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1.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 22(1): 221, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic many clinical studies have been initiated leading to the need for efficient ways to track and analyze study results. We expanded our previous project that tracked registered COVID-19 clinical studies to also track result articles generated from these studies. Our objective was to develop a data science approach to identify and analyze all publications linked to COVID-19 clinical studies and generate a prioritized list of publications for efficient understanding of the state of COVID-19 clinical research. METHODS: We conducted searches of ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed to identify articles linked to COVID-19 studies, and developed criteria based on the trial phase, intervention, location, and record recency to develop a prioritized list of result publications. RESULTS: The performed searchers resulted in 1 022 articles linked to 565 interventional trials (17.8% of all 3 167 COVID-19 interventional trials as of 31 January 2022). 609 publications were identified via abstract-link in PubMed and 413 via registry-link in ClinicalTrials.gov, with 27 articles linked from both sources. Of the 565 trials publishing at least one article, 197 (34.9%) had multiple linked publications. An attention score was assigned to each publication to develop a prioritized list of all publications linked to COVID-19 trials and 83 publications were identified that are result articles from late phase (Phase 3) trials with at least one US site and multiple study record updates. For COVID-19 vaccine trials, 108 linked result articles for 64 trials (14.7% of 436 total COVID-19 vaccine trials) were found. CONCLUSIONS: Our method allows for the efficient identification of important COVID-19 articles that report results of registered clinical trials and are connected via a structured article-trial link. Our data science methodology also allows for consistent and as needed data updates and is generalizable to other conditions of interest.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Publications , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , Periodicals as Topic , PubMed , Registries
2.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266922, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1793497

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maintenance drugs are used to treat chronic conditions. Several classes of maintenance drugs have attracted attention because of their potential to affect susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19. METHODS: Using claims data on 20% random sample of Part D Medicare enrollees from April to December 2020, we identified patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Using a nested case-control design, non-COVID-19 controls were identified by 1:5 matching on age, race, sex, dual-eligibility status, and geographical region. We identified usage of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB), statins, warfarin, direct factor Xa inhibitors, P2Y12 inhibitors, famotidine and hydroxychloroquine based on Medicare prescription claims data. Using extended Cox regression models with time-varying propensity score adjustment we examined the independent effect of each study drug on contracting COVID-19. For severity of COVID-19, we performed extended Cox regressions on all COVID-19 patients, using COVID-19-related hospitalization and all-cause mortality as outcomes. Covariates included gender, age, race, geographic region, low-income indicator, and co-morbidities. To compensate for indication bias related to the use of hydroxychloroquine for the prophylaxis or treatment of COVID-19, we censored patients who only started on hydroxychloroquine in 2020. RESULTS: Up to December 2020, our sample contained 374,229 Medicare patients over 65 who were diagnosed with COVID-19. Among the COVID-19 patients, 278,912 (74.6%) were on at least one study drug. The three most common study drugs among COVID-19 patients were statins 187,374 (50.1%), ACEI 97,843 (26.2%) and ARB 83,290 (22.3%). For all three outcomes (diagnosis, hospitalization and death), current users of ACEI, ARB, statins, warfarin, direct factor Xa inhibitors and P2Y12 inhibitors were associated with reduced risks, compared to never users. Famotidine did not show consistent significant effects. Hydroxychloroquine did not show significant effects after censoring of recent starters. CONCLUSION: Maintenance use of ACEI, ARB, warfarin, statins, direct factor Xa inhibitors and P2Y12 inhibitors was associated with reduction in risk of acquiring COVID-19 and dying from it.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hypertension , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Factor Xa Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Famotidine/therapeutic use , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Hypertension/complications , Medicare , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Warfarin/therapeutic use
3.
Pediatrics ; 148(3)2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1394618

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the demographics, comorbidities, symptoms, in-hospital treatments, and health outcomes among children and adolescents diagnosed or hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and to compare them in secondary analyses with patients diagnosed with previous seasonal influenza in 2017-2018. METHODS: International network cohort using real-world data from European primary care records (France, Germany, and Spain), South Korean claims and US claims, and hospital databases. We included children and adolescents diagnosed and/or hospitalized with COVID-19 at age <18 between January and June 2020. We described baseline demographics, comorbidities, symptoms, 30-day in-hospital treatments, and outcomes including hospitalization, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and death. RESULTS: A total of 242 158 children and adolescents diagnosed and 9769 hospitalized with COVID-19 and 2 084 180 diagnosed with influenza were studied. Comorbidities including neurodevelopmental disorders, heart disease, and cancer were more common among those hospitalized with versus diagnosed with COVID-19. Dyspnea, bronchiolitis, anosmia, and gastrointestinal symptoms were more common in COVID-19 than influenza. In-hospital prevalent treatments for COVID-19 included repurposed medications (<10%) and adjunctive therapies: systemic corticosteroids (6.8%-7.6%), famotidine (9.0%-28.1%), and antithrombotics such as aspirin (2.0%-21.4%), heparin (2.2%-18.1%), and enoxaparin (2.8%-14.8%). Hospitalization was observed in 0.3% to 1.3% of the cohort diagnosed with COVID-19, with undetectable (n < 5 per database) 30-day fatality. Thirty-day outcomes including pneumonia and hypoxemia were more frequent in COVID-19 than influenza. CONCLUSIONS: Despite negligible fatality, complications including hospitalization, hypoxemia, and pneumonia were more frequent in children and adolescents with COVID-19 than with influenza. Dyspnea, anosmia, and gastrointestinal symptoms could help differentiate diagnoses. A wide range of medications was used for the inpatient management of pediatric COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Age Distribution , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Databases, Factual , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , France/epidemiology , Germany/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Male , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , Symptom Assessment , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
4.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915986

ABSTRACT

Objectives To characterize the demographics, comorbidities, symptoms, in-hospital treatments, and health outcomes among children/adolescents diagnosed or hospitalized with COVID-19. Secondly, to describe health outcomes amongst children/adolescents diagnosed with previous seasonal influenza. Design International network cohort. Setting Real-world data from European primary care records (France/Germany/Spain), South Korean claims and US claims and hospital databases. Participants Diagnosed and/or hospitalized children/adolescents with COVID-19 at age <18 between January and June 2020; diagnosed with influenza in 2017-2018. Main outcome measures Baseline demographics and comorbidities, symptoms, 30-day in-hospital treatments and outcomes including hospitalization, pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multi-system inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), and death. Results A total of 55,270 children/adolescents diagnosed and 3,693 hospitalized with COVID-19 and 1,952,693 diagnosed with influenza were studied. Comorbidities including neurodevelopmental disorders, heart disease, and cancer were all more common among those hospitalized vs diagnosed with COVID-19. The most common COVID-19 symptom was fever. Dyspnea, bronchiolitis, anosmia and gastrointestinal symptoms were more common in COVID-19 than influenza. In-hospital treatments for COVID-19 included repurposed medications (<10%), and adjunctive therapies: systemic corticosteroids (6.8% to 37.6%), famotidine (9.0% to 28.1%), and antithrombotics such as aspirin (2.0% to 21.4%), heparin (2.2% to 18.1%), and enoxaparin (2.8% to 14.8%). Hospitalization was observed in 0.3% to 1.3% of the COVID-19 diagnosed cohort, with undetectable (N<5 per database) 30-day fatality. Thirty-day outcomes including pneumonia, ARDS, and MIS-C were more frequent in COVID-19 than influenza. Conclusions Despite negligible fatality, complications including pneumonia, ARDS and MIS-C were more frequent in children/adolescents with COVID-19 than with influenza. Dyspnea, anosmia and gastrointestinal symptoms could help differential diagnosis. A wide range of medications were used for the inpatient management of pediatric COVID-19.

5.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915971

ABSTRACT

Early identification of symptoms and comorbidities most predictive of COVID-19 is critical to identify infection, guide policies to effectively contain the pandemic, and improve health systems' response. Here, we characterised socio-demographics and comorbidity in 3,316,107persons tested and 219,072 persons tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 since January 2020, and their key health outcomes in the month following the first positive test. Routine care data from primary care electronic health records (EHR) from Spain, hospital EHR from the United States (US), and claims data from South Korea and the US were used. The majority of study participants were women aged 18-65 years old. Positive/tested ratio varied greatly geographically (2.2:100 to 31.2:100) and over time (from 50:100 in February-April to 6.8:100 in May-June). Fever, cough and dyspnoea were the most common symptoms at presentation. Between 4%-38% required admission and 1-10.5% died within a month from their first positive test. Observed disparity in testing practices led to variable baseline characteristics and outcomes, both nationally (US) and internationally. Our findings highlight the importance of large scale characterization of COVID-19 international cohorts to inform planning and resource allocation including testing as countries face a second wave.

6.
PeerJ ; 8: e10261, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890668

ABSTRACT

Clinical trial registries can provide important information about relevant studies for a given condition to other researchers and the public. We developed a computerized informatics based approach to provide an overview and analysis of COVID-19 studies registered on ClinicalTrials.gov registry. Using the perspective of analyzing active or completed COVID-19 studies, we identified 401 interventional clinical trials, 287 observational studies and 64 registries. We analyzed features of each study type separately such as location, design, interventions and update history. Our results show that the United States had the most COVID-19 interventional trials, France had the most COVID-19 observational studies and France and the United States tied for the most COVID-19 registries on ClinicalTrials.gov. The majority of studies in all three study types had a single study site. For update history "Study Status" is the most updated information and we found that studies located in Canada (2.70 updates per study) and the United States (1.76 updates per study) update their studies more often than studies in any other country. Using normalization and mapping techniques, we identified Hydroxychloroquine (92 studies) as the most common drug intervention, while convalescent plasma (20 studies) is the most common biological intervention. The primary purpose of most interventional trials is for treatment with 298 studies (74.3%). For COVID-19 registries we found the most common proposed follow-up time is 1 year (15 studies). Of specific importance and interest is COVID-19 vaccine trials, of which 12 were identified. Our informatics based approach allows for constant monitoring and updating as well as multiple applications to other conditions and interests.

7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5009, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-834880

ABSTRACT

Comorbid conditions appear to be common among individuals hospitalised with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) but estimates of prevalence vary and little is known about the prior medication use of patients. Here, we describe the characteristics of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 and compare them with influenza patients. We include 34,128 (US: 8362, South Korea: 7341, Spain: 18,425) COVID-19 patients, summarising between 4811 and 11,643 unique aggregate characteristics. COVID-19 patients have been majority male in the US and Spain, but predominantly female in South Korea. Age profiles vary across data sources. Compared to 84,585 individuals hospitalised with influenza in 2014-19, COVID-19 patients have more typically been male, younger, and with fewer comorbidities and lower medication use. While protecting groups vulnerable to influenza is likely a useful starting point in the response to COVID-19, strategies will likely need to be broadened to reflect the particular characteristics of individuals being hospitalised with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Sex Factors , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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