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J Med Virol ; 94(4): 1391-1401, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718412


This systematic review focuses on the clinical features, physical examination findings, outcomes, and underlying pathology of acute telogen effluvium (TE), a type of diffuse hair loss, occurring in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) recovered patients. MEDLINE/PubMed and Embase databases were queried till October 2021 to identify studies reporting acute TE occurring after COVID-19 recovery. Data were obtained from 19 studies, which included 465 patients who were diagnosed with acute TE. The median age of these patients was 44 years and 67.5% were females. The most common trichoscopic findings were decreased hair density, the presence of empty follicles, or short regrowing hair. The mean duration from COVID-19 symptom onset to the appearance of acute TE was 74 days, which is earlier than classic acute TE. Most patients recovered from hair loss, while a few patients had persistent hair fall. Our results highlight the need to consider the possibility of post-COVID-19 acute TE in patients presenting with hair fall, with a history of COVID-19 infection, in the context of COVID-19 pandemic. Despite being a self-limiting condition, hair loss post-COVID-19 is a stressful manifestation. Identifying COVID-19 infection as a potential cause of acute TE will help the clinicians counsel the patients, relieving them from undue stress.

Alopecia Areata/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Alopecia Areata/diagnosis , Alopecia Areata/pathology , Alopecia Areata/therapy , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Dermoscopy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 229-239, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544339


Observational studies indicate that pleural effusion has an association with risk and the clinical prognosis of COVID-19 disease; however, the available literature on this area is inconsistent. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to evaluate the correlation between COVID-19 disease and pleural effusion. A rigorous literature search was conducted using multiple databases. All eligible observational studies were included from around the globe. The pooled prevalence and associated 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated using the random effect model. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were produced to report overall effect size using random effect models for severity and mortality outcomes. Funnel plots, Egger regression tests, and Begg-Mazumdar's rank correlation test were used to appraise publication bias. Data from 23 studies including 6234 COVID-19 patients was obtained. The overall prevalence of pleural effusion in COVID-19 patients was 9.55% (95% CI, I2 = 92%). Our findings also indicated that the presence of pleural effusions associated with increased risk of severity of disease(OR = 5.08, 95% CI 3.14-8.22, I2 = 77.4%) and mortality due to illness(OR = 4.53, 95% CI 2.16-9.49, I2 = 66%) compared with patients without pleural effusion. Sensitivity analyses illustrated a similar effect size while decreasing the heterogeneity. No significant publication bias was evident in the meta-analysis. The presence of pleural effusion can assist as a prognostic factor to evaluate the risk of worse outcomes in COVID-19 patients hence, it is recommended that hospitalized COVID-19 patients with pleural effusion should be managed on an early basis.

COVID-19/complications , Pleural Effusion/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/epidemiology , Prevalence , Prognosis , Severity of Illness Index