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1.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1873927

ABSTRACT

Although neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 correlate with protection against COVID-19, little is known about the neutralizing and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) responses to COVID-19, MIS-C, and COVID-19 vaccination in children. We enrolled children 0-21 years of age with history of COVID-19 (n=13), MIS-C (n=13), or two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination (n=14) into a phlebotomy protocol. We measured pseudovirus neutralizing and functional ADCC antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron (B.1.1.529). The primary BNT162b2 vaccination series elicited higher neutralizing and ADCC responses with greater breadth to SARS-CoV-2 variants than COVID-19 or MIS-C. However, serologic responses were significantly reduced against variants, particularly Omicron.

2.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(4): 100603, 2022 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764032

ABSTRACT

The ongoing severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic highlights the importance of determining the breadth and durability of humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination. Herein, we characterize the humoral response in 27 naive and 40 recovered vaccinees. SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and memory B cell (MBC) responses are durable up to 6 months, although antibody half-lives are shorter for naive recipients. The magnitude of the humoral responses to vaccination strongly correlates with responses to initial SARS-CoV-2 infection. Neutralization titers are lower against SARS-CoV-2 variants in both recovered and naive vaccinees, with titers more reduced in naive recipients. While the receptor-binding domain (RBD) is the main neutralizing target of circulating antibodies, Moderna-vaccinated naives show a lesser reliance on RBDs, with >25% neutralization remaining after depletion of RBD-binding antibodies. Overall, we observe that vaccination induces higher peak titers and improves durability in recovered compared with naive vaccinees. These findings have broad implications for current vaccine strategies deployed against the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
3.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(5): 1592-1606.e16, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739828

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a potentially life-threatening sequela of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection characterized by hyperinflammation and multiorgan dysfunction. Although hyperinflammation is a prominent manifestation of MIS-C, there is limited understanding of how the inflammatory state of MIS-C differs from that of well-characterized hyperinflammatory syndromes such as hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). OBJECTIVES: We sought to compare the qualitative and quantitative inflammatory profile differences between patients with MIS-C, coronavirus disease 2019, and HLH. METHODS: Clinical data abstraction from patient charts, T-cell immunophenotyping, and multiplex cytokine and chemokine profiling were performed for patients with MIS-C, patients with coronavirus disease 2019, and patients with HLH. RESULTS: We found that both patients with MIS-C and patients with HLH showed robust T-cell activation, markers of senescence, and exhaustion along with elevated TH1 and proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ, C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9, and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10. In comparison, the amplitude of T-cell activation and the levels of cytokines/chemokines were higher in patients with HLH when compared with patients with MIS-C. Distinguishing inflammatory features of MIS-C included elevation in TH2 inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4 and IL-13 and cytokine mediators of angiogenesis, vascular injury, and tissue repair such as vascular endothelial growth factor A and platelet-derived growth factor. Immune activation and hypercytokinemia in MIS-C resolved at follow-up. In addition, when these immune parameters were correlated with clinical parameters, CD8+ T-cell activation correlated with cardiac dysfunction parameters such as B-type natriuretic peptide and troponin and inversely correlated with platelet count. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, this study characterizes unique and overlapping immunologic features that help to define the hyperinflammation associated with MIS-C versus HLH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Ligands , Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
4.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(3): ofac070, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The serologic and cytokine responses of children hospitalized with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) vs coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are poorly understood. METHODS: We performed a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of hospitalized children who met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention case definition for MIS-C (n = 118), acute COVID-19 (n = 88), or contemporaneous healthy controls (n = 24). We measured severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers and cytokine concentrations in patients and performed multivariable analysis to determine cytokine signatures associated with MIS-C. We also measured nucleocapsid IgG and convalescent RBD IgG in subsets of patients. RESULTS: Children with MIS-C had significantly higher SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG than children with acute COVID-19 (median, 2783 vs 146; P < .001), and titers correlated with nucleocapsid IgG. For patients with MIS-C, RBD IgG titers declined in convalescence (median, 2783 vs 1135; P = .010) in contrast to patients with COVID-19 (median, 146 vs 4795; P < .001). MIS-C was characterized by transient acute proinflammatory hypercytokinemia, including elevated levels of interleukin (IL) 6, IL-10, IL-17A, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). Elevation of at least 3 of these cytokines was associated with significantly increased prevalence of prolonged hospitalization ≥8 days (prevalence ratio, 3.29 [95% CI, 1.17-9.23]). CONCLUSIONS: MIS-C was associated with high titers of SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgG antibodies and acute hypercytokinemia with IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, and IFN-γ.

5.
JCI Insight ; 7(4)2022 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1637818

ABSTRACT

Why multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) develops after SARS-CoV-2 infection in a subset of children is unknown. We hypothesized that aberrant virus-specific T cell responses contribute to MIS-C pathogenesis. We quantified SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells, serologic responses against major viral proteins, and cytokine responses from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in children with convalescent COVID-19, in children with acute MIS-C, and in healthy controls. Children with MIS-C had significantly lower virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses to major SARS-CoV-2 antigens compared with children convalescing from COVID-19. Furthermore, T cell responses in participants with MIS-C were similar to or lower than those in healthy controls. Serologic responses against spike receptor binding domain (RBD), full-length spike, and nucleocapsid were similar among convalescent COVID-19 and MIS-C, suggesting functional B cell responses. Cytokine profiling demonstrated predominant Th1 polarization of CD4+ T cells from children with convalescent COVID-19 and MIS-C, although cytokine production was reduced in MIS-C. Our findings support a role for constrained induction of anti-SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in the pathogenesis of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , COVID-19/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male
8.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):755-755, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564902

ABSTRACT

Background A significant burden of disease exists for adults infected with influenza (flu) and SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19. However, data are limited comparing outcomes between hospitalized adults infected with these viruses. Methods Over the course of 3 consecutive winter respiratory viral seasons, adults ≥ 50 years of age admitted with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) and adults of any age with COPD or CHF-related admissions were enrolled from 2 Atlanta area hospitals. For the 2018-19 and 2019-20 seasons, participants were approached in the hospital. If the participant enrolled, nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) swabs were collected and tested using BioFire® FilmArray® respiratory panel. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020-21 and limitations involving participant contact, only NP standard of care (SOC) swabs were collected. A comprehensive medical chart review was completed for each subject which encompassed data on their hospitalization, past medical history, and vaccination history. Co-infected patients were excluded from the analyses. Results Of the eligible participants, 118 were flu positive (three RSV-influenza co-infections were excluded) and 527 were COVID-19 positive. Median age was lower for the flu cohort at 62 (IQR 56-71) than those with COVID-19 (67, IQR 59-77) (p < 0.0001). Length of stay (LOS) was shorter in flu-infected patients (median 3 d, IQR 2-6), but was longer for COVID-19 patients (median 5 d, IQR 3-10). ICU admission occurred in 20% of those with flu, and among those admitted to the ICU mechanical ventilation (MV) occurred in 12.5%. ICU admission and MV was significantly higher for those with COVID-19, with 28% of patients admitted to the ICU and 47% of those requiring MV. Among patients with COVID-19, 8.9% died. This was significantly higher than that of flu (3.4%) (p=0.008). Hospital discharge occurred more frequently to a nursing home or LTCF with COVID-19 (10.3%) than with flu (0%) (p< 0.0001). Table 1. Breakdown of age, hospitalization course, and discharge disposition for participants diagnosed with influenza or COVID-19 during hospitalization. Conclusion COVID-19 resulted in a longer hospital admission, a greater chance of ICU admission and MV as compared to flu. Additionally, COVID-19 participants had a high rate of discharge to a nursing home/LTCF and a significantly higher risk of death. While the clinical course was not as severe as COVID-19, influenza contributed a significant burden. Disclosures David L. Swerdlow, MD, Pfizer Vaccines (Employee) Robin Hubler, MS, Pfizer Inc. (Employee) Christina A. Rostad, MD, BioFire Inc, GSK, MedImmune, Micron, Janssen, Merck, Moderna, Novavax, PaxVax, Pfizer, Regeneron, Sanofi-Pasteur. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support)Meissa Vaccines (Other Financial or Material Support, Co-inventor of patented RSV vaccine technology unrelated to this manuscript, which has been licensed to Meissa Vaccines, Inc.) Larry Anderson, MD, ADVI (Consultant)Bavarian Nordic (Consultant)Novavax (Consultant)Phizer (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sciogen (Research Grant or Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, pfizer, sanofi, lily, quidel, merck (Grant/Research Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, Lilly (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Merck (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory study PI, Grant/Research Support;Pfizer: I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory, Research Grant;Pfizer (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory;Quidel (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Sanofi Pasteur (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Chair phase 3 COVID vaccine, Grant/Research Support Evan J. Anderson, MD, GSK (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Janssen (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Advisor or Review Panel member)Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc (Advisor or Review Panel m mber)MedImmune (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Medscape (Consultant)Merck (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Micron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)PaxVax (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Pfizer (Consultant, Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Regeneron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sanofi Pasteur (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)

9.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):752-753, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564762

ABSTRACT

Background The burden of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)-associated hospitalization in adults is incompletely understood. The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in multiple public health measures (e.g., social distancing, handwashing, masking) to decrease SARS-CoV-2 transmission, which could impact RSV-associated hospitalizations. We sought to compare RSV-associated hospitalizations from 2 pre- and one mid-COVID-19 winter viral respiratory seasons. Methods We conducted an IRB-approved prospective surveillance at two Atlanta-area hospitals during the winter respiratory viral seasons from Oct 2018–Apr 2021 for adults ≥ 50 years of age admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI) and adults of any age with COPD or CHF-related admissions. Adults were eligible if they were residents of an 8 county region surrounding Atlanta, Georgia. Those with symptoms > 14 days were excluded. Standard of care test results were included. Asymptomatic adults ≥ 50 years of age were enrolled as controls in Seasons 1 and 2. Nasopharyngeal swabs from cases and controls were tested for RSV using BioFire® FilmArray® Respiratory Viral Panel (RVP). We compared the demographic features and outcomes of RSV+ cases and controls. Results RSV was detected in 71/2,728 (2.6%) hospitalized adults with ARI, CHF, or COPD and 4/466 (0.9%) controls. In Season 1, RSV occurred in 5.9% (35/596 patients), in Season 2 3.6% (35/970 patients), but in only 0.09% (1/1,162 patients) in Season 3 (P < 0.001 for both seasons). RSV detection in Season 3 was similar to RSV detection among controls during Seasons 1 and 2 (P=0.6). Median age of cases and controls was 67 years (Table 1). Of cases with RSV 11% were admitted to the ICU and two required mechanical ventilation. The majority of hospitalized patients were discharged home (95.8%) with a median length of hospitalization of three days (IQR 2-7). Table 1. Demographic Features and Outcomes Among RSV-Positive Hospitalized Adults. Conclusion Over 3 seasons, RSV was detected in 2.6% of adults admitted to the hospital with ARI, CHF or COPD. The rate of RSV dramatically declined during the 2020-21 winter respiratory viral season, likely due to public health measures implemented in response to COVID-19. Disclosures David L. Swerdlow, MD, Pfizer Vaccines (Employee) Robin Hubler, MS, Pfizer Inc. (Employee) Larry Anderson, MD, ADVI (Consultant)Bavarian Nordic (Consultant)Novavax (Consultant)Phizer (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sciogen (Research Grant or Support) Christina A. Rostad, MD, BioFire Inc, GSK, MedImmune, Micron, Janssen, Merck, Moderna, Novavax, PaxVax, Pfizer, Regeneron, Sanofi-Pasteur. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support)Meissa Vaccines (Other Financial or Material Support, Co-inventor of patented RSV vaccine technology unrelated to this manuscript, which has been licensed to Meissa Vaccines, Inc.) Nadine Rouphael, MD, pfizer, sanofi, lily, quidel, merck (Grant/Research Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, Lilly (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Merck (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory study PI, Grant/Research Support;Pfizer: I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory, Research Grant;Pfizer (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory;Quidel (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Sanofi Pasteur (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Chair phase 3 COVID vaccine, Grant/Research Support Evan J. Anderson, MD, GSK (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Janssen (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Advisor or Review Panel member)Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc (Advisor or Review Panel member)MedImmune (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Medscape (Consultant)Merck (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Micron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)PaxVax (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Pfizer (Consultant, Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Regeneron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sanofi Pasteur (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)

10.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):757-758, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564711

ABSTRACT

Background Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) are a significant cause of morbidity in adults. Influenza is associated with about 490,600 hospitalizations and 34,200 deaths in the US in the 2018-2019 season. The burden of rhinovirus among adults hospitalized with ARI is less well known. We compared the burden of influenza and rhinovirus from 2 consecutive winter respiratory viral seasons in hospitalized adults and healthy controls pre-COVID-19 and one season mid-COVID-19 to determine the impact of rhinovirus as a pathogen. Methods From Oct 2018 to Apr 2021, prospective surveillance of adults ≥50 years old admitted with ARI or COPD/CHF exacerbations at any age was conducted at two Atlanta hospitals. Adults were eligible if they lived within an eight-county region around Atlanta and if their symptom duration was < 14 days. In the seasons from Oct 2018 to Mar 2020, asymptomatic adults ≥50 years old were enrolled as controls. Standard of care test results were included and those enrolled contributed nasopharyngeal swabs that were tested for respiratory pathogens using BioFire® FilmArray® Respiratory Viral Panel (RVP). Results During the first two seasons, 1566 hospitalized adults were enrolled. Rhinovirus was detected in 7.5% (118) and influenza was detected in 7.7% (121). Rhinovirus was also detected in 2.2% of 466 healthy adult controls while influenza was detected in 0%. During Season 3, the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic, influenza declined to 0% of ARI hospitalizations. Rhinovirus also declined (p=0.01) but still accounted for 5.1% of all ARIs screened (Figure 1). Rhinovirus was detected at a greater rate in Season 3 than in asymptomatic controls in the first 2 seasons (p=0.008). In the first two seasons, Influenza was detected in 8.6% (24/276) of those admitted to the ICU. Rhinovirus was detected in 6.1% (17/276) of those admitted to the ICU but declined to 3.1% (8/258) in Season 3. Figure 1. Percent Positive Cases of Influenza and Rhinovirus between Season 1&2 (hospitalized and healthy controls) vs Season 3 (hospitalized) Conclusion Dramatic declines occurred in influenza in adults hospitalized with ARI, CHF, or COPD in Atlanta during the COVID-19 pandemic and with enhanced public health measures. Although rhinovirus declined during the COVID-19 pandemic, it continued to be identified at a rate higher than in historical controls. Additional data are needed to understand the role of rhinovirus in adult ARI, CHF, and COPD exacerbations. Disclosures David L. Swerdlow, MD, Pfizer Vaccines (Employee) Robin Hubler, MS, Pfizer Inc. (Employee) Christina A. Rostad, MD, BioFire Inc, GSK, MedImmune, Micron, Janssen, Merck, Moderna, Novavax, PaxVax, Pfizer, Regeneron, Sanofi-Pasteur. (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Research Grant or Support)Meissa Vaccines (Other Financial or Material Support, Co-inventor of patented RSV vaccine technology unrelated to this manuscript, which has been licensed to Meissa Vaccines, Inc.) Larry Anderson, MD, ADVI (Consultant)Bavarian Nordic (Consultant)Novavax (Consultant)Phizer (Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sciogen (Research Grant or Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, pfizer, sanofi, lily, quidel, merck (Grant/Research Support) Nadine Rouphael, MD, Lilly (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Merck (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory study PI, Grant/Research Support;Pfizer: I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory, Research Grant;Pfizer (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Grant/Research Support, I conduct as co-PI the RSV PFIZER study at Emory;Quidel (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Emory Study PI, Grant/Research Support;Sanofi Pasteur (Individual(s) Involved: Self): Chair phase 3 COVID vaccine, Grant/Research Support Evan J. Anderson, MD, GSK (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Janssen (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator, Advisor or Review Panel member)Kentucky Bioprocessing, Inc (Advisor or Review Panel me ber)MedImmune (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Medscape (Consultant)Merck (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Micron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)PaxVax (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Pfizer (Consultant, Grant/Research Support, Scientific Research Study Investigator)Regeneron (Scientific Research Study Investigator)Sanofi Pasteur (Consultant, Scientific Research Study Investigator)

11.
Nat Immunol ; 22(11): 1452-1464, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454797

ABSTRACT

There is limited understanding of the viral antibody fingerprint following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in children. Herein, SARS-CoV-2 proteome-wide immunoprofiling of children with mild/moderate or severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) versus multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children versus hospitalized control patients revealed differential cytokine responses, IgM/IgG/IgA epitope diversity, antibody binding and avidity. Apart from spike and nucleocapsid, IgG/IgA recognized epitopes in nonstructural protein (NSP) 2, NSP3, NSP12-NSP14 and open reading frame (ORF) 3a-ORF9. Peptides representing epitopes in NSP12, ORF3a and ORF8 demonstrated SARS-CoV-2 serodiagnosis. Antibody-binding kinetics with 24 SARS-CoV-2 proteins revealed antibody parameters that distinguish children with mild/moderate versus severe COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Antibody avidity to prefusion spike correlated with decreased illness severity and served as a clinical disease indicator. The fusion peptide and heptad repeat 2 region induced SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Thus, we identified SARS-CoV-2 antibody signatures in children associated with disease severity and delineate promising serodiagnostic and virus neutralization targets. These findings might guide the design of serodiagnostic assays, prognostic algorithms, therapeutics and vaccines in this important but understudied population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , Adolescent , Antibodies, Neutralizing/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Child , Child, Preschool , Disease Progression , Epitopes/metabolism , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunity, Humoral , Immunoglobulin A/metabolism , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Immunoglobulin M/metabolism , Male , Prognosis , Proteome , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis
12.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 247(2): 145-151, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438228

ABSTRACT

This study sought to evaluate the candidacy of plasma osteopontin (OPN) as a biomarker of COVID-19 severity and multisystem inflammatory condition in children (MIS-C) in children. A retrospective analysis of 26 children (0-21 years of age) admitted to Children's Healthcare of Atlanta with a diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 17 and May 26, 2020 was undertaken. The patients were classified into three categories based on COVID-19 severity levels: asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic (control population, admitted for other non-COVID-19 conditions), mild/moderate, and severe COVID-19. A fourth category of children met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's case definition for MIS-C. Residual blood samples were analyzed for OPN, a marker of inflammation using commercial ELISA kits (R&D), and results were correlated with clinical data. This study demonstrates that OPN levels are significantly elevated in children hospitalized with moderate and severe COVID-19 and MIS-C compared to OPN levels in mild/asymptomatic children. Further, OPN differentiated among clinical levels of severity in COVID-19, while other inflammatory markers including maximum erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein and ferritin, minimum lymphocyte and platelet counts, soluble interleukin-2R, and interleukin-6 did not. We conclude OPN is a potential biomarker of COVID-19 severity and MIS-C in children that may have future clinical utility. The specificity and positive predictive value of this marker for COVID-19 and MIS-C are areas for future larger prospective research studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Osteopontin/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/blood , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Adolescent , Biomarkers/blood , Blood Sedimentation , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/pathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Ferritins/blood , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Platelet Count , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Young Adult
13.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0045821, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398599

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for a global pandemic with over 152 million cases and 3.19 million deaths reported by early May 2021. Understanding the serological response to SARS-CoV-2 is critical to determining the burden of infection and disease (coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]) and transmission dynamics. We developed a capture IgM assay because it should have better sensitivity and specificity than the commonly used indirect assay. Here, we report the development and performance of a capture IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a companion indirect IgG ELISA for the spike (S) and nucleocapsid (N) proteins and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of S. We found that among the IgM ELISAs, the S ELISA was positive in 76% of 55 serum samples from SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive patients, the RBD ELISA was positive in 55% of samples, and the N ELISA was positive in 15% of samples. The companion indirect IgG ELISAs were positive for S in 89% of the 55 serum samples, RBD in 78%, and N in 85%. While the specificities for IgM RBD, S, and N ELISAs and IgG S and RBD ELISAs were 97% to 100%, the specificity of the N IgG ELISA was lower (89%). RBD-specific IgM antibodies became undetectable by 3 to 6 months, and S IgM reached low levels at 6 months. The corresponding IgG S, RBD, and N antibodies persisted with some decreases in levels over this time period. These capture IgM ELISAs and the companion indirect IgG ELISAs should enhance serologic studies of SARS-CoV-2 infections. IMPORTANCE Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has inflicted tremendous loss of lives, overwhelmed health care systems, and disrupted all aspects of life worldwide since its emergence in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. Detecting current and past infection by PCR or serology is important to understanding and controlling SARS-CoV-2. With increasing prevalence of past infection or vaccination, IgG antibodies are less helpful in diagnosing a current infection. IgM antibodies indicate a more recent infection and can supplement PCR diagnosis. We report an alternative method, capture IgM, to detect serum IgM antibodies, which should be more sensitive and specific than most currently used methods. We describe this capture IgM assay and a companion indirect IgG assay for the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S), nucleocapsid (N), and receptor-binding domain (RBD) proteins. These assays can add value to diagnostic and serologic studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin M/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256482, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376627

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The effects of pre-existing endemic human coronavirus (HCoV) immunity on SARS-CoV-2 serologic and clinical responses are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to determine the effects of prior exposure to HCoV Betacoronavirus HKU1 spike protein on serologic responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein after intramuscular administration in mice. We also sought to understand the baseline seroprevalence of HKU1 spike antibodies in healthy children and to measure their correlation with SARS-CoV-2 binding and neutralizing antibodies in children hospitalized with acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) or multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C). METHODS: Groups of 5 mice were injected intramuscularly with two doses of alum-adjuvanted HKU1 spike followed by SARS-CoV-2 spike; or the reciprocal regimen of SARS-Cov-2 spike followed by HKU1 spike. Sera collected 21 days following each injection was analyzed for IgG antibodies to HKU1 spike, SARS-CoV-2 spike, and SARS-CoV-2 neutralization. Sera from children hospitalized with acute COVID-19, MIS-C or healthy controls (n = 14 per group) were analyzed for these same antibodies. RESULTS: Mice primed with SARS-CoV-2 spike and boosted with HKU1 spike developed high titers of SARS-CoV-2 binding and neutralizing antibodies; however, mice primed with HKU1 spike and boosted with SARS-CoV-2 spike were unable to mount neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. HKU1 spike antibodies were detected in all children with acute COVID-19, MIS-C, and healthy controls. Although children with MIS-C had significantly higher HKU1 spike titers than healthy children (GMT 37239 vs. 7551, P = 0.012), these titers correlated positively with both SARS-CoV-2 binding (r = 0.7577, P<0.001) and neutralizing (r = 0.6201, P = 0.001) antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Prior murine exposure to HKU1 spike protein completely impeded the development of neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2, consistent with original antigenic sin. In contrast, the presence of HKU1 spike IgG antibodies in children with acute COVID-19 or MIS-C was not associated with diminished neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adolescent , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigen-Antibody Reactions , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Child , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism
15.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 55: 103169, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333681

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms and CSF cytokine, chemokine, and SARS-COV-2 antibody profiles are unknown in pediatric patients with COVID-19 or multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), (NP-COVID-19). METHODS: Children at a single pediatric institution quaternary referral center with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 or MIS-C and neuropsychiatric symptoms were included in this retrospective case series. Clinical symptoms, ancillary testing data, treatments and outcomes are described. Multiplexed electrochemiluminescence assays for cytokines, chemokines and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were tested in the CSF NP-COVID-19 patients compared to five controls and were analyzed using the Student's t-test. RESULTS: Three of five NP-COVID-19 patients had psychiatric symptoms, and two patients had encephalopathy and seizures. All patients had full or near resolution of neuropsychiatric symptoms by discharge. One patient received intravenous steroids for treatment for psychiatric symptoms; 3/5 other patients received immunotherapy for MIS-C, including IVIG, high-dose steroids, anakinra, and tocilizumab. Pro-inflammatory chemokines, including MIG, MPC, MIP-1ß, and TARC were significantly elevated in NP-COVID-19 patients compared to controls. Two of five patients had elevated CSF neurofilament light chain. CSF SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers to the full-length spike, receptor binding domain and N-terminal domain were significantly elevated. SARS-CoV-2 antibody titers strongly correlated with pro-inflammatory chemokines/cytokines, including IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-8, TNF-α, and IFN-γ (P≤0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: A spectrum of neuropsychiatric clinical manifestations can occur in children with SARS-CoV-2 infection. CSF pro-inflammatory chemokines and SARS-CoV-2 antibodies may serve as biomarkers of SARS-CoV-2 mediated NP-COVID-19. Additional study is required to understand the pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuroinflammation in children with COVID-19 and MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/complications , Chemokines , Child , Cytokines , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
17.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(25)2021 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258620

ABSTRACT

Low plasma arginine bioavailability has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction and immune dysregulation. The role of arginine in COVID-19 is unknown, but could contribute to cellular damage if low. Our objective was to determine arginine bioavailability in adults and children with COVID-19 vs. healthy controls. We hypothesized that arginine bioavailability would be low in patients with COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). We conducted a prospective observational study of three patient cohorts; arginine bioavailability was determined in asymptomatic healthy controls, adults hospitalized with COVID-19, and hospitalized children/adolescents <21 y old with COVID-19, MIS-C, or asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection identified on admission screen. Mean patient plasma amino acids were compared to controls using the Student's t test. Arginine-to-ornithine ratio, a biomarker of arginase activity, and global arginine bioavailability ratio (GABR, arginine/[ornithine+citrulline]) were assessed in all three groups. A total of 80 patients were included (28 controls, 32 adults with COVID-19, and 20 pediatric patients with COVID-19/MIS-C). Mean plasma arginine and arginine bioavailability ratios were lower among adult and pediatric patients with COVID-19/MIS-C compared to controls. There was no difference between arginine bioavailability in children with COVID-19 vs. MIS-C. Adults and children with COVID-19 and MIS-C in our cohort had low arginine bioavailability compared to healthy adult controls. This may contribute to immune dysregulation and endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19. Low arginine-to-ornithine ratio in patients with COVID-19 or MIS-C suggests an elevation of arginase activity. Further study is merited to explore the role of arginine dysregulation in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids/blood , COVID-19/blood , Hospitalization , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
18.
Virology ; 559: 1-9, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1142294

ABSTRACT

Since the COVID-19 pandemic, functional non-neutralizing antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2, including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), are poorly understood. We developed an ADCC assay utilizing a stably transfected, dual-reporter target cell line with inducible expression of a SARS-CoV-2 spike protein on the cell surface. Using this assay, we analyzed 61 convalescent serum samples from adults with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 and 15 samples from healthy uninfected controls. We found that 56 of 61 convalescent serum samples induced ADCC killing of SARS-CoV-2 S target cells, whereas none of the 15 healthy controls had detectable ADCC. We then found a modest decline in ADCC titer over a median 3-month follow-up in 21 patients who had serial samples available for analysis. We confirmed that the antibody-dependent target cell lysis was mediated primarily via the NK FcγRIIIa receptor (CD16). This ADCC assay had high sensitivity and specificity for detecting serologic immune responses to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Cell Line , Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic , Female , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Kinetics , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, IgG/immunology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Young Adult
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 26(7): 1633-1635, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-66389

ABSTRACT

Most reverse transcription PCR protocols for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) include 2-3 targets for detection. We developed a triplex, real-time reverse transcription PCR for SARS-CoV-2 that maintained clinical performance compared with singleplex assays. This protocol could streamline detection and decrease reagent use during current high SARS-CoV-2 testing demands.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Humans , Nasopharynx/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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