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1.
2022 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IJCNN 2022 ; JOUR, 2022-July.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2097621

ABSTRACT

Covid-19 vaccine hesitancy and acceptance delay is an unprecedented challenge for concerned authorities. Existing studies lack the investigation about public vaccination acceptance, specifically for children. In this study, we surveyed the adult population in the UK to determine the diversity in public perception and acceptance of Covid-19 vaccination specifically for the children, among different sociodemographic groups. Statistical results and intelligent clustering outcomes indicate significant relationships between sociodemographic diversity and vaccination acceptance for children and their families. Acceptability for children is significantly dependent on ethnicity (p=3.7e-05), age group, and gender, where only 47% of participants show willingness towards children's vaccination. Primary dataset in this study, along with the experimental outcomes, might be useful for public awareness and policy makers towards better preparation for future epidemics as well as working globally to combat the ongoing Covid-19 variations while running effective vaccination campaigns in the identified sociodemographic groups. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
American Journal of Transplantation ; 22(Supplement 3):1033, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2063415

ABSTRACT

Purpose: COVID-19 poses a disproportionate threat to renal transplant recipients (RTR), who are chronically immunosuppressed. Studies have indicated a 16% mortality rate compared to <5% for the general population. Effective vaccines (Pfizer, Moderna and, Johnson & Johnson) provided hope for protection against severe COVID-19 in this at-risk population. However, based on experience with vaccines against other viral infections, two primary concerns arose: 1) would the SARS-CoV-2 vaccines be effective in this population;2) could these vaccines provoke rejection? Methods: To address these questions, we tested serum creatinine, anti-SARS-CoV-2 S antibody (Roche ElecsysR), Donor Specific anti HLA Antibodies, other antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, other coronaviruses (LABScreenTMCOVID Plus, One Lambda), and donor derived cell free DNA (dd-cfDNA;fraction, absolute and total quantity, using the ProsperaTM Test, Natera, Inc.) in RTR at the time of vaccine doses 1 and 2 and 1, 3, and 6 months after the second dose. dd-cfDNA >=1% and 78 cp/ mL indicated an increased risk of rejection. 53 patients were consented and enrolled in the study. This study received IRB approval. Statistical analysis was performed using paired two-tailed student's t-test. Result(s): This preliminary analysis analyzed the impact of vaccination on dd-cfDNA levels in 31 RTR patients. This cohort was primarily female (67%) and of hispanic descent (48.3%) with a median age 55 years (range: 19-81). All but 1 patient received the Pfizer vaccination series. Mean time from transplant to vaccination 1 was 114.6 months (range: 10-359 months). Between vaccination 1 and 2, no patients had clinical suspicion of rejection, were hospitalized or underwent for-cause biopsy. No significant differences in dd-cfDNA or total cf-DNA levels were found by Prospera testing between vaccination 1 and 2. (Table 1). Between vaccination 1 and 2, one patient had an increase dd-cfDNA% above the normal range (0.14%, 2.37%), but absolute dd-cfDNA quantity remained in normal range (13.70 cp/mL, 66.08 cp/ mL). At the time of the vaccination 1, dd-cfDNA% was elevated in 2 patients. At vaccination 2, dd-cfDNA% had returned to the normal range for one patient (ddcfDNA quantity was normal for both vaccinations), while both dd-cfDNA% and quantity remained elevated in the other. Conclusion(s): Based on measurement of dd-cfDNA fraction, absolute quantity and total quantity with the Prospera test at vaccination 1 and 2, there was no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination-induced rejection.

3.
Nanoparticle Therapeutics: Production Technologies, Types of Nanoparticles, and Regulatory Aspects ; : 563-579, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2048736

ABSTRACT

A narrative intended for science interns and scientists to overview regulatory pathways and federal perspectives pertinent to the complexity of nanoparticle systems and chaos precipitated by the COVID-19 pandemic. It elaborates on fundamental aspects of US FDA guidance on nanotechnology. It juxtaposes guidance on nanotechnology with the COVID-19 guidance documents to get a deeper understanding of “good practices” in the context of professional response in chaotic, complex, complicated, and simple systems. The narrative spirals in on practical consideration for experiential learning to be self-assured. © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

4.
BMJ Supportive and Palliative Care ; 11:A50-A51, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2032497

ABSTRACT

Dementia is a far-reaching disease and it is estimated that approximately 850,000 people are living with dementia in the UK;this is estimated to increase to over 1 million by the year 2025 (Prince, Knapp, Guerchet, et al., 2014). Caring for people with dementia is demanding and this care is often provided by unpaid carers in the home (National Institute for Health Research, 2016). So often people are uncertain about what the future could hold following diagnosis and how to support a person with dementia. Due to this in 2017, St Giles Hospice in collaboration with Green Square Accord launched a four-week carers' course which was designed to support unpaid carers in the community who support people living with dementia. The course covers a range of topics, including looking after yourself and activities for people with dementia, eating and drinking and infections in dementia, dementia related behaviours and planning for the future including end-of-life. Prior to 2020 this four-week course was face-to-face and was group based. When the COVID-19 pandemic hit the service had to act quickly to ensure the much-needed support for these carers did not disappear. The carers' course was adapted to provide support via a one-to-one basis either via video consultation or through a telephone call. This ensured that carers were not isolated and had access to specialist support and signposting to other services. Data captured showed that 100% of participants found that the topics covered were relevant to their situations, 92% of participants found that sessions fulfilled their expectations and that 100% were given opportunity to ask questions. Over 80 carers have been supported through the adaptation of the service so far.

5.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 858770, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022789

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been fatal to human health, affecting almost the entire world. Here we reported, for the first time, characterization of the genetic variants of SARS-CoV-2 circulating in Kuwait to understand their genetic diversity and monitor the accumulation of mutations over time. This study randomly enrolled 209 COVID-19 patients whose nasopharyngeal swabs were positive for SARS-CoV-2 between February 2020 and June 2021 using RT-PCR. The whole genomes of SARS-CoV-2 from the nasopharyngeal swabs were sequenced using the Oxford Nanopore sequencing technology following the ARTIC network protocol. Whole-genome sequencing has identified different clades/sub-clades circulating in Kuwait, mimicking the virus's global spread. Clade 20A was dominant from February 2020 until January 2021, and then clade 20I (Alpha, V1) emerged and dominated. In June 2021, the number of cases infected with clades 21I, 21A, and 21 J (Delta) increased and dominated. We detected several known clade-defining missense and synonymous mutations and other missense mutations in the genes encoding important viral proteins, including ORF1a, S, ORF3a, ORF8 regions and a novel mutation in the N region. ORF1ab region harbored more mutations and deletions (n = 62, 49.2%) compared to the other 12 gene regions, and the most prevalent missense mutations were P314L (97%) in ORF1b and D614G (97%) in the S glycoprotein regions. Detecting and analyzing mutations and monitoring the evolution of SARS-CoV-2 over time is essential to help better understand the spread of various clades/strains of SARS-CoV-2 and their implications for pathogenesis. In addition, knowledge of the circulating variants and genome sequence variability of SARS-CoV-2 may potentially influence the development of vaccines and antiviral drugs to control the COVID-19 pandemic.

6.
Infect Agent Cancer ; 17(1): 49, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021315

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) are more likely to develop severe course of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and experience increased risk of mortality compared to SARS-CoV-2 patients without CRC. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CRC patients and analyse the demographic parameters, clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes in CRC patients with COVID-19 illness. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched Proquest, Medline, Embase, Pubmed, CINAHL, Wiley online library, Scopus and Nature for studies on the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CRC patients, published from December 1, 2019 to December 31, 2021, with English language restriction. Effect sizes of prevalence were pooled with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Sub-group analyses were performed to minimize heterogeneity. Binary logistic regression model was used to explore the effect of various demographic and clinical characteristics on patient's final treatment outcome (survival or death). RESULTS: Of the 472 papers that were identified, 69 articles were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis (41 cohort, 16 case-report, 9 case-series, 2 cross-sectional, and 1 case-control studies). Studies involving 3362 CRC patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 (all patients were adults) were analyzed. The overall pooled proportions of CRC patients who had laboratory-confirmed community-acquired and hospital-acquired SARS-CoV-2 infections were 8.1% (95% CI 6.1 to 10.1, n = 1308, 24 studies, I2 98%, p = 0.66), and 1.5% (95% CI 1.1 to 1.9, n = 472, 27 studies, I2 94%, p < 0.01). The median patient age ranged from 51.6 years to 80 years across studies. The majority of the patients were male (n = 2243, 66.7%) and belonged to White (Caucasian) (n = 262, 7.8%), Hispanic (n = 156, 4.6%) and Asian (n = 153, 4.4%) ethnicity. The main source of SARS-CoV-2 infection in CRC patients was community-acquired (n = 2882, 85.7%; p = 0.014). Most of those SARS-CoV-2 patients had stage III CRC (n = 725, 21.6%; p = 0.036) and were treated mainly with surgical resections (n = 304, 9%) and chemotherapies (n = 187, 5.6%), p = 0.008. The odd ratios of death were significantly high in patients with old age (≥ 60 years) (OR 1.96, 95% CI 0.94-0.96; p < 0.001), male gender (OR 1.44, 95% CI 0.41-0.47; p < 0.001) CRC stage III (OR 1.54, 95% CI 0.02-1.05; p = 0.041), CRC stage IV (OR 1.69, 95% CI 0.17-1.2; p = 0.009), recent active treatment with chemotherapies (OR 1.35, 95% CI 0.5-0.66; p = 0.023) or surgical resections (OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.8-0.73; p = 0.016) and admission to ICU (OR 1.88, 95% CI 0.85-1.12; p < 0.001) compared to those who survived. CONCLUSION: SARS-CoV-2 infection in CRC patient is not uncommon and results in a mortality rate of 26.2%. Key determinants that lead to increased mortality in CRC patients infected with COVID-19 include older age (≥ 60 years old); male gender; Asian and Hispanic ethnicity; if SARS-CoV-2 was acquired from hospital source; advanced CRC (stage III and IV); if patient received chemotherapies or surgical treatment; and if patient was admitted to ICU, ventilated or experienced ARDS.

7.
Pathogens ; 11(9)2022 Aug 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2006151

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. With the global transmission of the virus, many SARS-CoV-2 variants have emerged due to the alterations of the spike glycoprotein. Therefore, the S glycoprotein encoding gene has widely been used for the molecular analysis of SARS-Co-2 due to its features affecting antigenicity and immunogenicity. We analyzed the S gene sequences of 35 SARS-CoV-2 isolates in Kuwait from March 2020 to February 2021 using the Sanger method and MinION nanopore technology to confirm novel nucleotide alterations. Our results show that the Kuwaiti strains from clade 19A and B were the dominant variants early in the pandemic, while clade 20I (Alpha, V1) was the dominant variant from February 2021 onward. Besides the known mutations, 21 nucleotide deletions in the S glycoprotein in one Kuwaiti strain were detected, which might reveal a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 with the defective viral genome (DVG). This study emphasizes the importance of closely perceiving the emerging clades with these mutations during this continuous pandemic as some may influence the specificity of diagnostic tests, such as RT-PCR and even vaccine design directing these positions.

9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 851765, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1963441

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has caused a global crisis. Patients with COVID-19 present with a range of clinical manifestations, from no symptoms to severe illness. However, little is known about the profiles of immune cells required to protect against SARS-CoV-2. This study was performed to determine the immune cells profiles in the peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe disease (n=52), and compare the findings with those from healthy subjects vaccinated with Pfizer BioNTech mRNA vaccine (VS) (n=62), and non-vaccinated healthy subjects (HS) (n=30) from Kuwait. Absolute counts and percentages of total lymphocytes and lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, and CD16+CD56+ NK cells) in the peripheral blood of the three groups were analyzed using flow cytometry. The results showed that the absolute counts of total lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ T cells, CD19+ B cells, and CD56+ NK cells, were significantly lower in COVID-19 patients than normal healthy controls and vaccinated subjects. The percentages of CD3+ and CD4+ T lymphocytes were also significantly lower in the COVID-19 patients. However, the percentage of CD16+CD56+ NK cells was significantly higher in the peripheral blood of COVID-19 patients, compared to the HS and VS groups with no detectable differences in the percentages of CD8+ T cells and CD19+ B cells between the three groups. Analysis of the monocyte subsets has showed a significantly higher percentage of CD14+HLA-DR+ monocytes in COVID-19 patients compared to HS whereas the inflammatory CD14+CD16+ HLA-DR+ monocytes, and the non-classical CD16+HLA-DR+ monocytes showed significantly lower frequency in the blood of the patients than that of HS. These findings demonstrate perturbations of both innate and adaptive immune cell subsets that reflect dysregulated host responses in COVID-19 patients with moderate to severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , HLA-DR Antigens , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
10.
Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences ; 16(6):264-266, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939790

ABSTRACT

Objective: To find out the effects of remdesivir on the body weight of treated albino rats and its testes Study Design: Experimental Place & Duration of study: At the Anatomy Department of Baqai Medical University Karachi, from August 2021-February 2022 Material & Method: The research was undertaken to record the body weight and its testes in Albino Wistar rats treated by antiviral agent remdesivir. This drug is also recommended for the treatment of Covid-19. The albino rats were divided into 4 groups as A, B, C & D. In each group having 6 Albino Wistar rats. Group A was untreated i.e. control group while group B, C & D were treated by intraperitoneal injection with low, Intermediate and high doses of Remdesivir respectively for 10 consecutive days. A paired sample t-test was performed to determine changes in body weights before and after provision of drugs. The one-way ANOVA was conducted to compare the difference of body weight and relative weight of testes amongst all four groups. Results: The mean body weight of group A before giving any treatment was 173.10±3.42 g & after sterile saline injection intraperitoneally without the drug was 173.48±3.46 g & the difference between the two was insignificant. The mean body weight albino rats before giving any treatment to group B was 178.24±1.78 g, in group C was 174.33±2.49 g & in group D was 173.76±3.22 g. After treatment with intraperitoneal remdesivir with low, intermediate and high doses given to the rats, the mean body weight of group B, C & D was 179.88±1.87 g,177.17±2.41 g and 176.44±3.15 g respectively and the difference between the two means was highly significant (p=0.0001). The mean relative weight of tetes of rat in group A=0.713 ± 8.56 g, B=0.717 ± 15.83 g, C=0.716 ± 14.18 g and D=0.705 ± 4.15 g. There was no statistically significant difference found in the overall relative weight changes of testes amongst four groups (p=0.876). Conclusion: It has been concluded from this study that the mean body weight of animal treated with remdesivir increased significantly while weight of the testes did not affect significantly but in high dose the relative weight of testes decreases. In high dose this drug should be used cautiously as it can affect germ cells present in the testes.

11.
Journal of Dermatology and Dermatologic Surgery ; 26(1):18-24, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1939211

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a pandemic disease that spreads rapidly. The World Health Organization recommended social distancing to prevent disease transmission. Telemedicine was one of the most important tools used during the pandemic to provide health-care services. Different clinics, including dermatology clinics, tended to use telehealth and online tools. In addition, various dermatological conditions were diagnosed and treated by family physicians using the telemedicine applications of the Saudi Ministry of Health (MOH). Purpose: The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of family physicians using telemedicine to diagnose and manage different dermatological conditions. Specifically, we aimed to identify the common dermatological conditions that family physicians faced during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as the use of the various telemedicine applications launched by the Saudi MOH. We also intended to assess the need for dermatologists in the telemedicine applications of the Saudi MOH and suggest possible improvements to the telemedicine process and related Saudi MOH applications for sustainable online health care. Methods: The cross-sectional study was conducted across Saudi Arabia among family physicians and general practitioners to assess their perception of using telemedicine for dermatology-related consultations. The self-administered survey questionnaire contained 16 questions in five sections. Results: A total of 302 family medicine and general physicians completed the questionnaire. Altogether, 165 (54.6%) physicians reported that they had never used telemedicine before the COVID-19 pandemic, while 12.9% reported frequent to continuous use. During the pandemic, 86.8% of family and general physicians used telemedicine for dermatological consultations. The most used methods were phone calls (57.6%) and the SEHA application (42.7%). A total of 96.4% of participants reported that they dealt with dermatological conditions before the COVID-19 pandemic. Interestingly, about 99% of family physicians reported that they faced difficulty diagnosing dermatology-related consultations. Telemedicine was frequently used by all physicians in the central region compared with 76.7% of those in the western region (P = 0.035). Conclusion: Family physicians in Saudi Arabia increased their telemedicine practicing during the pandemic. Different telemedicine tools were used, such as phone calls, virtual clinics, and Saudi MOH applications (SEHA, TETAMMAN, TABAUD, TAWAKKALNA). The majority of family physicians faced difficulty diagnosing dermatological conditions. In addition, most reported that dermatologists should be part of health-care facilities and telemedicine centers to deal with dermatology-related consultations.

12.
MATERIALS TODAY-PROCEEDINGS ; 59:1349-1356, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1907554

ABSTRACT

Water is a renewable natural resource that is essential for all living things on earth. Fresh water becomes a scarce material due to its excessive exploitation and pollution. Factories, agriculture and domestic activities are factors for water pollution. Furthermore, industrial development in the form of sewage in the freshwater system and the resulting pollution is a challenge to this fragile ecosystem. The global epidemic caused by the 2019-nCoV 'novel virus has caused people around the world to stay in their homes for months due to continuous locking. As a result of these series of locks, the world economy has been badly tested and India is no exception. In India, the government imposed the lockout in late March 2020, but it continues in phases. Although this continuous locking has been announced to control the spread of the Covid-19 virus, the process has greatly tested the regular lives of many and caused income loss among the population. But these mandatory restrictions have reduced pollution from factories across the country. Therefore, considering the above factors, the current study explored the physical and chemical parameters of groundwater in the sand and its surrounding areas. Water samples were collected from the study site from 2019 to 2020. Water tests were collected at a depth of 2-4 m from the site. Water tests were broken down for different physical and joint parameters depending on the methods depicted in the APHA. Twenty different water samples were collected from the Buckingham Canal River and its tributaries. Electronic laboratory testing was carried out using standard procedures (APHA methods). Twenty different water samples were collected from the Buckingham Canal River and its tributaries. The T-Test electronics laboratory test was performed to understand the magnitude of the difference between salts, pH, heavy metals and TVC using standard procedures (APHA methods). In the end CO3 and TVC are not as significant as canal or groundwater.(c) 2021 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

13.
Journal of Communicable Diseases ; 2022:181-185, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1904119

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 is a novel illness caused by an RNA Coronavirus. Diabetes was a risk factor for poor outcomes in the previous SARS-1 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) and is considered now an independent risk factor for poor outcomes in cases of SARS-2 (COVID-19). A number of studies referred to the association between COVID infection and impaired glycaemic state. Aims: To find the incidence of dysglycaemia in COVID-19 patientsand assess characteristics that put the patients at higher riskof it. Method: A total of 148 patientsadmitted between JuneandSeptember 2020 with a diagnosis of COVID-19 were included, anddivided into 3 glycaemic groups. Results: In 148 patients diagnosed with COVID 19, dysglycaemiawas disclosed in 55.4% with frank new-onset diabetes in more than half of them (56%).Younger aged patients, those with higherweight, and longer disease duration were at higher risk.Further, the mean lung involvement presented by CT scan was higher in those with dysglycaemia. Conclusion: More than 50% of COVID patients developed dysglycaemia for the first time. Young age, high weight, and long disease duration were significant risk factors. Copyright (c) 2022: Author(s).

14.
New Microbes New Infect ; 47: 100979, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882401
15.
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science ; 12(5):205-212, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863258

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus (COVID-19) vaccine has become recently available, and to make vaccination campaigns successful, we should increase the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine within the public. Thus, this study has been conducted to provide insights into the factors affecting vaccine acceptance and pricing considerations. A both online and paperbased cross-sectional study was conducted from August 1 to August 30, 2020, among the general population of Pakistan. The health belief model (HBM) was used to assess predictors of the intent to receive the vaccine and the willingness to pay (WTP). Descriptive analysis was done, and a chi-squared test was used to assess the demographic association with HBM items. The majority (73.4%) showed a definite/probable intent to receive the vaccine, and marital status and education were significantly associated with getting the vaccine. WTP for a dose of the COVID-19 vaccine was highest for less than 1,000 Pakistani Rupees (PKR) and lowest for 10,001–20,000 PKR. This research indicates that the acceptability of the COVID-19 vaccine in the Pakistani community is satisfactory but the majority of the population want to spend less money to get immunized. © 2022. Ali Hassan Gillani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

16.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 71(6):2024-2028, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1841854

ABSTRACT

Objective: To ascertain the immunogenicity and short-term safety of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell), BBIBP-CorV (Sinopharm) in our setup. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital Sialkot Pakistan, from Feb to Apr 2021. Methodology: A total of 227 health care workers (HCWs) between 18 to 59 years of age were included in the study. Two doses of Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell), BBIBP-CorV were administered to all individuals 21 days apart and they were monitored for any vaccine-related adverse reactions for 7 days after each dose. Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) in study subjects were detected in three samples i.e. before 1st dose of vaccine, 21 days after 1st dose and 14 days after 2nd dose by Elecsys Anti- SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche Diagnostics). Results: Mean age of individuals in the study was 36.70 ± 18.08 years and most individuals were in the 31-45 years age group. Fatigue and drowsiness were the most common adverse effects experienced by study subjects after 1st and 2nd dose of the vaccine followed by malaise and headache. Only 42 (39%) individuals developed positive neutralizing antibody titers in a sample taken 21 days after 1st dose while all individuals except one (99%) developed positive neutralizing antibody titers in a sample taken 2 weeks after 2nd vaccine dose. Conclusion: Inactivated SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cell), BBIBP-CorV is safe and well-tolerated with very few adverse reactions. Immunogenicity was well achieved as the seroconversion rate was 99% two weeks after 2nd dose of the vaccine. © 2021, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

17.
International Journal of Advanced and Applied Sciences ; 9(4):44-52, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789820

ABSTRACT

Recently, the novel coronavirus (Covid-19) and its different variants have spread rapidly across the world. Early-stage detection of COVID-19 is a challenging task due to the limited availability of Covid testing kits to the public. Conventionally, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) is the reliable test for the detection of COVID-19 which is timeconsuming and costly. The aim of this work is to identify the COVID-19 symptoms with the help of a deep learning algorithm using chest X-Ray images. In order to improve the quality of chest X-Ray images, authors have further modified the pre-trained model with some extra CNN layers, such as the first layer is the average pooling layer and the other two are dense layers followed by ReLU with softmax activation function. The experimental results have been carried out on publicly available chest X-Ray images of COVID-19 to mark COVID-19 patients as positive and negative datasets. For evaluation purpose, we have used benchmark of pre-trained models such as VGG-16 (Visual Geometry Group), VGG19, Xception, ResNet152, ResNet152v2, ResNet101, ResNet101v2, DenseNet201, DenseNet169 and DenseNet121. On the benchmark datasets, viz. COVID-19 X-Ray images, an average improvement in terms of training/validation accuracy, precision, recall, and F1-scores scores were 95%, 94%, 99/88%, 99/88%, and 93/92% respectively. The results provide sufficient evidence that deep learning can be used efficiently for the detection of COVID-19 symptoms. © 2022 The Authors.

18.
IEEE Access ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1759013

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) has been identified by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as one of the top ten global health threats. Inappropriate use of antibiotics around the world and in particular in Low-to-Middle-Income Countries (LMICs), where antibiotics use and prescription are poorly managed, is considered one of the main reasons for this problem. It is projected that the COVID-19 pandemic will accelerate the threat of AMR due to the increasing use of antibiotics across the world, and especially in countries with limited resources. In recent years, machine learning-based methods showed promising results and proved capable of providing the necessary tools to inform antimicrobial prescription and combat AMR. This timely paper provides a critical and technical review of existing machine learning-based methods for addressing AMR. First, an overview of the AMR problem as a global threat to public health, and its impact on countries with limited resources (LMICs) are presented. Then, a technical review and evaluation of existing literature that utilises machine learning to tackle AMR are provided with emphasis on methods that use readily available demographic and clinical data as well as microbial culture and sensitivity laboratory data of clinical isolates associated with multi-drug resistant infections. This is followed by a discussion of challenges and limitations that are considered barriers to scaling up the use of machine learning to address AMR. Finally, a framework for accelerating the use of AMR data-driven framework, and building a feasible solution that can be realistically implemented in LMICs is presented with a discussion of future directions and recommendations. Author

19.
International Review of Sociology ; : 1-23, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1751913
20.
Oral Oncology ; 118:4, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1735116

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Hypofractionated radiotherapy (HF-RT) has been used in the UK as a non-surgical treatment for locally advanced laryngeal cancer (LALC) in the past. HF-RT has been readopted in some departments during the COVID-19 pandemic due to having a shorter overall treatment time and fewer attendances. This study explores the outcomes of a cohort of patients treated from 2003 to 2012 at Aberdeen Royal Infirmary (Scotland, UK). Materials and Methods: 36 patients received HF-RT (55 Gy in 20 fractions) through 2D or 3D conformal radiotherapy, 7 of them received concurrent cisplatin (CRT). Overall survival (OS), locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS), progression free survival (PFS), laryngectomy free survival (LFS), disease specific survival (DSS) and late toxicity data were analysed in patients treated with HF-RT at 1-year (1Y), 2-year (2Y) and 5-year (5Y). The same outcomes were measured between the RT and CRT group for any differences. Results: The mean follow-up durationwas 43.0 months. OS at 1Y, 2Y and 5Y was 69.4%, 52.8% and 30.6%. LRFS at 1Y, 2Y and 5Y was 63.9%, 47.2% and 25.0%. PFS at 1Y, 2Y and 5Y was 63.9%, 44.4% and 25.0%. LFS at 1Y, 2Y and 5Y was 69.4%, 50.0% and 27.8%. DSS at 1Y, 2Y and 5Y was 63.9%, 52.8% and 30.6%. During the period of treatment and up to 5Y follow up, 41.7% of patients required an NG tube for feeding and 25% required a PEG tube at any point. 22.2% of patients required long term enteral feeding via PEG tube beyond 5Y. No significant differences were found in the survival outcomes or alternative feeding route outcomes between patients treated by RT alone or CRT. Conclusions: HF-RT constitutes an alternative for the treatment of LALC with acceptable local control and toxicity. Further investigation is needed in the comparison of this regime with standard fractionation and its application with modern radiotherapy techniques

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