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1.
Clin Immunol ; 236: 108961, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1705130

ABSTRACT

Patients receiving maintenance dialysis (MD) are vulnerable to COVID-19-related morbidity and mortality. Currently, data on SARS-CoV-2-specific cellular and humoral immunity post-vaccination in this population are scarce. We conducted a prospective single-center study exploring the specific cellular (interferon-γ and interleukin-2 ELISpot assays) and humoral immune responses (dot plot array and chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay [CMIA]) at 4 weeks and 6 weeks following a single dose or a complete homologous dual dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccine regimen in 60 MD patients (six with a history of COVID-19). Our results show that MD patients exhibit a high seroconversion rate (91.7%) but the anti-spike IgG antibodies (CMIA) tend to wane rapidly after full immunization. Only 51.7% of the patients developed T cell immune response. High anti-spike IgG antibodies may predict a better cellular immunity. While patients with prior COVID-19 showed the best response after one, SARS-CoV-2-naïve patients may benefit from a third vaccine injection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(4): 872-874, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117225
5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 598379, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954188

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high mortality. Lung-protective ventilation is the current standard of care in patients with ARDS, but it might lead to hypercapnia, which is independently associated with worse outcomes. Extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal (ECCO2R) has been proposed as an adjuvant therapy to avoid progression of clinical severity and limit further ventilator-induced lung injury, but its use in COVID-19 has not been described yet. Acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT) is common among critically ill COVID-19 patients. In centers with available dialysis, low-flow ECCO2R (<500 mL/min) using RRT platforms could be carried out by dialysis specialists and might be an option to efficiently allocate resources during the COVID-19 pandemic for patients with hypercapnia as the main indication. Here, we report the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of ECCO2R using an RRT platform to provide either standalone ECCO2R or ECCO2R combined with RRT in four hypercapnic patients with moderate ARDS. A randomized clinical trial is required to assess the overall benefit and harm. Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT04351906.

6.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 320(4): L590-L599, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945036

ABSTRACT

Despite the pandemic status of COVID-19, there is limited information about host risk factors and treatment beyond supportive care. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) could be a potential treatment target. Our aim was to determine the incidence of IgG deficiency and associated risk factors in a cohort of 62 critically ill patients with COVID-19 admitted to two German ICUs (72.6% male, median age: 61 yr). Thirteen (21.0%) of the patients displayed IgG deficiency (IgG < 7 g/L) at baseline (predominant for the IgG1, IgG2, and IgG4 subclasses). Patients who were IgG-deficient had worse measures of clinical disease severity than those with normal IgG levels (shorter duration from disease onset to ICU admission, lower ratio of [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text], higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score, and higher levels of ferritin, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and serum creatinine). Patients who were IgG-deficient were also more likely to have sustained lower levels of lymphocyte counts and higher levels of ferritin throughout the hospital stay. Furthermore, patients who were IgG-deficient compared with those with normal IgG levels displayed higher rates of acute kidney injury (76.9% vs. 26.5%; P = 0.001) and death (46.2% vs. 14.3%; P = 0.012), longer ICU [28 (6-48) vs. 12 (3-18) days; P = 0.012] and hospital length of stay [30 (22-50) vs. 18 (9-24) days; P = 0.004]. Univariable logistic regression showed increasing odds of 90-day overall mortality associated with IgG-deficiency (odds ratio 5.14, 95% confidence interval 1.3-19.9; P = 0.018). IgG deficiency might be common in patients with COVID-19 who are critically ill, and warrants investigation as both a marker of disease severity as well as a potential therapeutic target.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , Immunoglobulins/deficiency , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
7.
Thorax ; 76(2): 201-204, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-920934

ABSTRACT

Various forms of diffuse parenchymal lung disease have been proposed as potential consequences of severe COVID­19. We describe the clinical, radiological and histological findings of patients with COVID­19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome who later developed severe organising pneumonia including longitudinal follow-up. Our findings may have important implications for the therapeutic modalities in the late-phase of severe COVID­19 and might partially explain why a subgroup of COVID­19 patients benefits from systemic corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Biopsy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/diagnosis , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
9.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 16(12): 747-764, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-872710

ABSTRACT

Kidney involvement in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is common, and can range from the presence of proteinuria and haematuria to acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT; also known as kidney replacement therapy). COVID-19-associated AKI (COVID-19 AKI) is associated with high mortality and serves as an independent risk factor for all-cause in-hospital death in patients with COVID-19. The pathophysiology and mechanisms of AKI in patients with COVID-19 have not been fully elucidated and seem to be multifactorial, in keeping with the pathophysiology of AKI in other patients who are critically ill. Little is known about the prevention and management of COVID-19 AKI. The emergence of regional 'surges' in COVID-19 cases can limit hospital resources, including dialysis availability and supplies; thus, careful daily assessment of available resources is needed. In this Consensus Statement, the Acute Disease Quality Initiative provides recommendations for the diagnosis, prevention and management of COVID-19 AKI based on current literature. We also make recommendations for areas of future research, which are aimed at improving understanding of the underlying processes and improving outcomes for patients with COVID-19 AKI.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/pathology , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Consensus , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Blood Purif ; 50(1): 17-27, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-381787

ABSTRACT

Critically ill COVID-19 patients are generally admitted to the ICU for respiratory insufficiency which can evolve into a multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome requiring extracorporeal organ support. Ongoing advances in technology and science and progress in information technology support the development of integrated multi-organ support platforms for personalized treatment according to the changing needs of the patient. Based on pathophysiological derangements observed in COVID-19 patients, a rationale emerges for sequential extracorporeal therapies designed to remove inflammatory mediators and support different organ systems. In the absence of vaccines or direct therapy for COVID-19, extracorporeal therapies could represent an option to prevent organ failure and improve survival. The enormous demand in care for COVID-19 patients requires an immediate response from the scientific community. Thus, a detailed review of the available technology is provided by experts followed by a series of recommendation based on current experience and opinions, while waiting for generation of robust evidence from trials.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Critical Illness/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/methods , Hemoperfusion/methods , Multiple Organ Failure/therapy , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy/instrumentation , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/isolation & purification , Equipment Design , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/instrumentation , Hemoperfusion/instrumentation , Humans , Multiple Organ Failure/blood , Multiple Organ Failure/etiology
13.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(7): 738-742, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-260205

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly evolved into a global pandemic. Most patients with COVID-19 have mild symptoms, but about 5% develop severe symptoms, which can include acute respiratory distress syndrome, septic shock, and multiple organ failure. Kidney involvement is frequent, with clinical presentation ranging from mild proteinuria to progressive acute kidney injury (AKI) necessitating renal replacement therapy (RRT). An understanding of the pathophysiology and mechanisms of kidney damage and AKI in the setting of critical illness and COVID-19 is emerging, although further research is needed to identify patients at risk of AKI and to guide management strategies. As no specific treatment options exist for AKI secondary to COVID-19, intensive care is largely supportive. Current approaches to prevention and management of AKI, and identification of potential indications for use of RRT and sequential extracorporeal therapies, are based mainly on clinical experience, and AKI strategies are adapted empirically to patients with COVID-19. International collaborative and cross-disciplinary research is needed to obtain adequate evidence to support current clinical approaches and to develop new approaches to management.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/complications , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Critical Care/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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