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1.
Mult Scler ; 28(7): 1060-1071, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861981

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with MS (pwMS) have had higher rates of anxiety and depression than the general population before the COVID-19 pandemic, placing them at higher risk of experiencing poor psychological wellbeing during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To assess mental health and its social/lifestyle determinants in pwMS during the first wave of the outbreak in the United Kingdom. METHODS: This is a community-based, prospective longitudinal cohort and cross-sectional case-control online questionnaire study. It includes 2010 pwMS from the UK MS Register and 380 people without MS. RESULTS: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores of pwMS for anxiety and depression during the outbreak did not change from the previous year. PwMS were more likely to have anxiety (using General Anxiety Disorder-7) and/or depression (using Patient Health Questionnaire-9) than controls during the outbreak (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.58-2.91). PwMS felt lonelier (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.04-1.80) reported worse social support (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.18-3.07) and reported worsened exercise habits (OR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.18-2.32) during the outbreak than controls. CONCLUSION: Early in the pandemic, pwMS remained at higher risk of experiencing anxiety and depression than the general population. It is important that multidisciplinary teams improve their support for the wellbeing of pwMS, who are vulnerable to the negative effects of the pandemic on their lifestyle and social support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329938

ABSTRACT

Background: Functional motor disorder (FMD) is a common cause of disabling neurological symptoms such as weakness and tremor. We are carrying out a pragmatic, multicentre single blind randomised controlled trial to evaluate effectiveness and cost effectiveness of specialist physiotherapy versus treatment as usual to improve physical functioning at 12 months. Like many other studies, this trial was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, which interrupted the trial towards the end of planned recruitment. In this paper, we discuss (i) the impact of COVID-19 on the trial;(ii) the impact mitigation strategies implemented;and (iii) the planned statistical and health economic analysis methods and sensitivity analyses aimed at assessing the disrupting influence of COVID-19 on the trial. Methods The planned statistical and health economics analyses for this trial are described, as well as the sensitivity analyses designed to assess the disruption caused by COVID-19. The trial treatment of at least 89 participants (33%) was disrupted due to the pandemic response. To account for this, we have extended the trial to increase the sample size. We have identified four groups based on how participants’ involvement in Physio4FMD was affected;A: 24 were unaffected;B: 131 received their trial-treatment before the start of the COVID-19 pandemic and were followed up during the pandemic;C: 89 were recruited in early 2020 and had not received any randomised treatment before clinical services closed because of COVID-19;D: participants recruited after the trial was restarted in July 2021 (target 90 to 120). The primary analysis will involve groups A, B and D. Regression analysis will be used to assess treatment effectiveness. We will conduct descriptive statistics for each of the groups identified and sensitivity regression analyses with participants from all groups, including group C, separately. Discussion The COVID-19 mitigation strategy and analysis plans are designed to maintain the integrity of the trial while providing meaningful results. By publishing our analysis plans ahead of database lock, analysis and unblinding, we aim to avoid bias due to data-driven analysis. Trial registration : The trial was registered with the ISRCTN register on 27/03/2018, number ISRCTN56136713.

3.
Trials ; 22(1): 865, 2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most people living with dementia want to remain living in their own homes and are supported to do so by family carers. No interventions have consistently demonstrated improvements to people with dementia's life quality, functioning, or other indices of living as well as possible with dementia. We have co-produced, with health and social care professionals and family carers of people with dementia, a new intervention (NIDUS-family). To our knowledge, NIDUS-family is the first manualised intervention that can be tailored to personal goals of people living with dementia and their families and is delivered by facilitators without clinical training. The intervention utilizes components of behavioural management, carer support, psychoeducation, communication and coping skills training, enablement, and environmental adaptations, with modules selected to address dyads' selected goals. We will evaluate the effect of NIDUS-family and usual care on goal attainment, as measured by Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) rated by family carers, compared to usual care alone at 12-month follow-up. We will also determine whether NIDUS-family and usual care is more cost-effective than usual care alone over 12 months. METHODS: A randomised, two-arm, single-masked, multi-site clinical trial involving 297 people living with dementia-family carer dyads. Dyads will be randomised 2:1 to receive the NIDUS-family intervention with usual care (n = 199) or usual care alone (n = 98). The intervention group will be offered, over 1 year, via 6-8 video call or telephone sessions (or face to face if COVID-19 restrictions allow in the recruitment period) in the initial 6 months, followed by telephone follow-ups every 1-2 months to support implementation, with a trained facilitator. DISCUSSION: Increasing the time lived at home by people living with dementia is likely to benefit lives now and in the future. Our intervention, which we adapted to include remote delivery prior to trial commencement due to the COVID-19 pandemic, aims to address barriers to living as well and as independently as possible that distress people living with dementia, exacerbate family carer(s) stress, negatively affect relationships, lead to safety risks, and frequently precipitate avoidable moves to a care home. TRIAL REGISTRATION: International Standard Randomised Controlled Trials Number ISRCTN11425138 . Registered on 7 October 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Caregivers , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Psychosocial Intervention , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Appetite ; 166: 105451, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281386

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic and associated 'lockdown' confinement restrictions have resulted in multiple challenges for those living with eating disorders. This qualitative study aimed to examine the lived, psychosocial experiences of individuals with anorexia nervosa from within COVID-19 'lockdown' confinement. METHODS: Audio-recorded semi -structured interviews were conducted online during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic during confinement with a purposive sample of 12 participants who identified as having Anorexia Nervosa. Interviews were transcribed and anonymous data analysed using Thematic Analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006). RESULTS: Three key themes with six contributory subthemes were identified. Key themes were: loss of control,supportduring confinement, and time of reflection on recovery. Theme content varied according to stage of recovery and current clinical management. Availability of 'safe' foods, increases in compensatory exercise and symptomology, and enhanced opportunities for "secrecy" were described. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a unique insight for a vulnerable group from within COVID-19 confinement. The data demonstrated that the impact for individuals with anorexia nervosa has been broadly negative, and participants voiced concerns over the long-term effects of the pandemic on their recovery. The findings highlight the risks of tele-health support and an important role for health professionals in enhancing targeted support during, and after confinement.


Subject(s)
Anorexia Nervosa , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e048788, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276964

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To capture the complexities and unique experience of a newly formed multidisciplinary and multicentre research team developing and deploying a COVID-19 study and to identify lessons learnt. DESIGN: Co-autoethnographic study. SETTING: Staff at two UK academic institutions, a national charity and two major UK hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Researchers, clinicians, academics, statisticians and analysts, patient and public involvement representatives and national charity. METHODS: The sampling frame was any content discussed or shared between research team members (emails, meeting minutes, etc), standard observational dimensions and reflective interviews with team members. Data were thematically analysed. RESULTS: Data from 34 meetings and >50 emails between 17 March and 5 August 2020 were analysed. The analysis yielded seven themes with 'Managing our stress' as an overarching theme. CONCLUSIONS: Mutual respect, flexibility and genuine belief that team members are doing the best they can under the circumstances are essential for completing a time-consuming study, requiring a rapid response during a pandemic. Acknowledging and managing stress and a shared purpose can moderate many barriers, such as the lack of face-to-face interactions, leading to effective team working.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Humans , Interdisciplinary Studies , Research Personnel , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Mult Scler ; 28(7): 1060-1071, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1255866

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People with MS (pwMS) have had higher rates of anxiety and depression than the general population before the COVID-19 pandemic, placing them at higher risk of experiencing poor psychological wellbeing during the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: To assess mental health and its social/lifestyle determinants in pwMS during the first wave of the outbreak in the United Kingdom. METHODS: This is a community-based, prospective longitudinal cohort and cross-sectional case-control online questionnaire study. It includes 2010 pwMS from the UK MS Register and 380 people without MS. RESULTS: The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale scores of pwMS for anxiety and depression during the outbreak did not change from the previous year. PwMS were more likely to have anxiety (using General Anxiety Disorder-7) and/or depression (using Patient Health Questionnaire-9) than controls during the outbreak (OR: 2.14, 95% CI: 1.58-2.91). PwMS felt lonelier (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.04-1.80) reported worse social support (OR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.18-3.07) and reported worsened exercise habits (OR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.18-2.32) during the outbreak than controls. CONCLUSION: Early in the pandemic, pwMS remained at higher risk of experiencing anxiety and depression than the general population. It is important that multidisciplinary teams improve their support for the wellbeing of pwMS, who are vulnerable to the negative effects of the pandemic on their lifestyle and social support.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Mental Health , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 52: 102939, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233549

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infections can trigger exacerbations of multiple sclerosis (MS). The effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on MS are not known. The aim of this study was to understand the impact of COVID-19 on new and pre-existing symptoms of MS. METHODS: The COVID-19 and MS study is an ongoing community-based, prospective cohort study conducted as part of the United Kingdom MS Register. People with MS and COVID-19 were invited by email to complete a questionnaire about their MS symptoms during the infection. An MS exacerbation was defined as developing new MS symptoms and/or worsening of pre-existing MS symptoms. RESULTS: Fifty-seven percent (230/404) of participants had an MS exacerbation during their infection; 82 developed new MS symptoms, 207 experienced worsened pre-existing MS symptoms, and 59 reported both. Disease modifying therapies (DMTs) reduced the likelihood of developing new MS symptoms during the infection (OR 0.556, 95%CI 0.316-0.978). Participants with a higher pre-COVID-19 webEDSS (web-based Expanded Disability Status Scale) score (OR 1.251, 95%CI 1.060-1.478) and longer MS duration (OR 1.042, 95%CI 1.009-1.076) were more likely to experience worsening of their pre-existing MS symptoms during the infection. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection was associated with exacerbation of MS. DMTs reduced the chance of developing new MS symptoms during the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
8.
J Epidemiol Community Health ; 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has created a period of global economic uncertainty. Financial strain, personal debt, recent job loss and housing insecurity are important risk factors for the mental health of working-age adults. Community interventions have the potential to attenuate the mental health impact of these stressors. We examined the effectiveness of community interventions for protecting and promoting the mental health of working-age adults in high-income countries during periods of financial insecurity. METHODS: Eight electronic databases were systematically screened for experimental and observational studies published since 2000 measuring the effectiveness of community interventions on mental health outcomes. We included any non-clinical intervention that aimed to address the financial, employment, food or housing insecurity of participants. A review protocol was registered on the PROSPERO database (CRD42019156364) and results are reported in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. RESULTS: From 2326 studies screened, 15 met our inclusion criteria. Five categories of community intervention were identified: advice services colocated in healthcare settings; link worker social prescribing; telephone debt advice; food insecurity interventions; and active labour market programmes. In general, the evidence for effective and cost-effective community interventions delivered to individuals experiencing financial insecurity was lacking. From the small number of studies without a high risk of bias, there was some evidence that financial insecurity and associated mental health problems were amenable to change and differences by subpopulations were observed. CONCLUSION: There is a need for well-controlled studies and trials to better understand effective ingredients and to identify those interventions warranting wider implementation.

9.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e043949, 2020 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983653

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into the experiences and concerns of front-line National Health Service (NHS) workers while caring for patients with COVID-19. DESIGN: Qualitative analysis of data collected through an anonymous website (www.covidconfidential) provided a repository of uncensored COVID-19 experiences of front-line NHS workers, accessed via a link advertised on the Twitter feed of two high profile medical tweeters and their retweets. SETTING: Community of NHS workers who accessed this social media. PARTICIPANTS: 54 healthcare workers, including doctors, nurses and physiotherapists, accessed the website and left a 'story'. RESULTS: Stories ranged from 1 word to 10 min in length. Thematic analysis identified common themes, with a central aspect being the experience and psychological consequence of trauma. Specific themes were: (1) the shock of the virus, (2) staff sacrifice and dedication, (3) collateral damage ranging from personal health concerns to the long-term impact on, and care of, discharged patients and (4) a hierarchy of power and inequality within the healthcare system. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 confidential gave an outlet for unprompted and uncensored stories of healthcare workers in the context of COVID-19. In addition to personal experiences of trauma, there were perceptions that many operational difficulties stemmed from inequalities of power between management and front-line workers. Learning from these experiences will reduce staff distress and improve patient care in the face of further waves of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Occupational Stress/psychology , Psychological Trauma/psychology , Adult , Female , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Hospital Administration , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Nurses/psychology , Physical Therapists/psychology , Physicians/psychology , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Media , State Medicine/organization & administration , United Kingdom , Young Adult
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