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1.
Cell Rep ; 38(7): 110393, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719435

ABSTRACT

B cells are important in immunity to both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and vaccination, but B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire development in these contexts has not been compared. We analyze serial samples from 171 SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals and 63 vaccine recipients and find the global BCR repertoire differs between them. Following infection, immunoglobulin (Ig)G1/3 and IgA1 BCRs increase, somatic hypermutation (SHM) decreases, and, in severe disease, IgM and IgA clones are expanded. In contrast, after vaccination, the proportion of IgD/M BCRs increase, SHM is unchanged, and expansion of IgG clones is prominent. VH1-24, which targets the N-terminal domain (NTD) and contributes to neutralization, is expanded post infection except in the most severe disease. Infection generates a broad distribution of SARS-CoV-2-specific clones predicted to target the spike protein, while a more focused response after vaccination mainly targets the spike's receptor-binding domain. Thus, the nature of SARS-CoV-2 exposure differentially affects BCR repertoire development, potentially informing vaccine strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/immunology , Vaccination , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Clonal Evolution , Humans , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/genetics , Immunoglobulin Heavy Chains/immunology , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/genetics , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/genetics , Immunoglobulin Variable Region/immunology , Kinetics , Receptors, Antigen, B-Cell/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Somatic Hypermutation, Immunoglobulin/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
2.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314462

ABSTRACT

B cells play a central role in the immune response to both SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination, but the development of the B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire in both contexts has not been defined nor compared. We analysed serial samples from 171 SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals with a range of disease severities together with 63 vaccine recipients, and found marked differences in the global BCR repertoire after natural infection compared to vaccination. Following infection, the proportion of BCRs bearing IgG1/3 and IgA1 isotypes increased, somatic hypermutation (SHM) was markedly decreased and, in patients with severe disease, expansion of IgM and IgA clones was observed. In contrast, after vaccination the proportion of BCRs bearing IgD/M isotypes increased, SHM was unchanged and expansion of IgG clones was prominent. Infection generated a broad distribution of SARS-CoV-2-specific clones predicted to target the spike protein whilst vaccination produced a more focused response mainly targeting the spike’s receptor-binding domain. These findings offer insights into how different immune exposure to SARS-CoV-2 impacts upon BCR repertoire development, potentially informing vaccine strategies.Funding: We are grateful to CVC Capital Partners, the Evelyn Trust (20/75), Addenbrooke's Charitable Trust, Cambridge University Hospitals (12/20A), the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, and the UKRI/NIHR through the UK Coronavirus Immunology Consortium (UK-CIC) for their financial support. Further support: K.G.C.S.: Wellcome Investigator Award (200871/Z/16/Z);C.H.: Wellcome COVID-19 Rapid Response DCF and the Fondation Botnar;N.M.: MRC (CSF MR/P008801/1), NHSBT (WPA15-02), and Addenbrooke's Charitable Trust, (grant ref. to 900239 NJM);I.G.G.: Wellcome Senior Fellowship and Wellcome grant (Ref: 207498/Z/17/Z);N.M. was funded by the MRC (CSF MR/P008801/1), NHSBT (WPA15-02) and Addenbrooke’s Charitable Trust (grant ref. to 900239 NJM);RKG is supported by a Wellcome Trust Senior Fellowship in Clinical Science (WT108082AIA). Z.K.T. and M.R.C. are supported by a Medical Research Council Human Cell Atlas Research Grant (MR/S035842/1). M.R.C is supported by an NIHR Research Professorship (RP-2017-08-ST2- 002). P.K. is the recipient of a Jacquot Research Entry Scholarship of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians Foundation. W.M.R. is funded by the Wellcome Trust (216382/Z/19/Z). We would like to thank the NIHR Cambridge Clinical Research Facility outreach team for enrolment of patients;the NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre Cell Phenotyping Hub and the CRUK Cambridge Institute flow cytometry core facility for flow and mass cytometry;and the Cambridge NIHR BRC Stratified Medicine Core Laboratory NGS Hub (supported by an MRC Clinical Infrastructure Award) for BCR sequencing. Declaration of Interests: The authors declare they have no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: Ethical approval was obtained from the East of England – Cambridge Central Research Ethics Committee (“NIHR BioResource” REC ref 17/EE/0025, and “Genetic variation AND Altered Leucocyte Function in health and disease - GANDALF” REC ref 08/H0308/176). All participants provided informed consent.

3.
Cell reports ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1661209

ABSTRACT

Kotagiri et al. find that SARS-CoV-2 infection versus vaccination induces distinct changes in the B cell receptor repertoire, including prominent clonal expansion in IgA and IgM after infection, but IgG after vaccination. A broad anti-spike response to infection contrasts with a narrower RBD-focused one after vaccination, potentially informing vaccination strategies.

4.
Immunity ; 54(6): 1257-1275.e8, 2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230571

ABSTRACT

The kinetics of the immune changes in COVID-19 across severity groups have not been rigorously assessed. Using immunophenotyping, RNA sequencing, and serum cytokine analysis, we analyzed serial samples from 207 SARS-CoV2-infected individuals with a range of disease severities over 12 weeks from symptom onset. An early robust bystander CD8+ T cell immune response, without systemic inflammation, characterized asymptomatic or mild disease. Hospitalized individuals had delayed bystander responses and systemic inflammation that was already evident near symptom onset, indicating that immunopathology may be inevitable in some individuals. Viral load did not correlate with this early pathological response but did correlate with subsequent disease severity. Immune recovery is complex, with profound persistent cellular abnormalities in severe disease correlating with altered inflammatory responses, with signatures associated with increased oxidative phosphorylation replacing those driven by cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-6. These late immunometabolic and immune defects may have clinical implications.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Biomarkers , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/genetics , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Susceptibility , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Longitudinal Studies , Lymphocyte Activation/genetics , Oxidative Phosphorylation , Phenotype , Prognosis , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Severity of Illness Index , Transcriptome
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