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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313330

ABSTRACT

Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common among patients hospitalised with COVID-19, and associated with worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of AKI in patients with COVID-19 in a large UK tertiary centre. Methods: : We analysed data of consecutive adults admitted with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 across two sites of a hospital in London, UK, from 1st January to 13th May 2020. Results: Of the 1248 inpatients included, 487 (39%) experienced AKI (51% stage 1, 13% stage 2,and 36% stage 3). The weekly AKI incidence rate gradually increased to peak at week 5 (3.12 cases/100 patient-days), before reducing to its nadir (0.83 cases/100 patient-days) at the end the study period (week 10). Among AKI survivors, 84.0% had recovered renal function to pre-admission levels before discharge and none required on-going renal replacement therapy (RRT). Pre-existing renal impairment [odds ratio (OR) 3.05, 95%CI 2.24-4,18;p<0.0001], and inpatient diuretic use (OR 1.79, 95%CI 1.27-2.53;p<0.005) were independently associated with a higher risk for AKI. AKI was a strong predictor of 30-day mortality with an increasing risk across AKI stages [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.59 (95%CI 1.19-2.13) for stage 1;p<0.005, 2.71(95%CI 1.82-4.05);p<0.001for stage 2 and 2.99 (95%CI 2.17-4.11);p<0.001for stage 3]. One third of AKI3 survivors (30.7%), had newly established renal impairment at 3 to 6 months. Conclusions: : This large UK cohort demonstrated a high AKI incidence with a changing pattern over time and was associated with increased mortality even at stage 1. Inpatient diuretic use was linked to a higher AKI risk. One third of survivors with AKI3 exhibited newly established renal impairment already at 3-6 months.

3.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 359, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496153

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common among patients hospitalised with COVID-19 and associated with worse prognosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of AKI in patients with COVID-19 in a large UK tertiary centre. METHODS: We analysed data of consecutive adults admitted with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 across two sites of a hospital in London, UK, from 1st January to 13th May 2020. RESULTS: Of the 1248 inpatients included, 487 (39%) experienced AKI (51% stage 1, 13% stage 2, and 36% stage 3). The weekly AKI incidence rate gradually increased to peak at week 5 (3.12 cases/100 patient-days), before reducing to its nadir (0.83 cases/100 patient-days) at the end the study period (week 10). Among AKI survivors, 84.0% had recovered renal function to pre-admission levels before discharge and none required on-going renal replacement therapy (RRT). Pre-existing renal impairment [odds ratio (OR) 3.05, 95%CI 2.24-4,18; p <  0.0001], and inpatient diuretic use (OR 1.79, 95%CI 1.27-2.53; p <  0.005) were independently associated with a higher risk for AKI. AKI was a strong predictor of 30-day mortality with an increasing risk across AKI stages [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.59 (95%CI 1.19-2.13) for stage 1; p < 0.005, 2.71(95%CI 1.82-4.05); p < 0.001for stage 2 and 2.99 (95%CI 2.17-4.11); p < 0.001for stage 3]. One third of AKI3 survivors (30.7%), had newly established renal impairment at 3 to 6 months. CONCLUSIONS: This large UK cohort demonstrated a high AKI incidence and was associated with increased mortality even at stage 1. Inpatient diuretic use was linked to a higher AKI risk. One third of survivors with AKI3 exhibited newly established renal impairment already at 3-6 months.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Renal Replacement Therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnosis , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/mortality , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Kidney Function Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome and Process Assessment, Health Care , Patient Acuity , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Renal Replacement Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , United Kingdom/epidemiology
4.
Kidney Int Rep ; 6(2): 265-271, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1056576

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020, high rates of acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically unwell patients are being reported, leading to an increased demand for renal replacement therapy (RRT). Providing RRT for this large number of patients is proving challenging, and so alternatives to continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) in the intensive care unit (ICU) are needed. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) can be initiated immediately after percutaneous insertion of the catheter, but there are concerns about impact on ventilation and RRT efficacy. We sought to describe our recent experience with percutaneous catheter insertion and peritoneal dialysis in patients in the ICU with COVID-19 infection. METHOD: Patients were selected according to local protocol, and catheters were inserted percutaneously by experienced operators using a Seldinger technique. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and ventilation requirements were recorded at the time of insertion and 24 hours later. Procedural complications, proportion of RRT provided by PD, renal recovery, and RRT parameters (serum potassium and maximum base excess) during PD were assessed. RESULTS: Percutaneous PD catheters were successfully inserted in 37 of 44 patients (84.1%) after a median of 13.5 days (interquartile range [IQR] = 10.0, 20.3 days) in the ICU. No adverse events were reported; SOFA scores and ventilation requirements were comparable before and after insertion; and adequate RRT parameters were achieved. The median proportion of RRT provided by PD following catheter insertion was 94.6% (IQR = 75.0, 100%). CONCLUSION: Peritoneal dialysis provides a safe and effective alternative to CRRT in selected patients with AKI and COVID-19 infection requiring ventilation on intensive care.

5.
J Crit Care ; 62: 190-196, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-988305

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe the incidence of Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) amongst patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) with COVID-19. In addition we aim to detail the range of Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) modalities offered to these patients (including peritoneal dialysis - PD - and intermittent haemodialysis - IHD) in order to meet demand during pandemic conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single-centre retrospective case note review of adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 admitted to ICU. RESULTS: Amongst 136 patients without a prior history of End Stage Kidney Disease (ESKD), 108 (79%) developed AKI and 63% of admitted patients received RRT. Due to resource limitations the range of RRT options were expanded from solely Continuous Veno-Venous HaemoDiaFiltration (CVVHDF - our usual standard of care) to include PD (in 35 patients) and IHD (in 15 patients). During the study period the proportion of RRT provided within ICU as CVVHDF fell from 100% to a nadir of 39%. There were no significant complications of either PD or IHD. CONCLUSIONS: During periods of resource limitations PD and IHD can safely be used to reduce dependence on CVVHDF in select patients with AKI secondary to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , COVID-19/complications , Critical Care/methods , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Adult , Aged , Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intermittent Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Peritoneal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers , United Kingdom/epidemiology
6.
Shock ; 55(6): 752-758, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-835230

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection frequently exhibit a hyperinflammatory response and develop organ failures; however, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We investigated the microcirculatory, endothelial, and inflammatory responses in critically ill COVID-19 patients and compared them to a group of patients with septic shock in a prospective observational case control study. Thirty critically ill patients with COVID-19 were compared to 33 patients with septic shock.Measurements of sublingual microcirculatory flow using Incident Dark Field video-microscopy and serial measurements of IL-6 and Syndecan-1 levels were performed. COVID-19 patients had significantly less vasoactive drug requirement and lower plasma lactate than those with septic shock. Microcirculatory flow was significantly worse in septic patients than those with COVID-19 (MFI 2.6 vs 2.9 p 0.02, PPV 88 vs 97% P < 0.001). IL-6 was higher in patients with septic shock than COVID-19 (1653 vs 253 pg/mL, P 0.03). IL-6 levels in COVID 19 patients were not elevated compared to healthy controls except on the day of ICU admission. Syndecan-1 levels were not different between the two pathological groups. Compared to patients with undifferentiated septic shock an overt shock state with tissue hypoperfusion does not appear typical of COVID-19 infection. There was no evidence of significant sublingual microcirculatory impairment, widespread endothelial injury or marked inflammatory cytokine release in this group of critically ill COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Interleukin-6/blood , Microcirculation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Shock, Septic/blood , Syndecan-1/blood , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Endothelium, Vascular/pathology , Female , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Shock, Septic/pathology
8.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-1942

ABSTRACT

Background: Critically ill patients with COVID-19 infection frequently exhibit a hyperinflammatory response and develoorgan failures, however the underlyin

9.
Shock ; 55(4): 479-487, 2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744652

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of COVID-19 critical illness but the pathophysiology is uncertain. Some evidence has indicated that a vascular aetiology may be implicated. We used contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and echocardiography to study renal perfusion and global blood flow and compared our findings with measurements taken in a group of septic shock patients and healthy volunteers. METHODS: Prospective case-control study. Renal perfusion variables were assessed with CEUS; macrovascular blood flow was assessed using Doppler analysis of large renal vessels; echocardiography was used to assess right and left heart function and cardiac output. RESULTS: CEUS-derived parameters were reduced in COVID-19 associated AKI compared with healthy controls (perfusion index 3,415 vs. 548 a.u., P = 0·001; renal blood volume 7,794 vs. 3,338 a.u., P = 0·04). Renal arterial flow quantified using time averaged peak velocity was also reduced compared with healthy controls (36·6 cm/s vs. 20·9 cm/s, P = 0.004) despite cardiac index being similar between groups (2.8 L/min/m2 vs. 3.7 L/min/m2, P = 0.07). There were no differences in CEUS-derived or cardiac parameters between COVID-19 and septic shock patients but patients with septic shock had more heterogeneous perfusion variables. CONCLUSION: Both large and small vessel blood flow is reduced in patients with COVID-19 associated AKI compared with healthy controls, which does not appear to be a consequence of right or left heart dysfunction. A reno-vascular pathogenesis of COVID-19 AKI seems likely.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Critical Illness , Heart Function Tests , Renal Circulation/physiology , Ultrasonography , Acute Kidney Injury/diagnostic imaging , Aged , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Contrast Media , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Regional Blood Flow/physiology , Shock, Septic/complications , Shock, Septic/physiopathology
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