs adopted telemedicine to deliver HIV care services, 56.4%-64.1% of PLHIV/KPs were not using telehealth services. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic substantially disrupted HIV prevention to care continuum in Asia at the time of the study. The findings highlighted differences in HIV prevention to care continuum via telehealth services utilisation by PLHIV, KPs, and HCPs. Efforts are needed to optimise infrastructure and adapt systems for continued HIV care with minimal disruptions during health emergency crises.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Hong Kong , Humans , Pandemics
9.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(3): 535-539, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819544

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for at-risk populations, but the vaccine effectiveness in people living with HIV (PLWH) remains incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that COVID-19 vaccination was clinically effective among PLWH during the outbreak setting with a low endemicity of COVID-19 where non-pharmaceutical interventions were strictly implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Vaccination
10.
Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755872

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aimed to investigate the impact of the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV services in Taiwan. Methods An online, cross-sectional survey was conducted among people living with HIV (PLWH), individuals at risk of HIV infection (IAR), and service prescribers between 20th October and 30th November, 2020. Representatives from patient advocacy groups were interviewed. Results In total, 66 PLWH, 104 IAR, and 32 prescribers from Taiwan completed the survey. Mild to moderate disruptions to HIV-related services (including medical consultation, HIV-related testing, and medications) were found by the survey, with IAR appearing more affected than PLWH. Nine (13.6%) PLWH and 31 (29.8%) IAR reported disruptions in hospital/clinic visits and two (3.0%) PLWH and 25 (24.0%) IAR reported decreased frequency of HIV testing. Similar observations were also made by four patient advocacy group representatives interviewed. Telehealth services were received by only limited proportions of PLWH and IAR who participated in the survey. Conclusion HIV services in Taiwan were not severely affected by the initial wave of COVID-19, but notable disruptions were still observed in HIV screening and prevention services. Multi-pronged strategies, including telehealth services, are warranted to overcome new challenges in HIV care in the COVID-19 era.

11.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents ; 58:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1440077
13.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(12): 2186-2190, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198883

ABSTRACT

We presented the clinical course and immune responses of a well-controlled HIV-positive patient with COVID-19. The clinical presentation and antibody production to SARS-CoV-2 were similar to other COVID-19 patients without HIV infection. Neutralizing antibody reached a plateau from 26th to 47th day onset but decreased on 157th day after symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2
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