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1.
Cells ; 11(9), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1818055

ABSTRACT

Human SARS-CoV-2 and avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) are highly contagious and deadly coronaviruses, causing devastating respiratory diseases in humans and chickens. The lack of effective therapeutics exacerbates the impact of outbreaks associated with SARS-CoV-2 and IBV infections. Thus, novel drugs or therapeutic agents are highly in demand for controlling viral transmission and disease progression. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) secreted factors (secretome) are safe and efficient alternatives to stem cells in MSC-based therapies. This study aimed to investigate the antiviral potentials of human Wharton’s jelly MSC secretome (hWJ-MSC-S) against SARS-CoV-2 and IBV infections in vitro and in ovo. The half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50), cytotoxic concentration (CC50), and selective index (SI) values of hWJ-MSC-S were determined using Vero-E6 cells. The virucidal, anti-adsorption, and anti-replication antiviral mechanisms of hWJ-MSC-S were evaluated. The hWJ-MSC-S significantly inhibited infection of SARS-CoV-2 and IBV, without affecting the viability of cells and embryos. Interestingly, hWJ-MSC-S reduced viral infection by >90%, in vitro. The IC50 and SI of hWJ-MSC secretome against SARS-CoV-2 were 166.6 and 235.29 µg/mL, respectively, while for IBV, IC50 and SI were 439.9 and 89.11 µg/mL, respectively. The virucidal and anti-replication antiviral effects of hWJ-MSC-S were very prominent compared to the antiadsorption effect. In the in ovo model, hWJ-MSC-S reduced IBV titer by >99%. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS-MS) analysis of hWJ-MSC-S revealed a significant enrichment of immunomodulatory and antiviral proteins. Collectively, our results not only uncovered the antiviral potency of hWJ-MSC-S against SARS-CoV-2 and IBV, but also described the mechanism by which hWJ-MSC-S inhibits viral infection. These findings indicate that hWJ-MSC-S could be utilized in future pre-clinical and clinical studies to develop effective therapeutic approaches against human COVID-19 and avian IB respiratory diseases.

2.
2021 Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, ADIP 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1789280

ABSTRACT

This paper addresses the challenging situation that was faced by Maintenance Teams in Offshore Sites to maintain and ensure the optimal conditions of the plants, conducting Routine Preventative Maintenance (RPM) as planned, achieving Company and Operational Excellence KPIs in the midst of COVID-19 pandemic. A brief description of how the sites defined a new normal given the circumstances to ensure all work was met while tackling the numerous obstacles in order to keep operations running smoothly is iterated below. © Copyright 2021, Society of Petroleum Engineers

3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294726

ABSTRACT

Objectives To assess the effectiveness of prone positioning to reduce the risk of death or respiratory failure in non-critically ill patients hospitalized with COVID-19 Design Pragmatic randomized clinical trial of prone positioning of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 across 15 hospitals in Canada and the United States from May 2020 until May 2021. Settings Patients were eligible is they had a laboratory-confirmed or a clinically highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19, required supplemental oxygen (up to 50% fraction of inspired oxygen [FiO2]), and were able to independently prone with verbal instruction. ( NCT04383613 ). Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was a composite of in-hospital death, mechanical ventilation, or worsening respiratory failure defined as requiring at least 60% FiO2 for at least 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included the change in the ratio of oxygen saturation to FiO2 (S/F ratio). Results A total of 248 patients were included. The trial was stopped early on the basis of futility for the pre-specified primary outcome. The median time from hospital admission until randomization was 1 day, the median age of patients was 56 years (interquartile range [IQR] 45,65), 36% were female, and 90% of patients were receiving oxygen via nasal prongs at the time of randomization. The median time spent prone in the first 72 hours was 6 hours total (IQR 1.5,12.8) for the prone arm compared to 0 hours (0,2) in the control arm. The risk of the primary outcome was similar between the prone group (18 [14.3%] events) and the standard care group (17 [13.9%] events), odds ratio 0.92 (95% CI 0.44 to 1.92). The change in the S/F ratio after 72 hours was similar for patients randomized to prone compared to standard of care. Conclusion Among hypoxic but not critically patients with COVID-19 in hospital, a multifaceted intervention to increase prone positioning did not improve outcomes. Adherence to prone positioning was poor, despite multiple efforts. Subsequent trials of prone positioning should aim to develop strategies to improve adherence to awake prone positioning. What is already known on this topic Prone positioning is considered standard of care for mechanically ventilated patients who have severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Recent data suggest prone positioning is beneficial for patients with COVID-19 who are requiring high flow oxygen. It is unknown of prone positioning is beneficial for patients not on high flow oxygen. What this study adds Prone positioning is generally not well tolerated and innovative approaches are needed to improve adherence. Clinical and physiologic outcomes were not improved with prone positioning among hypoxic but not critically ill patients hospitalized with COVID-19.

4.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ; 85(1):2870-2878, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1538992

ABSTRACT

Background: Many adaptations to medical education have been made in response to the new emergent COVID-19 pandemic and its enormous global effects including the teaching and learning strategies to assure the educational process's safety and advancement. Accordingly, it was necessary to implement new online instructional approaches at the Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University in Egypt. Objective: To assess online learning advantages and disadvantages as perceived by medical students in addition to their preference regarding online vs face-to-face learning, Subjects and methods: This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study that included 340 students who filled an online survey consisting of 16 questions and was conducted on the Google Forms platform. Target population: years 1, 2 and 3 undergraduate medical students at Faculty of Medicine, Suez Canal University who experienced online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Results: The mean age of students was 19.57±1.02, ranged from 17 to 23 years, 61% of them were females. About 63.8% of students had no previous experience with online learning. The main perceived advantages were the ability to stay home (63.8%), comfortable surrounding (52.1%) and access to online materials (47.1%), while the main perceived disadvantages were technical problems (67.6%), lack of interaction with patients (58.8%), and reduced interaction with teachers (48.5%). Most of the students found face-to-face learning is superior to online learning in improving the knowledge (p=0.005), clinical skills (p<0.001) and social competence (p<0.001). Though 77% of them rated online learning as enjoyable. Conclusion: Most of our participants preferred traditional face-to-face learning over the online learning. Stakeholders should take the required steps to improve learning by reducing the disadvantages and increasing advantages of online learning as perceived by students during this study. © 2021, Ain Shams University Faculty of Medicine. All rights reserved.

5.
Egyptian Journal of Hospital Medicine ; 83(1):1321-1329, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1527083

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus infected with the new coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), are at risk of high morbidity and mortality. Objective: Our study aimed to address the clinical, laboratory and radiological predictors of hospital admission course for patients with diabetes mellitus with COVID19 infection at the time of admission. Patients and Methods: This was a single center, retrospective study of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) admitted with COVID-19 infection. Patients with unfavorable admission course were compared with those of favorable course regarding patient characteristics, clinical presentation, results of laboratory investigations and chest CT severity score. Univariate and multivariate analysis associated with the unfavorable course was performed. Results: Among 141 patients with DM admitted with COVID19, 44 patients had unfavorable course. Those with the favorable course were significantly younger (53.3±16.4) vs (67.3 ±15.8) in the unfavorable course group, multivariate analysis revealed that age more than 65, presence of hypertension, CT severity scoring, high HBA1c, AST, IL6, oxygen saturation less than 93% and low lymphocyte count were the independent predictors of the unfavorable hospital admission course. Conclusions: Our finding suggests that old age, presence of hypertension, hypoxia at presentation, in addition to high HBA1c, AST, IL6, CT severity scoring and low lymphocyte count were significant predictors of unfavorable admission course in COVID19 patients with diabetes. © 2021, Ain Shams University Faculty of Medicine. All rights reserved.

6.
International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences ; 16(Suppl. 1):1329-1335, 2020.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1391042

ABSTRACT

The current study included using two types of table salt, sea salt, Turkish origin from the Aegean Sea and common salt in both normal and Nanoscale. The Nanoscale of the two types of salts that are locally manufactured in inhibiting the fungi Aspergillus flavus isolate Asf 04, partially diagnosed and deposited in the Gen Bank under the accession number MN 944453. The result showed that the concentrations of Nano sea salt exceeded by 1, 2.5 and 3% on the culture medium PDA in vitro, with inhibition percentages of 23.5, 65.89 and 46.7%, respectively, over the common Nano salt with the same concentrations that achieved the inhibition percentages of the fungi growth reached 22.82, 37.6 and 41.1%, respectively. Whereas, the concentrations of the two salt species (sea and common) in normal scales 1, 2.5 and 3, for the sea salt it achieved 0, 5.8 and 12.58% inhibition percentages respectively and the same concentrations of common salt achieved 0, 3.17 and 3.52%, respectively. From the results, it can be observed that the concentration of 2.5% of Nano sea salt exceeded overall concentrations. Furthermore, the results of inhibiting the fungi A. flavus on stored rice grains and preventing it from producing toxin showed the superiority of Nano salts 2.5% and achieved a reduction for toxin by 95.8%, where the AFB1 was reduced from a concentration 21.2 ppb in the Control to 0.89 ppb in the treatment of Nano salt. Finally, the Nano sea salt at a concentration of 2.5% achieved a reduction percentage of 84.86%, as the concentration of AFB1 in the treatment of Nano salt was reduced to 3.44 ppb compared to the Control of 22.88 ppb in the stored rice grain.

7.
Medical Science ; 25(111):1117-1122, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1250291

ABSTRACT

Corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19) has affected people of various age groups with symptoms ranging from asymptomatic mild, moderate to severe symptoms. Patients with mild symptoms require no medical intervention whereas moderate or severe symptoms require hospitalization and medical management. The following case report discusses the recovery of a COVID-19 patient with moderate symptoms. In a COVID dedicated tertiary care hospital in Ha'il region, Saudi Arabia. Physiotherapy has a great role as a part of a multidisciplinary team in the management of patients with respiratory and physical problems. The report mainly presents the impact of the physiotherapy role in the recovery of the patient and improving his physical and psychological status.

8.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 12(3):3539-3564, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1094763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outcomes of following a way of life, devouring abundance calories with restricted actual movement, are the metabolic aggravations that come full circle in diabetes and weight that have now arrived at plague extents over the West. It has turn into evident that these cases incline people to extreme COVID-19, which is brought about by an infection scattering from the east, which much of the time causes mellow influenza like manifestations. There are a few outcomes of the diabetes and weight that may put up the clinical reaction to coronavirus-disease. These incorporate a debilitated insusceptible reaction, an atherosclerotic express, an amassing of AGEs that actuate RAGE, and particularly a prior ongoing incendiary condition. The last can prompt a misrepresented cell reaction to viral disease, re-presenting it to a CYTOKINE storm that prompts movement to septic stun, ARDS, and MOF. Notwithstanding these elements, so as to, can be add to intensifying these metabolic circumstances of the clinical route of coronavirus, the most basic mechanism that may add to encouraging viral contamination. Disease prompts a provocative reaction and tissue harm and this prompts an expansion in metabolic action. This is connected to an expansion in the components by which cells gobble up tissue remainders, debase them and unfamiliar materials. Infections seem to have gained the capacity to misuse these components to attack cells and encourage their existence series. In stoutness and diabetes, these components are constantly initiated because of upset digestion and this may give an expanded chance to a more thoughtful and supported viral contamination. Weight is a worldwide illness wherein at any rate 2.8 million individuals kick the bucket each year because of being overweight or stout, as indicated by World Health Organization figures. This paper intends to investigate the connections among stoutness and mortality in COVID-19.METHODS: Weight Study Papers were electronically looked for a danger factor for death following COVID-19 contamination. Ten creators freely chose the papers and consented to definite incorporation. The results were age, sexual orientation, weight file, serious comorbidities, respiratory help, and basic disease related passings in COVID-19. Various examinations were chosen for quantitative investigation. Results: The point of the momentum audit was to survey whether there was a relationship between weight, higher hospitalization levels, helpless results and passings because of novel Covid sickness (COVID-19). Systematic review: An efficient survey of articles identified with the novel Covid, containing data on corpulence and its relationship with COVID-19 infection and mortality. In the bibliographic pursuit, four information bases were utilized, with the terms ["COVID-19] and]" Hospital "], [" Obesity "] and [" Mortality "]. Studies distributed from the date 02/12/2020 until October 31/2020 and was incorporated The exploration contains complete measures focusing on investigations of grown-up people with Sars-Cov-2, with or without comorbidities This examination was chosen from distributions in Spanish and English from among 19 studies out of 20, more extreme types of the sickness were seen In 14 of them, difficulty rates were higher among hefty individuals with the new coronavirus.Limited contrasts were seen in the meaning of heftiness between distributions, which considered stoutness from the body with a mass list of> 25 kg/m2. All essential focuses aside from sexual orientation are exceptionally connected with COVID-19 passings. There was an uphill straight pattern in the probability of COVID-19 hospitalization with an expansion in BMI, and this was apparent in flabby (chances proportion 1.39;95% CI 1.13 to 1.71;unrefined disease rate 19.1 per 10,000) and stage 1 heftiness (1.70;1.34 to 2.16;23.3 per 10,000) and stage II (3.38;2.60 to 4.40;42.7 per 10,000) contrasted with ordinary weight (12.5 per 10,000). This slope was somewhat influenced following change for a wide scope of covariates;Ho ever, the control of biomarkers, especially HDL cholesterol and glycated hemoglobin, brought about a more noteworthy level of weakening. A comparable example rose up out of the connection for the midsection to-hip proportion. To put it plainly, aggregate and focal weight are both danger factors for COVID-19 hospitalization. The raised danger was clear in even a slight weight gain. The components may incorporate debilitated glucose and lipid digestion.

9.
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research ; 12(4):4063-4069, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1040813

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is the irresistible sickness brought about through the Covid, SARS-CoV-2, which is a respiratory microbe. WHO first learned of this new virus from cases in Wuhan, People’s Republic of China on 31 December 2019. People of all ages who experience fever and/or cough associated with trouble breathing or windedness, chest agony or weight, or loss of discourse or development should look for clinical consideration right away. If possible, call your health care provider, hotline or health facility first, so you can be directed to the right clinic. A great many people (about 80%) recuperate from the illness without requiring clinic treatment. About 20% of the individuals who get COVID-19 become truly sick and require oxygen, with 5% turning out to be basically sick and requiring concentrated consideration. Complications leading to death may include respiratory letdown, severerespiratory distress syndrome (SRDS), sepsis and infectedupset, thromboembolism, and/or multiorgan malfunction, including injury of the heart, liver or kidneys. In rare situations, children can develop a severe inflammatory syndrome a few weeks after infection. Anyone with symptoms should be tested, wherever possible. People who do not have symptoms but have had close contact with someone who is, or may be, infected may also consider testing – check with your local health guidelines. While a person is waiting for test results, they should remain isolated from others. Where testing capacity is limited, tests should first be done for those at higher risk of infection, such as health workers, and those at higher risk of severe illness such as older people, especially those living in seniors’ residences or long-term care facilities.In this review, we give a concise diagram of the effect that COVID-19 has in disease development and therapy, and feature the arising need to consider the function of COVID-19 contamination in malignant growth movement and treatment.

10.
J Community Health ; 46(3): 487-493, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-640848

ABSTRACT

The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) caused a plethora of challenges worldwide and tested healthcare systems across the six continents. Lebanon had recently faced harsh political and economic crises. We aim to describe the effect of COVID-19 on an already crisis-stricken country. A descriptive analysis of the burden of COVID-19 pandemic on Lebanon was performed. Relevant data on COVID-19 was retrieved from the Lebanese Ministry of Public Health from February 21 till June 13th, 2020. Results obtained were analyzed and a literature review was performed. 1422 confirmed COVID-19 cases were identified and reported in Lebanon by June 13th, 2020, comprising an incidence rate of 208/million persons. There has been a total of 31 deaths thus far, with a reported death rate of 5/million persons. The age group with the highest number of cases was 20-29 years. Beirut was the district with the highest number of cases (18%). The COVID-19 crisis has impacted the country on a multifactorial level. COVID-19 could not have come at a worse time for Lebanon. The country is on brink of bankruptcy, the healthcare system is struggling for survival and the government is striving to regain the trust of the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cost of Illness , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Economics/statistics & numerical data , Education/organization & administration , Female , Humans , Incidence , Lebanon/epidemiology , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Young Adult
11.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 125: 170-178, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-574513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There is a pressing need for evidence-based interventions to address the devastating clinical and public health effects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The number of registered trials related to COVID-19 is increasing by the day. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of the currently registered interventional clinical trials related to COVID-19. METHODS: We searched the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trials Registry Platform on May 15th, 2020. We included any entry that is related to COVID-19. We abstracted and then descriptively analyzed the following characteristics of the registered trials: study design, status, phase, primary endpoints, experimental interventions, and geographic location among other qualifiers. RESULTS: We identified 1,308 eligible registered trials. Most trials were registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (n = 703; 53.7%) and the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (n = 291; 22.2%). The number of participants to be enrolled across these trials was 734,657, with a median of 110 participants per trial. The most commonly studied intervention category was pharmacologic (n = 763; 58.3%), with antiparasitic medications being the most common subcategory. Although over half of the trials were already recruiting, we identified published peer-reviewed results for only 8 of those trials. CONCLUSION: There is a relatively large number of registered trials but with very few results published so far. Although our findings suggest an appropriate initial response by the research community, the real challenge will be to get these trials completed, published, and translated into practice and policy.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Humans , Registries
12.
Cureus ; 12(3): e7357, 2020 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-123795

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has impacted many countries across all inhabited continents, and is now considered a global pandemic, due to its high rate of infectivity. Research related to this disease is pivotal for assessing pathogenic characteristics and formulating therapeutic strategies. The aim of this paper is to explore the activity and trends of COVID-19 research since its outbreak in December 2019. METHODS: We explored the PubMed database and the World Health Organization (WHO) database for publications pertaining to COVID-19 since December 2019 up until March 18, 2020. Only relevant observational and interventional studies were included in our study. Data on COVID-19 incidence were extracted from the WHO situation reports. Research output was assessed with respect to gross domestic product (GDP) and population of each country. RESULTS: Only 564 publications met our inclusion criteria. These articles came from 39 different countries, constituting 24% of all affected countries. China produced the greatest number of publications with 377 publications (67%). With respect to continental research activity, Asian countries had the highest research activity with 434 original publications (77%). In terms of publications per million persons (PPMPs), Singapore had the highest number of publications with 1.069 PPMPs. In terms of publications per billion-dollar GDP, Mauritius ranked first with 0.075. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is a major disease that has impacted international public health on a global level. Observational studies and therapeutic trials pertaining to COVID-19 are essential for assessing pathogenic characteristics and developing novel treatment options.

13.
Cureus ; 12(3): e7313, 2020 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-105926

ABSTRACT

Background The outbreak of the novel coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) caused a major public health crisis worldwide and challenged healthcare systems across the six continents. The high infectivity of the disease led many governments to adopt strict regulations and measures with the aim of containing its spread. The purpose of this study is to assess the incidence, severity, and territorial expansion of COVID-19. Methods Data from the World Health Organization was screened, and COVID-19 situation reports were extracted from January 21 up till March 14 (inclusive). Our data included the total number of cases, total number of new cases, total number of cured cases, and total number of related deaths. Percentage change of cases over the days of our study were calculated using the Joinpoint regression, with a significance level set at greater than 0.05. Results The total number of COVID-19 cases reached 156,622, with 5,845 subsequent deaths. China, Italy, and Iran have the highest number of cases worldwide. During the first 22 days, the incidence rate of COVID-19 increased significantly to reach 1.81 cases per million persons (p<0.001). That was followed by a significant decrease over the next 11 days (p<0.001) to reach 0.071 cases per million persons. A steady rise then followed, which saw a significant increase in incidence rate to 1.429 cases per million persons (p<0.001). Percentages of death and cured cases varied across the different countries; nevertheless, death percentages have generally been decreasing since the start of the crisis. Conclusion Adopting precautionary regulations such as social isolation, increasing sanitation, and employing strict quarantine measures have proved to be beneficial in containing the virus. Further research needs to be conducted to help discover therapeutic modalities and improve outcomes.

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