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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(23): 757-763, 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955140

ABSTRACT

Some racial and ethnic minority groups have experienced disproportionately higher rates of COVID-19-related illness and mortality (1,2). Vaccination is highly effective in preventing severe COVID-19 illness and death (3), and equitable vaccination can reduce COVID-19-related disparities. CDC analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM), a random-digit-dialed cellular telephone survey of adults aged ≥18 years, to assess disparities in COVID-19 vaccination coverage by race and ethnicity among U.S. adults during December 2020-November 2021. Asian and non-Hispanic White (White) adults had the highest ≥1-dose COVID-19 vaccination coverage by the end of April 2021 (69.6% and 59.0%, respectively); ≥1-dose coverage was lower among Hispanic (47.3%), non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) (46.3%), Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (NH/OPI) (45.9%), multiple or other race (42.6%), and American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) (38.7%) adults. By the end of November 2021, national ≥1-dose COVID-19 vaccination coverage was similar for Black (78.2%), Hispanic (81.3%), NH/OPI (75.7%), and White adults (78.7%); however, coverage remained lower for AI/AN (61.8%) and multiple or other race (68.0%) adults. Booster doses of COVID-19 vaccine are now recommended for all adults (4), but disparities in booster dose coverage among the fully vaccinated have become apparent (5). Tailored efforts including community partnerships and trusted sources of information could be used to increase vaccination coverage among the groups with identified persistent disparities and can help achieve vaccination equity and prevent new disparities by race and ethnicity in booster dose coverage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Ethnicity , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Minority Groups , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Vaccination Coverage
2.
Am J Prev Med ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906704

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Individuals with certain medical conditions are at substantially increased risk for severe illness from COVID-19. The purpose of this study is to assess COVID-19 vaccination among U.S. adults with reported medical conditions. METHODS: Data from the National Immunization Survey-Adult COVID Module collected during August 1-September 25, 2021 were analyzed in 2022 to assess COVID-19 vaccination status, intent, vaccine confidence, behavior, and experience among adults with reported medical conditions. Unadjusted and age-adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs and APRs) were generated using logistic regression and predictive marginals. RESULTS: Overall, COVID-19 vaccination coverage with ≥1 dose was 81.8% among adults with reported medical conditions, and coverage was significantly higher compared with those without such conditions (70.3%) Among adults aged ≥18 years with medical conditions, COVID-19 vaccination coverage was significantly higher among those with a provider recommendation (86.5%) than those without (76.5%). Among all respondents, 9.2% of unvaccinated adults with medical conditions reported they were willing or open to vaccination. Adults who reported high risk medical conditions were more likely to report receiving a provider recommendation, often or always wearing masks during the last 7 days, concerning about getting COVID-19, thinking the vaccine is safe, and believing a COVID-19 vaccine is important for protection from COVID-19 infection than those without such conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 18.0% of those with reported medical conditions were unvaccinated. Receiving a provider recommendation was significantly associated with vaccination, reinforcing that provider recommendation is an important approach to increase vaccination coverage. Ensuring access to vaccine, addressing vaccination barriers, and increasing vaccine confidence can improve vaccination coverage among unvaccinated adults.

3.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901155

ABSTRACT

The National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module used a random-digit-dialed phone survey during April 22, 2021-January 29, 2022 to quantify COVID-19 vaccination, intent, attitudes, and barriers by detailed race/ethnicity, interview language, and nativity. Foreign-born respondents overall and within racial/ethnic categories had higher vaccination coverage (80.9%), higher intent to be vaccinated (4.2%), and lower hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccination (6.0%) than US-born respondents (72.6%, 2.9%, and 15.8%, respectively). Vaccination coverage was significantly lower for certain subcategories of national origin or heritage (e.g., Jamaican (68.6%), Haitian (60.7%), Somali (49.0%) in weighted estimates). Respondents interviewed in Spanish had lower vaccination coverage than interviewees in English but higher intent to be vaccinated and lower reluctance. Collection and analysis of nativity, detailed race/ethnicity and language information allow identification of disparities among racial/ethnic subgroups. Vaccination programs could use such information to implement culturally and linguistically appropriate focused interventions among communities with lower vaccination coverage.

4.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(5): 171-176, 2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1675341

ABSTRACT

Lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations have higher prevalences of health conditions associated with severe COVID-19 illness compared with non-LGBT populations (1). The potential for low vaccine confidence and coverage among LGBT populations is of concern because these persons historically experience challenges accessing, trusting, and receiving health care services (2). Data on COVID-19 vaccination among LGBT persons are limited, in part because of the lack of routine data collection on sexual orientation and gender identity at the national and state levels. During August 29-October 30, 2021, data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM) were analyzed to assess COVID-19 vaccination coverage and confidence in COVID-19 vaccines among LGBT adults aged ≥18 years. By sexual orientation, gay or lesbian adults reported higher vaccination coverage overall (85.4%) than did heterosexual adults (76.3%). By race/ethnicity, adult gay or lesbian non-Hispanic White men (94.1%) and women (88.5%), and Hispanic men (82.5%) reported higher vaccination coverage than that reported by non-Hispanic White heterosexual men (74.2%) and women (78. 6%). Among non-Hispanic Black adults, vaccination coverage was lower among gay or lesbian women (57.9%) and bisexual women (62.1%) than among heterosexual women (75.6%). Vaccination coverage was lowest among non-Hispanic Black LGBT persons across all categories of sexual orientation and gender identity. Among gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults, vaccination coverage was lower among women (80.5% and 74.2%, respectively) than among men (88.9% and 81.7%, respectively). By gender identity, similar percentages of adults who identified as transgender or nonbinary and those who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary were vaccinated. Gay or lesbian adults and bisexual adults were more confident than were heterosexual adults in COVID-19 vaccine safety and protection; transgender or nonbinary adults were more confident in COVID-19 vaccine protection, but not safety, than were adults who did not identify as transgender or nonbinary. To prevent serious illness and death, it is important that all persons in the United States, including those in the LGBT community, stay up to date with recommended COVID-19 vaccinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Gender Identity , Sexual Behavior/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Heterosexuality/psychology , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , United States/epidemiology
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(39): 1365-1371, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444553

ABSTRACT

Estimates from the 2019 American Community Survey (ACS) indicated that 15.2% of adults aged ≥18 years had at least one reported functional disability (1). Persons with disabilities are more likely than are those without disabilities to have chronic health conditions (2) and also face barriers to accessing health care (3). These and other health and social inequities have placed persons with disabilities at increased risk for COVID-19-related illness and death, yet they face unique barriers to receipt of vaccination (4,5). Although CDC encourages that considerations be made when expanding vaccine access to persons with disabilities,* few public health surveillance systems measure disability status. To describe COVID-19 vaccination status and intent, as well as perceived vaccine access among adults by disability status, data from the National Immunization Survey Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM) were analyzed. Adults with a disability were less likely than were those without a disability to report having received ≥1 dose of COVID-19 vaccine (age-adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.93) but more likely to report they would definitely get vaccinated (aPR = 1.86; 95% CI = 1.43-2.42). Among unvaccinated adults, those with a disability were more likely to report higher endorsement of vaccine as protection (aPR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.16-1.44), yet more likely to report it would be or was difficult to get vaccinated than did adults without a disability (aPR = 2.69; 95% CI = 2.16-3.34). Reducing barriers to vaccine scheduling and making vaccination sites more accessible might improve vaccination rates among persons with disabilities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disabled Persons/statistics & numerical data , Healthcare Disparities/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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