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1.
Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2069363

ABSTRACT

Background To contain the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic, non-pharmacologic interventions, including lockdown and social distancing, may have adverse impact on access to HIV testing and care. This study investigated the impact of Covid-19 on HIV testing and care at a major hospital in Taiwan in 2020-2021. Methods The numbers of clients seeking anonymous HIV voluntary counseling and testing were compared 2 years before (2018-2019) and 2 years after Covid-19 outbreak (2020-2021). People living with HIV (PLWH) who sought care at the hospital during 2018-2021 were included to examine the status of HIV care delivery and disposition. Results The annual number of HIV screening tests performed had significantly decreased from 2,507 and 2,794 in 2018 and 2019, respectively, to 2,161 and 1,737 in 2020 and 2021, respectively. The rate of discontinuation of HIV care among PLWH was 3.7% in 2019, which remained unchanged in 2020 (3.7%) and 2021 (3.8%). The respective percentage of annual plasma HIV RNA testing <2 times increased from 8.4% and 7.8% in 2018 and 2019 to 7.0% and 10.7% in 2020 and 2021, so was that of annual syphilis testing <2 times (10.1% and 8.8% to 7.9% and 12.0%). The rates of plasma HIV RNA <200 copies/ml ranged from 97.0% to 98.1% in 2018-2021. Conclusions During the Covid-19 pandemic, access to HIV counseling and testing was significantly limited. While the number of HIV-related testing decreased, the impact of Covid-19 on the continuity of antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression among PLWH appeared to be minimal in Taiwan.

2.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 11(1): 1664-1671, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978179

ABSTRACT

To reach the WHO target of hepatitis C virus (HCV) elimination by 2025, Taiwan started to implement free-of-charge direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment programme in 2017. Evaluating the progress of HCV microelimination among people living with HIV (PLWH) is a critical step to identify the barriers to HCV elimination. PLWH seeking care at a major hospital designated for HIV care in Taiwan between January 2011 and December 2021 were retrospectively included. For PLWH with HCV-seropositive or HCV seroconversion during the study period, serial HCV RNA testing was performed using archived samples to confirm the presence of HCV viremia and estimate the prevalence and incidence of HCV viremia. Overall, 4199 PLWH contributed to a total of 27,258.75 person-years of follow-up (PYFU). With the reimbursement of DAAs and improvement of access to treatments, the prevalence of HCV viremia has declined from its peak of 6.21% (95% CI, 5.39-7.12%) in 2018 to 2.09% (95% CI, 1.60-2.77%) in 2021 (decline by 66.4% [95% CI, 55.4-74.7%]); the incidence has declined from 25.94 per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 20.44-32.47) in 2019 to 12.15% per 1000 PYFU (95% CI, 8.14-17.44) (decline by 53.2% [95% CI, 27.3-70.6%]). However, the proportion of HCV reinfections continued to increase and accounted for 82.8% of incident HCV infections in 2021. We observed significant declines of HCV viremia among PLWH with the expansion of the DAA treatment programme in Taiwan. Further improvement of the access to DAA retreatments is warranted to achieve the goal of HCV microelimination.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepacivirus/genetics , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Taiwan/epidemiology , Viremia/drug therapy , Viremia/epidemiology
3.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120 Suppl 1: S77-S85, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972179

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: A synthesis design and multistate analysis is required for assessing the clinical efficacy of antiviral therapy on dynamics of multistate disease progression and in reducing the mortality and enhancing the recovery of patients with COVID-19. A case study on remdesivir was illustrated for the clinical application of such a novel design and analysis. METHODS: A Bayesian synthesis design was applied to integrating the empirical evidence on the one-arm compassion study and the two-arm ACTT-1 trial for COVID-19 patients treated with remdesivir. A multistate model was developed to model the dynamics of hospitalized COVID-19 patients from three transient states of low, medium-, and high-risk until the two outcomes of recovery and death. The outcome measures for clinical efficacy comprised high-risk state, death, and discharge. RESULTS: The efficacy of remdesivir in reducing the risk of death and enhancing the odds of recovery were estimated as 31% (95% CI, 18-44%) and 10% (95% CI, 1-18%), respectively. Remdesivir therapy for patients with low-risk state showed the efficacy in reducing subsequent progression to high-risk state and death by 26% (relative rate (RR), 0.74; 95% CI, 0.55-0.93) and 62% (RR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.29-0.48), respectively. Less but still statistically significant efficacy in mortality reduction was noted for the medium- and high-risk patients. Remdesivir treated patients had a significantly shorter period of hospitalization (9.9 days) compared with standard care group (12.9 days). CONCLUSION: The clinical efficacy of remdesvir therapy in reducing mortality and accelerating discharge has been proved by the Bayesian synthesis design and multistate analysis.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
4.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270831, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951547

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has threatened continued access to public health services worldwide, including HIV prevention and care. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV service access and delivery in the Asia region. METHODS: A descriptive, cross-sectional, online study, conducted between October-November 2020, assessed the impact of COVID-19 on HIV prevention and care among people living with HIV (PLHIV), key populations (KPs), and healthcare providers (HCPs). The study populations were recruited across ten Asian countries/territories, covering Hong Kong, India, Japan, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. RESULTS: Across the region, 702 PLHIV, 551 KPs, and 145 HCPs were recruited. Both PLHIV and KPs reported decreased or had yet to visit hospitals/clinics (PLHIV: 35.9%; KPs: 57.5%), reduced HIV RNA viral load testing (21.9%; 47.3%), and interruptions in antiretroviral therapy (ART) (22.3%) or decreased/complete stop of HIV prevention medication consumption (40.9%). Travel constraints (40.6%), financial issues (28.9%), and not receiving prescription refills (26.9%) were common reasons for interrupted ART access, whereas reduced engagements in behaviours that could increase the risks of HIV acquisition and transmission (57.7%), travel constraints (41.8%), and less hospital/clinic visits (36.7%) underlie the disruptions in HIV preventive medications. Decreased visits from PLHIV/KPs and rescheduled appointments due to clinic closure were respectively reported by 50.7%-52.1% and 15.6%-17.0% of HCPs; 43.6%-61.9% observed decreased ART/preventive medication refills. Although 85.0% of HCPs adopted telemedicine to deliver HIV care services, 56.4%-64.1% of PLHIV/KPs were not using telehealth services. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic substantially disrupted HIV prevention to care continuum in Asia at the time of the study. The findings highlighted differences in HIV prevention to care continuum via telehealth services utilisation by PLHIV, KPs, and HCPs. Efforts are needed to optimise infrastructure and adapt systems for continued HIV care with minimal disruptions during health emergency crises.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuity of Patient Care , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Hong Kong , Humans , Pandemics
5.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 55(3): 535-539, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819544

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination is recommended for at-risk populations, but the vaccine effectiveness in people living with HIV (PLWH) remains incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that COVID-19 vaccination was clinically effective among PLWH during the outbreak setting with a low endemicity of COVID-19 where non-pharmaceutical interventions were strictly implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Vaccination
6.
Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755872

ABSTRACT

Purpose This study aimed to investigate the impact of the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic on HIV services in Taiwan. Methods An online, cross-sectional survey was conducted among people living with HIV (PLWH), individuals at risk of HIV infection (IAR), and service prescribers between 20th October and 30th November, 2020. Representatives from patient advocacy groups were interviewed. Results In total, 66 PLWH, 104 IAR, and 32 prescribers from Taiwan completed the survey. Mild to moderate disruptions to HIV-related services (including medical consultation, HIV-related testing, and medications) were found by the survey, with IAR appearing more affected than PLWH. Nine (13.6%) PLWH and 31 (29.8%) IAR reported disruptions in hospital/clinic visits and two (3.0%) PLWH and 25 (24.0%) IAR reported decreased frequency of HIV testing. Similar observations were also made by four patient advocacy group representatives interviewed. Telehealth services were received by only limited proportions of PLWH and IAR who participated in the survey. Conclusion HIV services in Taiwan were not severely affected by the initial wave of COVID-19, but notable disruptions were still observed in HIV screening and prevention services. Multi-pronged strategies, including telehealth services, are warranted to overcome new challenges in HIV care in the COVID-19 era.

7.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents ; 58:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1440077
9.
J Formos Med Assoc ; 120(12): 2186-2190, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198883

ABSTRACT

We presented the clinical course and immune responses of a well-controlled HIV-positive patient with COVID-19. The clinical presentation and antibody production to SARS-CoV-2 were similar to other COVID-19 patients without HIV infection. Neutralizing antibody reached a plateau from 26th to 47th day onset but decreased on 157th day after symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2
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