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1.
Webology ; 19(2):7842-7849, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1958379

ABSTRACT

Pandemic modified the educational setting and brought reformation in education at all levels especially in higher education level through innovation trends of technology and moderation. Higher Education Commission n has framed a holistic mechanism for the sustainability and flow of education and established the flexible policy to facilitate the students for future calamities and disasters. This study explored the post Pandemic Reforms at higher education and role of leadership to encounter the critical situation in higher education institutions of Pakistan. Qualitative methodology was used for this study and narrative research technique was utilized and data was collected conveniently from 20 administrators of higher educational institutions through semi structured interview tool. Study explored that higher education Commission has design policy and framework to mitigate the losses of education and brought the revolutionary steps at higher educational institution such as hybrid educational system, virtual classroom, electronic evaluation and assessment, scholarship and financial aids facilitation of digital library and flexibility of teaching personnel.

2.
Process Safety and Environmental Protection ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1937092

ABSTRACT

Due to the increase in biological hazards to global security particularly after COVID-19 crises, the need to develop effective and adaptable technologies to protect humans from biological warfare agents (viruses, bacteria, fungi) has increased. Current protective textiles against biohazards are fabricated through finishing of textiles with bioactive agents. However, bioactive agents are leached from the treated textiles due to the poor durability following their accumulation in environment. The objective of this research was to design a sustainable approach for developing ecologically sound antimicrobial textiles in which the antimicrobial agent is covalently bonded to fabric and does not leach into the effluent when laundered. For this, a novel bifunctional reactive finish was synthesized in which chloroxylenol (antimicrobial agent) was covalently integrated into two reactive systems (triazine and vinyl sulfone). For structural validation, 13C-NMR, 1H-NMR, and, FTIR characterization were employed. The as-synthesized reactive finish was applied on the cotton fabric through pad-dry-cure method. The antimicrobial action of treated fabric (before and after 20 laundry cycles) towards viruses, bacteria, and fungi as well as ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) were evaluated according to standard. The treated fabric showed significant fungicidal (>85%) bactericidal (>95%), and viricidal (>85%) action, that remained effective even after 20 washes, revealing that antimicrobial agent has not leached during washing of treated textiles which established non-leaching behavior of the treated textiles. The treated fabric also exhibited outstanding UPF values (>135). The current study has proposed a novel approach for the fabrication of ecologically sustainable antimicrobial textiles and the proposed method is easily scalable at industrial level.

3.
Plants (Basel) ; 11(13)2022 Jun 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934186

ABSTRACT

The occurrence and persistence of pharmaceuticals in the food chain, particularly edible crops, can adversely affect human and environmental health. In this study, the impacts of the absorption, translocation, accumulation, and degradation of paracetamol in different organs of the leafy vegetable crop spinach (Spinacia oleracea) were assessed under controlled laboratory conditions. Spinach plants were exposed to 50 mg/L, 100 mg/L, and 200 mg/L paracetamol in 20% Hoagland solution at the vegetative phase in a hydroponic system. Exposed plants exhibited pronounced phytotoxic effects during the eight days trial period, with highly significant reductions seen in the plants' morphological parameters. The increasing paracetamol stress levels adversely affected the plants' photosynthetic machinery, altering the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (Fv/Fm and PSII), photosynthetic pigments (Chl a, Chl b and carotenoid contents), and composition of essential nutrients and elements. The LC-MS results indicated that the spinach organs receiving various paracetamol levels on day four exhibited significant uptake and translocation of the drug from roots to aerial parts, while degradation of the drug was observed after eight days. The VITEK® 2 system identified several bacterial strains (e.g., members of Burkhulderia, Sphingomonas, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Stenotrophomonas and Kocuria) isolated from spinach shoots and roots. These microbes have the potential to biodegrade paracetamol and other organic micro-pollutants. Our findings provide novel insights to mitigate the risks associated with pharmaceutical pollution in the environment and explore the bioremediation potential of edible crops and their associated microbial consortium to remove these pollutants effectively.

4.
Food Sci Nutr ; 8(8): 3971-3976, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1898719

ABSTRACT

This review focused on the use of plant-based foods for enhancing the immunity of all aged groups against COVID-19. In humans, coronaviruses are included in the spectrum of viruses that cause the common cold and, recently, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). Emerging infectious diseases, such as SARS present a major threat to public health. The novel coronavirus has spread rapidly to multiple countries and has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization. COVID-19 is usually caused a virus to which most probably the people with low immunity response are being affected. Plant-based foods increased the intestinal beneficial bacteria which are helpful and make up of 85% of the immune system. By the use of plenty of water, minerals like magnesium and Zinc, micronutrients, herbs, food rich in vitamins C, D and E, and better life style one can promote the health and can overcome this infection. Various studies investigated that a powerful antioxidant glutathione and a bioflavonoid quercetin may prevent various infections including COVID-19. In conclusion, the plant-based foods play a vital role to enhance the immunity of people to control of COVID-19.

5.
AIMS Microbiol ; 8(1): 108-124, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798844

ABSTRACT

Vitamin C stands as an essential water-soluble vitamin, antioxidant and has been shown to enhance immunity. SARS-CoV-2 has been spreading rapidly across the worldwide, several cellular processes of innate and adaptive immunity are aided by vitamin C, which strengthens the immune system overall. Multiple lines of evidence in the literature associate vitamin C with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and immunomodulatory actions. Pneumonia and sepsis patients had poor ascorbic acid status and high oxidative stress, according to many studies. Pneumonia patients who get vitamin C may have less severe symptoms and a longer course of the illness if they do. To standardize plasma levels in sepsis patients, gram measurements of the vitamin must be administered intravenously (IV). This intervention has been shown in a few trials to reduce mortality. COVID-19 management in China and the United States has exhibited remarkable results when using a high percentage of intravenous vitamins C. It's acceptable to include vitamin C in the COVID-19 treatment protocol as a secondary measure based on the current active clinical studies looking at the impact of vitamin C on the management of COVID-19. Patients with hypovitaminosis C or severe respiratory illnesses, such as COVID-19, may benefit from taking vitamin C, due to its good safety profile, simplicity of use, and potential for rapid production scaling. The study's goal was to see whether high dosage intravenous vitamin C had any impact on individuals with severe COVID-19 (HDIVC). Finally we discuss recent research that has been published on the efficacy of vitamin C administration in the treatment of viral infection and life-threatening conditions. The purpose of this manuscript is to summarise existing research on the efficacy of vitamin C as a treatment for COVID-19 and to discuss possible explanations for why it may work in some individuals but not in others.

6.
J Med Cases ; 13(2): 85-88, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726963

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has emerged as a public health hazard. It is commonly associated with respiratory symptoms including fever, cough and sore throat. Viral infections have historically been implicated in the exacerbations of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with GI manifestations including diarrhea and vomiting. However, exacerbation of underlying functional GI disorders has been rarely reported with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Herein we report a case of a 31-year-old female with acute gastroparesis flare secondary to COVID-19 which was refractory to pharmacological therapy.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312830

ABSTRACT

Exponential growths are observed in several natural phenomena, including cosmological expansion of the universe, nuclear fission, population growth, global viral spread, and financial markets fluctuations. Several deterministic and stochastic methods have been used for the modeling of dynamics of these phenomena. Global reliable data are essential to parameterise a defined model so as to enhance confidence in model outputs. Four-parameter logistic model comes out to be best forecast model for the total Covid-19 infected people in Pakistan and India. Five-parameter logistic model is best forecast model for Bangladesh. Simulation results revel that maximum total number of cases will be about 1.0, 0.6 and 0.25 million in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh respectively. Covid-19 infected rate will be closed to 11000, 8000 and 2000 cases per day during peak period in these countries.

8.
Work ; 71(1): 41-51, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1633874

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physiotherapists (PTs) play an important role in the well-being and physical rehabilitation of patients with long term health problems. It is important that PTs follow recommended practices that minimize the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 infection in providing Outpatient Physiotherapy services. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of COVID-19 among the PTs and evaluate the state of implementation of best practices in Outpatient Physiotherapy to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections during the ongoing pandemic. METHODS: A self-administered online questionnaire consisting of three sections, including section one on demographic information, section two on evaluating knowledge about SARS-CoV-2 and section three on implementing best practices as a survey tool for collecting data from PTs working in Lahore and Faisalabad in Punjab, Pakistan. RESULTS: A total of 216 completed surveys were received. Correct responses to different questions devised to test the participants' knowledge of SARS-CoV-2 varied from 58.3% to 99%. The implementation of best practices to prevent the infection transmission in the Outpatient Physiotherapy ranged from 22.7% to 92.1% for different domains. The age of the PTs and OPD setting were associated significantly with the PTs' knowledge of COVID-19 and also with the state of implementation of recommended practices to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infections in the Outpatient Physiotherapy (p < .05). CONCLUSION: The majority of the PTs, particularly those working in the clinic setting, possessed a good knowledge of COVID-19 and implemented best practices in their Outpatient Physiotherapy at a good level. However, efforts should be directed towards further improving the knowledge of PTs and ensuring implementation of best practices in Outpatient Physiotherapy, particularly in government and private hospitals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physical Therapists , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Outpatients , Pandemics , Physical Therapy Modalities , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 8963168, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1553725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk of acquiring COVID-19 during a pandemic is a major concern among health care workers. Dental professionals being in close proximity to the patients had been exposed more than other health care workers. Hence, all the standard operating procedures (SOPs) are strictly advised to be followed. METHODS: A detailed relevant literature search was conducted in international databases such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Science Direct, from January 2020 to November 2020. All the studies that provided recommendations regarding endodontic procedures during the COVID-19 pandemic were included, and those that were not in the English language, case reports, book chapters, and short communications were excluded in this review. In the end, only 6 articles were selected for the systematic review considering that complete information regarding the provision of dental care in the time of COVID-19 with diagnostic accuracy (STARD) was provided. RESULTS: Endodontic treatments were restricted to only emergency dental procedures, and all other patients have advised medications and catered through teledentistry. Endodontic emergencies were advised to be carried out with minimal aerosol production procedures. CONCLUSION: Provision of endodontic care during COVID-19 restricted to only emergency dental procedures by strictly following standard operating procedures. A protocol for COVID-19 prevention was followed by all the dentists and the dental staff in the dental clinics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Aerosols/therapeutic use , Dental Care/methods , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control
10.
Nanotechnology ; 33(6)2021 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493587

ABSTRACT

Wearing a face mask has become a necessity following the outbreak of the coronavirus (COVID-19) disease, where its effectiveness in containing the pandemic has been confirmed. Nevertheless, the pandemic has revealed major deficiencies in the ability to manufacture and ramp up worldwide production of efficient surgical-grade face masks. As a result, many researchers have focused their efforts on the development of low cost, smart and effective face covers. In this article, following a short introduction concerning face mask requirements, the different nanotechnology-enabled techniques for achieving better protection against the SARS-CoV-2 virus are reviewed, including the development of nanoporous and nanofibrous membranes in addition to triboelectric nanogenerators based masks, which can filter the virus using various mechanisms such as straining, electrostatic attraction and electrocution. The development of nanomaterials-based mask coatings to achieve virus repellent and sterilizing capabilities, including antiviral, hydrophobic and photothermal features are also discussed. Finally, the usability of nanotechnology-enabled face masks is discussed and compared with that of current commercial-grade N95 masks. To conclude, we highlight the challenges associated with the quick transfer of nanomaterials-enabled face masks and provide an overall outlook of the importance of nanotechnology in counteracting the COVID-19 and future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks , Nanotechnology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Filtration , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Nanofibers/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , User-Centered Design
12.
Journal of Ayub Medical College ; 33(2):283-288, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1235565

ABSTRACT

Background: During the pandemic, disruption of work schedule and constant health risks causes physician burnout. This study aims to identify Burnout in physicians working in COVID ICU and isolation Ward.

13.
Postepy Mikrobiologii ; 60(1):13-20, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1197737

ABSTRACT

Starting from the end of 2019 the new SARs-CoV-2 virus, in the period of a few months, had spread to 210 countries and its territories. The Wuhan wild animal market, in Hubei province, China is considered the epicenter of this pandemic. WHO declared the name COVID-19 to designate the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. It is the third coronavirus pandemic after SARS in 2002-2003 and MERS-CoV in 2012. Genome sequencing of this new COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 virus shows slight genetic diversity when compared to other coronaviruses. Owing to its pathogenesis, and less known replication cycle, no universal antiviral treatment can be applied and vaccine preparation is still a larger challenge. The present article will highlight transmission, pandemic status, genetic diversity current antiviral therapy, and vaccine trials for COVID-19.

14.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 8(3): 002280, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1191634

ABSTRACT

A 53-year-old man presented acutely to the Accident and Emergency department with a 2-day history of progressive odynophagia and shortness of breath. The patient had stridor at rest and acute epiglottitis was suspected. The patient was transferred urgently to theatre for intubation but due to a severely oedematous airway, this was unsuccessful and emergency tracheotomy was performed by the ENT team. Throughout admission the only positive microbiological sample was a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 infection. In the absence of other positive microbiology, it is highly likely that COVID-19 was the aetiological cause of acute epiglottitis in this instance. LEARNING POINTS: COVID-19 infection is a novel disease with multiple presentations; it should be considered as a possible causative organism in patients presenting with acute epiglottitis.Due to the time delay in taking samples for microbiology and results being available, treatment should be commenced with antibiotics, nebulised adrenaline and steroids to cover bacterial infection.Presentation can occur following a delayed inflammatory response and treatment should target the organ system involved.

15.
Eur J Case Rep Intern Med ; 7(12): 002048, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976592

ABSTRACT

A 53-year-old woman presented during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic with an 18-day history of pyrexia, myalgia, progressive dyspnoea and loss of taste and smell after a close contact had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. In this period two swabs had been negative for SARS-CoV-2. Clinical examination was normal. During this admission a third SARS-CoV-2 swab was negative, and investigations showed mildly elevated inflammatory markers, mildly deranged liver function, atypical lymphocytes on a blood film and a normal chest x-ray. Her Epstein-Barr virus serology was positive and thus the diagnosis was infectious mononucleosis. LEARNING POINTS: SARS-CoV-2 is not the only virus to cause loss of taste/smell and so other differential diagnoses should be considered.Loss of taste/smell is a subjective symptom, and therefore caution should be exercised in the context of an upper respiratory tract infection.

16.
J Occup Environ Med ; 63(2): e59-e62, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-944472

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Aim of this study was to determine the depression, stress, and anxiety level among healthcare workers working at a tertiary care cardiac center of Karachi Pakistan during COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This survey was conducted at the National Institute of Cardiovascular Disease (NICVD), Karachi, Pakistan. Participants of the study were fulltime employees of hospital. Data were collected using an online questionnaire and Depression, Anxiety and Stress - 21 (DASS-21) scale was used. RESULTS: A total of 224 healthcare workers were included, 46 (20.5%) participants were screened for moderate to severe depression, 20.1% (45) for moderate to severe anxiety, and 14.7% (33) for moderate to severe stress. CONCLUSION: A significant levels of depression, anxiety, and stress were noted with the major concerns of workplace exposure, increased risk of infection, and transmission to their families and friends.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cardiac Care Facilities/organization & administration , Health Personnel/psychology , Infection Control/organization & administration , Occupational Health Services/organization & administration , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Psychiatric Status Rating Scales , Tertiary Care Centers/organization & administration
17.
ACS Nano ; 14(6): 7659-7665, 2020 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-324479

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the severe respiratory disease caused by the novel coronavirus (COVID-19), the use of face masks has become ubiquitous worldwide to control the rapid spread of this pandemic. As a result, the world is currently facing a face mask shortage, and some countries have placed limits on the number of masks that can be bought by each person. Although the surgical grade N95 mask provides the highest level of protection currently available, its filtration efficiency for sub-300 nm particles is around 85% due to its wider pore size (∼300 nm). Because the COVID-19 virus shows a diameter of around 65-125 nm, there is a need for developing more efficient masks. To overcome these issues, we demonstrate the development of a flexible, nanoporous membrane to achieve a reusable N95 mask with a replaceable membrane and enhanced filtration efficiency. We first developed a flexible nanoporous Si-based template on a silicon-on-insulator wafer using KOH etching and then used the template as a hard mask during a reactive ion etching process to transfer the patterns onto a flexible and lightweight (<0.12 g) polymeric membrane. Pores with sizes down to 5 nm were achieved with a narrow distribution. Theoretical calculations show that airflow rates above 85 L/min are possible through the mask, which confirms its breathability over a wide range of pore sizes, densities, membrane thicknesses, and pressure drops. Finally, the membrane is intrinsically hydrophobic, which contributes to antifouling and self-cleaning as a result of droplets rolling and sliding on the inclined mask area.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks , Nanopores , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Air Microbiology , Betacoronavirus/ultrastructure , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Equipment Design , Humans , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Membranes, Artificial , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Nanopores/ultrastructure , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Polymers , Porosity , SARS-CoV-2 , Silicon
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