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1.
Stroke Vasc Neurol ; 6(4): 542-552, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1153702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, decreased volumes of stroke admissions and mechanical thrombectomy were reported. The study's objective was to examine whether subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions demonstrated similar declines. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study across 6 continents, 37 countries and 140 comprehensive stroke centres. Patients with the diagnosis of SAH, aneurysmal SAH, ruptured aneurysm coiling interventions and COVID-19 were identified by prospective aneurysm databases or by International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, codes. The 3-month cumulative volume, monthly volumes for SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm coiling procedures were compared for the period before (1 year and immediately before) and during the pandemic, defined as 1 March-31 May 2020. The prior 1-year control period (1 March-31 May 2019) was obtained to account for seasonal variation. FINDINGS: There was a significant decline in SAH hospitalisations, with 2044 admissions in the 3 months immediately before and 1585 admissions during the pandemic, representing a relative decline of 22.5% (95% CI -24.3% to -20.7%, p<0.0001). Embolisation of ruptured aneurysms declined with 1170-1035 procedures, respectively, representing an 11.5% (95%CI -13.5% to -9.8%, p=0.002) relative drop. Subgroup analysis was noted for aneurysmal SAH hospitalisation decline from 834 to 626 hospitalisations, a 24.9% relative decline (95% CI -28.0% to -22.1%, p<0.0001). A relative increase in ruptured aneurysm coiling was noted in low coiling volume hospitals of 41.1% (95% CI 32.3% to 50.6%, p=0.008) despite a decrease in SAH admissions in this tertile. INTERPRETATION: There was a relative decrease in the volume of SAH hospitalisations, aneurysmal SAH hospitalisations and ruptured aneurysm embolisations during the COVID-19 pandemic. These findings in SAH are consistent with a decrease in other emergencies, such as stroke and myocardial infarction.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intracranial Aneurysm , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Aneurysm/epidemiology , Intracranial Aneurysm/therapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
2.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 199: 106227, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023513

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients with COVID-19 to non-COVID-19 controls, and to describe changes in stroke admission patterns during the pandemic. METHODS: This is a single center, retrospective, observational study. All consecutive patients admitted with primary diagnosis of ischemic/ hemorrhagic stroke between March1st -May10th 2020 were included and compared with the same time period in 2019. RESULTS: There was a 41.9% increase in stroke admissions in 2020 (148 vs 210,P = .001). When comparing all ischemic strokes, higher rate of large vessel occlusion (LVO) (18.3% vs 33.8%,P = .008) and significant delay in initiation of mechanical thrombectomy after hospital arrival (67.75 vs 104.30 minutes,P = .001) was observed in 2020. When comparing all hemorrhagic strokes, there were no differences between the two years. Among 591 COVID-19 admissions, 31 (5.24%) patients with stroke including 19 with ischemic (3.21%) and 12 with hemorrhagic stroke (2.03%) were identified. Patients with COVID-19 and ischemic stroke were significantly younger (58.74 vs 48.11 years,P = .002), predominantly male (68.18% vs 94.74%,P = .016), had lesser vascular risk factors, had more severe clinical presentation (NIHSS 7.01 vs 17.05,P < .001), and higher rate of LVO (23.6% vs. 63.1%,P = .006). There was no difference in the rate of endovascular thrombectomy, but time to groin puncture was significantly longer in COVID-19 patients (83.41 vs 129.50 minutes,P = .003). For hemorrhagic stroke, COVID-19 patients did not differ from non-COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Stroke continues to occur during this pandemic and stroke pathways have been affected by the pandemic. Stroke occurs in approximately 5% of patients with COVID-19. COVID-19 associated ischemic stroke occurs in predominantly male patients who are younger, with fewer vascular risk factors, can be more severe, and have higher rates of LVO. Despite an increase in LVO during the pandemic, treatment with mechanical thrombectomy has not increased. COVID-19 associated hemorrhagic stroke does not differ from non-COVID-19 hemorrhagic stroke patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/therapy , Adult , Aged , Brain Ischemia/complications , Brain Ischemia/diagnosis , Brain Ischemia/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Endovascular Procedures , Female , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnosis , Intracranial Hemorrhages/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/mortality , Survival Rate , Thrombectomy , United Arab Emirates
3.
Front Neurol ; 11: 928, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-771519

ABSTRACT

In the unprecedented current era of the COVID-19 pandemic, challenges have arisen in the management and interventional care of patients with acute stroke and large vessel occlusion, aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, and ruptured vascular malformations. There are several challenges facing endovascular therapy for stroke, including shortages of medical staff who may be deployed for COVID-19 coverage or who may have contracted the infection and are thus quarantined, patients avoiding early medical care, a lack of personal protective equipment, delays in door-to-puncture time, anesthesia challenges, and a lack of high-intensity intensive care unit and stroke ward beds. As a leading regional neurovascular organization, the Middle East North Africa Stroke and Interventional Neurotherapies Organization (MENA-SINO) has established a task force composed of medical staff and physicians from different disciplines to establish guiding recommendations for the implementation of acute care pathways for various neurovascular emergencies during the current COVID-19 pandemic. This consensus recommendation was achieved through a series of meetings to finalize the recommendation.

4.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol ; 41(12): 2263-2268, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732924

ABSTRACT

The mechanisms and phenotype of ischemic stroke associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) remain uncertain. A retrospective study was conducted in patients with COVID-19 presenting with ischemic stroke from March 1 to May 25, 2020, and cases with large-vessel occlusion were identified. To provide baseline institutional stroke data within and outside the COVID-19 pandemic, all consecutive ischemic stroke and TIA admissions (COVID and non-COVID) to the hospital during a 10-week period from March 1 to May 10, 2020, were collected and compared with data from the same time period in 2019. Among 20 patients with COVID-19 and acute ischemic stroke, 15 (75%) had large-vessel occlusion. These patients were young (mean age, 46.5 years), male (93%), without major burden of traditional cardiovascular risk factors, and had a severe stroke presentation. Large-vessel occlusions were observed in multiple vessels (40%), uncommonly affected vessels, and atypical locations with a large thrombus burden. Systemic thrombosis separate from large-vessel occlusion was not uncommon (26%). At short-term follow-up, stroke etiology remained undetermined in 46% of patients and functional outcome was poor. The above findings raise the possibility of stroke related to mechanisms induced by the COVID-19 infection itself, including a hypercoagulable state and/or endothelial damage. In addition, they document the severe presentation and poor outcomes of large-vessel occlusion in COVID-19 ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Cerebrovascular Disorders/epidemiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/pathology , Ischemic Stroke/pathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/virology , Female , Humans , Ischemic Stroke/complications , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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