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1.
Ageing Res Rev ; 82: 101758, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36243355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative syndrome that has no cure. Although a significant proportion of people with dementia progress into the severe stages of the disease, evidence on the clinical effectiveness of treatments for people with severe dementia remains limited. AIMS: To systematically review the effectiveness of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments for people living with severe dementia and assess the quality of the evidence. METHOD: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and online clinical trial registers up to January 2022, for Randomised Controlled Trials (RCT) in people living with severe dementia. Quality and risk of bias were assessed independently by two authors. RESULTS: A total of 30 trials met our inclusion criteria of which 14 evaluated the effectiveness of pharmacological treatments, and 16 evaluated a non-pharmacological intervention. Pharmacological treatments: Meta-analyses indicated that pharmacological treatments (donepezil: 10 mg, 5 mg; galantamine: 24 mg; memantine: 10 mg) are associated with better outcomes compared to placebo for: severity of symptoms (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.37, 95% CI 0.26-0.48; 4 studies; moderate-certainty evidence), activities of daily living (SMD 0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.26; 5 studies; moderate-certainty evidence), and clinical impression of change (Relative Risk (RR) 1.34, 95% CI 1.14-1.57; 4 studies; low-certainty evidence). Pharmacological treatments were also more likely to reduce mortality compared to placebo (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40-0.89; 6 studies; low-certainty evidence). Non-pharmacological treatments: Five trials were included in the meta-analyses of non-pharmacological interventions (multi-sensory stimulation, needs assessment, and activities-based interventions); results showed that non-pharmacological interventions may reduce neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia compared to usual care (SMD -0.33, 95% CI -0.59 to -0.06; low certainty evidence). CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate-certainty evidence that pharmacological treatments may decrease disease severity and improve function for people with severe dementia. Non-pharmacological treatments are probably effective in reducing neuropsychiatric symptoms but the quality of evidence remains low. There is an urgent need for high-quality evidence for other outcomes and for developing service-user informed interventions for this under-served group.


Subject(s)
Dementia , Humans , Dementia/therapy , Activities of Daily Living , Memantine , Treatment Outcome
2.
Brain Sci ; 12(9)2022 Aug 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36138872

ABSTRACT

Deficits in social cognition and function are characteristic of dementia, commonly accompanied by a loss of awareness of the presence or extent of these deficits. This lack of awareness can impair social relationships, increase patients' and carers' burden, and contribute to increased rates of institutionalization. Despite clinical importance, neural correlates of this complex phenomenon remain unclear. We conducted a systematic search of five electronic databases to identify functional and structural neuroimaging studies investigating the neural correlates of impaired awareness of social cognition and function in any dementia type. We rated study quality and conducted a narrative synthesis of the results of the eight studies that met the predefined eligibility criteria. Across these studies, deficits in awareness of impairments in social cognition and function were associated with structural or functional abnormalities in the frontal pole, orbitofrontal cortex, temporal pole, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, and insula. Several identified regions overlap with established neural correlates of social cognition. More research is needed to understand awareness of social cognition and function and how this becomes impaired in dementia to improve neuroscientific understanding, aid the identification of this problematic symptom, and target interventions to reduce burden and improve care.

4.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 87(3): 969-979, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35491789

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases the risk of future dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is unclear whether this is true for mild TBI (mTBI). OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between mTBI and subsequent risk of developing AD. METHOD: We systematically searched four electronic databases from January 1954 to April 2020. We included studies reporting primary data and where mTBI preceded AD by≥5 years. We meta-analyzed included studies for both high quality studies and studies with a follow up of > 10 years. RESULT: We included 5 of the 10,435 results found. Meta-analysis found a history of mTBI increased risk of AD (pooled relative risk = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11-1.25, N = 3,149,740). The sensitivity analysis including only studies in which mTBI preceded AD by > 10 years, excluded two very large studies and resulted in wider confidence intervals (RR = 2.02, 95% CI 0.66-6.21, N = 2307). CONCLUSION: There is an increased risk of AD following mTBI. Our findings of increased risk even with mTBI means it cannot be assumed that mild head injuries from sports are harmless. The sensitivity analysis suggests that we cannot exclude reverse causation, and longer follow up times are needed. Implementation of policy to reduce mTBIs, including in children and sportsmen, are urgently needed. Further research is needed on the effect of frequency and age at injury of mTBIs.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Brain Concussion , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Alzheimer Disease/epidemiology , Alzheimer Disease/etiology , Brain Concussion/complications , Brain Concussion/epidemiology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Humans , Risk
5.
Brain Commun ; 4(2): fcac041, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35243345

ABSTRACT

Functional cognitive disorder is common but underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Metacognition, an individual's ability to reflect on and monitor cognitive processes, is likely to be relevant. Local metacognition refers to an ability to estimate confidence in cognitive performance on a moment-to-moment basis, whereas global metacognition refers to long-run self-evaluations of overall performance. Using a novel protocol comprising task-based measures and hierarchical Bayesian modelling, we compared local and global metacognitive performance in individuals with functional cognitive disorder. Eighteen participants with functional cognitive disorder (mean age = 49.2 years, 10 males) were recruited to this cross-sectional study. Participants completed computerized tasks that enabled local metacognitive efficiency for perception and memory to be measured using the hierarchical meta-d' model within a signal detection theory framework. Participants also completed the Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire measuring global metacognition, and questionnaires measuring anxiety and depression. Estimates of local metacognitive efficiency were compared with those estimated from two control groups who had undergone comparable metacognitive tasks. Global metacognition scores were compared with the existing normative data. A hierarchical regression model was used to evaluate associations between global metacognition, depression and anxiety and local metacognitive efficiency, whilst simple linear regressions were used to evaluate whether affective symptomatology and local metacognitive confidence were associated with global metacognition. Participants with functional cognitive disorder had intact local metacognition for perception and memory when compared with controls, with the 95% highest density intervals for metacognitive efficiency overlapping with the two control groups in both cognitive domains. Functional cognitive disorder participants had significantly lower global metacognition scores compared with normative data; Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire-Ability subscale (t = 6.54, P < 0.0001) and Multifactorial Memory Questionnaire-Satisfaction subscale (t = 5.04, P < 0.0001). Mood scores, global metacognitive measures and metacognitive bias were not significantly associated with local metacognitive efficiency. Local metacognitive bias [ß = -0.20 (SE = 0.09), q = 0.01] and higher depression scores as measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [ß = -1.40 (SE = 2.56), q = 0.01] were associated with the lower global metacognition scores. We show that local metacognition is intact, whilst global metacognition is impaired, in functional cognitive disorder, suggesting a decoupling between the two metacognitive processes. In a Bayesian model, an aberrant prior (impaired global metacognition), may override bottom-up sensory input (intact local metacognition), giving rise to the subjective experience of abnormal cognitive processing. Future work should further investigate the interplay between local and global metacognition in functional cognitive disorder.

6.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 36(10): 1471-1487, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490652

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Physical exercise may benefit people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of exercise have shown conflicting findings and it is unclear if positive outcomes are comparable to a commonly used cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil. METHODS: Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, SCOPUS were searched for RCTs of physical activity compared to a control condition, and donepezil compared to placebo in people with AD and MCI. Effect sizes were calculated from pre- and post-MMSE and ADAS-Cog scores and pooled using a random effects meta-analysis. RESULTS: Ninteen RCTs were included in the exercise meta-analysis (AD, N = 524; MCI, N = 1269). Physical exercise improved MMSE scores in AD (Hedges' g = 0.46) and MCI groups (g = 0.63). For the MCI group, exercise appeared to have a stronger effect for those with lower MMSE scores at baseline (p = 0.022). 18 RCTs were included in the donepezil meta-analysis (AD, N = 2984, MCI, N = 1559). In people with AD, donepezil improved cognition (MMSE g = 0.23; ADAS-Cog, g = -0.17) but there was no evidence of improved cognition in MCI. CONCLUSIONS: Physical exercise improved cognition in both AD and MCI groups. Where comparisons were possible, the effect size for physical exercise was generally comparable to donepezil. These results strengthen the evidence base for exercise as an effective intervention in AD and MCI, and future clinical trials should examine exercise type, intensity and frequency, in addition to cholinesterase inhibitors to determine the most effective interventions for AD and MCI.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Cognitive Dysfunction , Alzheimer Disease/drug therapy , Cholinesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cognitive Dysfunction/drug therapy , Donepezil/therapeutic use , Exercise , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257557, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543334

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Empathy is fundamental to social cognition, driving prosocial behaviour and mental health but associations with aging and other socio-demographic characteristics are unclear. We therefore aimed to characterise associations of these characteristics with two main self-reported components of empathy, namely empathic-concern (feeling compassion) and perspective-taking (understanding others' perspective). METHODS: We asked participants in an internet-based survey of UK-dwelling adults aged ≥18 years to complete the Interpersonal Reactivity Index subscales measuring empathic concern and perspective taking, and sociodemographic and personality questionnaires. We weighted the sample to be UK population representative and employed multivariable weighted linear regression models. RESULTS: In 30,033 respondents, mean empathic concern score was 3.86 (95% confidence interval 3.85, 3.88) and perspective taking was 3.57 (3.56. 3.59); the correlation between these sub-scores was 0.45 (p < 0.001). Empathic concern and perspective taking followed an inverse-u shape trajectory in women with peak between 40 and 50 years whereas in men, perspective taking declines with age but empathic concern increases. In fully adjusted models, greater empathic concern was associated with female gender, non-white ethnicity, having more education, working in health, social-care, or childcare professions, and having higher neuroticism, extroversion, openness to experience and agreeableness traits. Perspective taking was associated with younger age, female gender, more education, employment in health or social-care, neuroticism, openness, and agreeableness. CONCLUSIONS: Empathic compassion and understanding are distinct dimensions of empathy with differential demographic associations. Perspective taking may decline due to cognitive inflexibility with older age whereas empathic concern increases in older men suggesting it is socially-driven.


Subject(s)
Empathy , Socioeconomic Factors , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Democracy , Educational Status , Female , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Personality , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom
8.
Alzheimers Dement (N Y) ; 7(1): e12203, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877398

ABSTRACT

People with Alzheimer's disease (AD) demonstrate a range of alterations in consciousness. Changes in awareness of cognitive deficit, self-awareness, and introspection are seen early in AD, and dysfunction of awareness and arousal progresses with increasing disease severity. However, heterogeneity of deficits between individuals and a lack of empirical studies in people with severe dementia highlight the importance of identifying and applying biomarkers of awareness in AD. Impairments of awareness in AD are associated with neuropathology in regions that overlap with proposed neural correlates of consciousness. Recent developments in consciousness science provide theoretical frameworks and experimental approaches to help further understand the conscious experience of people with AD. Recognition of AD as a disorder of consciousness is overdue, and important to both understand the lived experience of people with AD and to improve care.

9.
Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep ; 21(12): 69, 2021 11 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817738

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Self-awareness, the capacity of becoming the object of one's own awareness, has been a frontier of knowledge, but only recently scientific approaches to the theme have advanced. Self-awareness has important clinical implications, and a finer understanding of this concept may improve the clinical management of people with dementia. The current article aims to explore self-awareness, from a neurobiological perspective, in dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: A taxonomy of self-awareness processes is presented, discussing how these can be structured across different levels of cognitive complexity. Findings on self-awareness in dementia are reviewed, indicating the relative preservation of capacities such as body ownership and agency, despite impairments in higher-level cognitive processes, such as autobiographical memory and emotional regulation. An integrative framework, based on predictive coding and compensatory abilities linked to the resilience of self-awareness in dementia, is discussed, highlighting possible avenues for future research into the topic.


Subject(s)
Awareness , Dementia , Humans
11.
BJPsych Open ; 7(4): e134, 2021 Jul 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34266510

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A number of community based surveys have identified an increase in psychological symptoms and distress but there has been no examination of symptoms at the more severe end of the mental health spectrum. AIMS: We aimed to analyse numbers and types of psychiatric presentations to inform planning for future demand on mental health services in light of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHOD: We analysed electronic data between January and April 2020 for 2534 patients referred to acute psychiatric services, and tested for differences in patient demographics, symptom severity and use of the Mental Health Act 1983 (MHA), before and after lockdown. We used interrupted time-series analyses to compare trends in emergency department and psychiatric presentations until December 2020. RESULTS: There were 22% fewer psychiatric presentations the first week and 48% fewer emergency department presentations in the first month after lockdown initiated. A higher proportion of patients were detained under the MHA (22.2 v. 16.1%) and Mental Capacity Act 2005 (2.2 v. 1.1%) (χ2(2) = 16.3, P < 0.0001), and they experienced a longer duration of symptoms before seeking help from mental health services (χ2(3) = 18.6, P < 0.0001). A higher proportion of patients presented with psychotic symptoms (23.3 v. 17.0%) or delirium (7.0 v. 3.6%), and fewer had self-harm behaviour (43.8 v. 52.0%, χ2(7) = 28.7, P < 0.0001). A higher proportion were admitted to psychiatric in-patient units (22.2 v. 18.3%) (χ2(6) = 42.8, P < 0.0001) after lockdown. CONCLUSIONS: UK lockdown resulted in fewer psychiatric presentations, but those who presented were more likely to have severe symptoms, be detained under the MHA and be admitted to hospital. Psychiatric services should ensure provision of care for these patients as well as planning for those affected by future COVID-19 waves.

12.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 36(11): 1748-1758, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216045

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant impact on older adults mental health care. Our study aimed to explore staff perspectives on key challenges and innovations in order to help inform the delivery of older adults mental health care in subsequent waves of the pandemic. METHODS: A mixed methods online questionnaire developed by National Institute for Health Research Mental Health Policy Research Unit was used to gather staff perspectives on their challenges at work, problems faced by service users and their carers, and sources of help and support. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative analysis and descriptive content analysis for qualitative analysis. RESULTS: 158 participants, working in either community or inpatient settings, and from a range of professional disciplines, were included. For inpatient staff, a significant challenge was infection control. In the community, staff identified a lack of access to physical and social care as well as reduced contact with friends and families as being challenges for patients. Remote working was seen as a positive innovation along with COVID-19 related guidance from various sources and peer support. CONCLUSION: Our study, with a focus on staff and patient well-being, helps to inform service development for future waves of the pandemic. We discuss measures to improve infection control in inpatient settings, the role of voluntary organisations in supporting socially isolated community patients, the need for better integration of physical and mental health services at an organisational level, and the importance of training staff to support patients and their families with end of life planning.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mental Health Services , Aged , Caregivers , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Dementia (London) ; 20(8): 2779-2801, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33913362

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The Covid-19 pandemic reduced access to social activities and routine health care that are central to dementia prevention. We developed a group-based, video-call, cognitive well-being intervention; and investigated its acceptability and feasibility; exploring through participants' accounts how the intervention was experienced and used in the pandemic context. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOD: We recruited adults aged 60+ years with memory concerns (without dementia). Participants completed baseline assessments and qualitative interviews/focus groups before and after the 10-week intervention. Qualitative interview data and facilitator notes were integrated in a thematic analysis. RESULTS: 12/17 participants approached completed baseline assessments, attended 100/120 (83.3%) intervention sessions and met 140/170 (82.4%) of goals set. Most had not used video calling before. In the thematic analysis, our overarching theme was social connectedness. Three sub-themes were as follows: Retaining independence and social connectedness: social connectedness could not be at the expense of independence; Adapting social connectedness in the pandemic: participants strived to compensate for previous social connectedness as the pandemic reduced support networks; Managing social connections within and through the intervention: although there were tensions, for example, between sharing of achievements feeling supportive and competitive, participants engaged with various lifestyle changes; social connections supported group attendance and implementation of lifestyle changes. DISCUSSION AND IMPLICATIONS: Our intervention was acceptable and feasible to deliver by group video-call. We argue that dementia prevention is both an individual and societal concern. For more vulnerable populations, messages that lifestyle change can help memory should be communicated alongside supportive, relational approaches to enabling lifestyle changes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , Adult , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 633081, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33613344

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Impaired awareness of cognitive and functional deficits is a common feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although a lack of awareness has been suggested to be a protective factor against experiencing affective symptoms, such as depression, anxiety, and apathy which are common in AD, there is conflicting evidence about the links between them. This systematic review examines the evidence for an association between impaired awareness and depressive, anxiety, and apathy symptoms in mild to moderate AD. Method: We searched four databases (OvidMedline, Embase, PsycInfo, and PsycArticles) using terms encompassing awareness, apathy, depression, anxiety, and mild-moderate AD. We included studies that assessed the relationship between awareness and depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, or apathy. We assessed included papers for quality and report results using a narrative approach, prioritizing high quality studies. Results: We identified 1,544 articles, and twenty-seven studies fulfilled inclusion criteria (high-quality = 15; moderate-quality = 12). Most high-quality studies reported that impaired awareness in early-stage AD is cross-sectionally linked with fewer depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms (correlation ranged from -0.3 to -0.7), but with more apathy. Conclusions: High-quality studies suggested that in people with early AD, impaired awareness is related to fewer depressive and anxiety symptoms and to more apathy. Future research should focus on elucidating causality among impaired awareness and these symptoms in AD.

15.
Psychol Med ; : 1-10, 2021 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436126

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic led to measures that reduced social contact and support. We explored whether UK residents with more frequent or supportive social contact had fewer depressive symptoms during March-August 2020, and potential factors moderating the relationship. METHODS: A convenience sample of UK dwelling participants aged ⩾18 in the internet-based longitudinal COVID-19 Social Study completed up to 22 weekly questionnaires about face-to-face and phone/video social contact frequency, perceived social support, and depressive symptoms using the PHQ-9. Mixed linear models examined associations between social contact and support, and depressive symptoms. We examined for interaction by empathic concern, perspective taking and pre-COVID social contact frequency. RESULTS: In 71 117 people with mean age 49 years (standard deviation 15), those with high perceived social support scored 1.836 (1.801-1.871) points lower on PHQ-9 than those with low support. Daily face-to-face or phone/video contact was associated with lower depressive symptoms (0.258 (95% confidence interval 0.225-0.290) and 0.117 (0.080-0.154), respectively) compared to no contact. The negative association between social relationships and depressive symptoms was stronger for those with high empathic concern, perspective taking and usual sociability. CONCLUSIONS: We found during lockdown that those with higher quality or more face-to-face or phone/video contact had fewer depressive symptoms. Contact quality was more strongly associated than quantity. People who were usually more sociable or had higher empathy had more depressive symptoms during enforced reduced contact. The results have implications for COVID-19 and potential future pandemic management, and for understanding the relationship between social factors and mental health.

16.
J Opt Soc Am A Opt Image Sci Vis ; 37(11): 1814-1825, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175758

ABSTRACT

Range (i.e., absolute distance), displacement, and velocity of a moving target have been measured with a frequency scanning interferometer that incorporates a 100,000scans-1 vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with 100 nm tuning range. An adaptive delay line in the reference beam, consisting of a chain of switchable exponentially growing optical delays, reduced modulation frequencies to sub-gigahertz levels. Range, displacement, and velocity were determined from the phase of the interference signal; fine alignment and linearization of the scans were achieved from the interferogram of an independent reference interferometer. Sub-nanometer displacement resolution, sub-100-nm range resolution, and velocity resolution of 12µms-1 have been demonstrated over a depth measurement range of 300 mm.

17.
Brain ; 143(10): 2895-2903, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791521

ABSTRACT

An increasing proportion of cognitive difficulties are recognized to have a functional cause, the chief clinical indicator of which is internal inconsistency. When these symptoms are impairing or distressing, and not better explained by other disorders, this can be conceptualized as a cognitive variant of functional neurological disorder, termed functional cognitive disorder (FCD). FCD is likely very common in clinical practice but may be under-diagnosed. Clinicians in many settings make liberal use of the descriptive term mild cognitive impairment (MCI) for those with cognitive difficulties not impairing enough to qualify as dementia. However, MCI is an aetiology-neutral description, which therefore includes patients with a wide range of underlying causes. Consequently, a proportion of MCI cases are due to non-neurodegenerative processes, including FCD. Indeed, significant numbers of patients diagnosed with MCI do not 'convert' to dementia. The lack of diagnostic specificity for MCI 'non-progressors' is a weakness inherent in framing MCI primarily within a deterministic neurodegenerative pathway. It is recognized that depression, anxiety and behavioural changes can represent a prodrome to neurodegeneration; empirical data are required to explore whether the same might hold for subsets of individuals with FCD. Clinicians and researchers can improve study efficacy and patient outcomes by viewing MCI as a descriptive term with a wide differential diagnosis, including potentially reversible components such as FCD. We present a preliminary definition of functional neurological disorder-cognitive subtype, explain its position in relation to other cognitive diagnoses and emerging biomarkers, highlight clinical features that can lead to positive diagnosis (as opposed to a diagnosis of exclusion), and red flags that should prompt consideration of alternative diagnoses. In the research setting, positive identifiers of FCD will enhance our recognition of individuals who are not in a neurodegenerative prodrome, while greater use of this diagnosis in clinical practice will facilitate personalized interventions.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/epidemiology , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Cognition Disorders/diagnosis , Cognition Disorders/epidemiology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Cognitive Dysfunction/psychology , Dementia/psychology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans
19.
Neurobiol Aging ; 94: 250-264, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679396

ABSTRACT

Awareness of one's own cognitive processes (metacognition) or of one's own illness or deficits (anosognosia) can be impaired in people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The neural correlates of anosognosia within AD remain inconclusive. Understanding anosognosia is of importance because of its impact on carer burden and increased institutionalization. A systematic review of structural and functional neuroimaging studies was conducted to identify specific brain regions associated with anosognosia within AD. Thirty-two studies were included in the systematic review. Reduced gray matter density, cerebral blood flow, and hypometabolism in 8 key regions were significantly associated with increased anosognosia scores in people with AD. The most frequently associated regions were the inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex, and medial temporal lobe. Other key regions include the superior frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, and the insula. Identifying brain regions associated with anosognosia can aid understanding and identification of anosognosia in people with AD and potentially facilitate improvements in care.


Subject(s)
Agnosia/diagnostic imaging , Agnosia/etiology , Alzheimer Disease/diagnostic imaging , Alzheimer Disease/pathology , Metacognition , Neuroimaging , Agnosia/pathology , Agnosia/psychology , Alzheimer Disease/complications , Alzheimer Disease/psychology , Female , Humans , Male
20.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 35(11): 1349-1357, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32608171

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Many people live with an awareness of mild cognitive changes that increase their dementia risk. Previous authors describe the uncertainties of this liminal state, between cognitive health and dementia, where being "at risk" can itself be an illness. We ask how services respond to people with memory concerns currently, and how a future, effective and inclusive dementia prevention intervention might be structured for people with memory concerns. METHODS/DESIGN: We conducted qualitative interviews with 18 people aged 60+ years with subjective or objective memory problems, six family members, 10 health and social care professionals and 11 third sector workers. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using an inductive thematic approach. RESULTS: Three main themes were identified: (1) acknowledging the liminal state, compounded by current, discordant health service responses: medicalising memory concerns yet situating responsibilities for their management with patients and families; (2) enabling change in challenging contexts of physical and cognitive frailty and social disengagement and (3) building on existing values, cultures and routines. CONCLUSIONS: Effective dementia prevention must empower individuals to make lifestyle changes within challenging contexts. Programmes must be evidence based yet sufficiently flexible to allow new activities to be fitted into people's current lives; and mindful of the risks of pathologising memory concerns. Most current memory services are neither commissioned, financially or clinically resourced to support people with memory concerns without dementia. Effective, large scale dementia prevention will require a broad societal response.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction , Dementia , Cognitive Dysfunction/diagnosis , Cognitive Dysfunction/prevention & control , Dementia/diagnosis , Dementia/prevention & control , Family , Humans , Life Style , Social Support
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