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1.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(11): 4082-4091, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1904135

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on weight gain in children and adolescents remains unknown. We aimed to identify an estimated 15-year trend in mean body mass index (BMI) changes and prevalence of obesity and overweight among Korean adolescents from 2005 to 2020, including the period of the COVID-19 pandemic. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed data taken from a nationwide survey (Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey), between 2005 and 2020. Representative samples of one million Korean adolescents aged 13-18 years (n=1,057,885) were examined. The 15-year trends in mean BMI and proportion of obesity or overweight, and the changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic were analyzed. RESULTS: The data of 1,057,885 Korean adolescents were analyzed (mean age: 14.98 years; females, 48.4%). The estimated weighted mean BMI was 20.5 kg/m2 [95% confidence interval (CI), 20.4-20.5] from 2005 to 2008 and 21.5 kg/m2 (95% CI, 21.4-21.6) in 2020 (during the COVID-19 pandemic). Although the 15-year trend of mean BMI gradually increased, the change in mean BMI before and during the pandemic significantly lessened (ßdiff, -0.027; 95% CI, -0.028 to -0.026). The 15-year (2005-2020) trend changes in the prevalence of obesity and overweight were similar (obesity prevalence from 2005-2008, 3.2%; 95% CI, 3.1-3.3 vs. obesity prevalence in 2020, 8.6%; 95% CI, 8.2-9.0; ßdiff, -0.309; 95% CI, -0.330 to -0.288). CONCLUSIONS: The 15-year trend of overall mean BMI and obesity and overweight prevalence demonstrated a significant increase; however, its slope decreased during the pandemic. These landmark results suggest the need for the development of precise strategies to prevent pediatric obesity and overweight during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pediatric Obesity , Adolescent , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Overweight/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pediatric Obesity/epidemiology , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
2.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880083
3.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(10): 3760-3770, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1876425

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This meta-analysis aims to assess the susceptibility to and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease (AIRD) and following AIRD drug use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included observational and case-controlled studies assessing susceptibility and clinical outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with AIRD as well as the clinical outcomes of COVID-19 with or without use of steroids and conventional synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (csDMARDs). RESULTS: Meta-analysis including three studies showed that patients with AIRD are not more susceptible to COVID-19 compared to patients without AIRD or the general population (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.58 to 2.14). Incidence of severe outcomes of COVID-19 (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 0.76 to 2.35) and COVID-19 related death (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.68 to 2.16) also did not show significant difference. The clinical outcomes of COVID-19 among AIRD patients with and without csDMARD or steroid showed that both use of steroid (OR: 1.69, 95% CI: 0.96 to 2.98) or csDMARD (OR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.63 to 3.08) had no effect on clinical outcomes of COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: AIRD does not increase susceptibility to COVID-19, not affecting the clinical outcome of COVID-19. Similarly, the use of steroids or csDMARDs for AIRD does not worsen the clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents , Autoimmune Diseases , COVID-19 , Rheumatic Diseases , Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Incidence , Rheumatic Diseases/drug therapy , Rheumatic Diseases/epidemiology
4.
Modern Pathology ; 35(SUPPL 2):1371-1372, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1857315

ABSTRACT

Background: Current research comparing CPR-associated injuries between those receiving LUCAS device and manual CPR has primarily focused on patients who suffered out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, more hospitals leveraged mechanical CPR devices to provide distant yet high quality chest compressions for in-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) patients. We sought to investigate autopsy thoracic injury patterns in in-hospital non-traumatic cardiac arrests, comparing traditional manual compressions with the mechanical LUCAS device compressions. Design: Autopsies were screened for a history of in-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the absence of prior traumatic injuries at a single, large quaternary care center from 1/1/2018 to 06/30/2021. 20 received LUCAS compressions and 40 received manual compressions. Student's T-Tests were used to compare means for continuous variables, while chi-squared and Fischer's exact tests were used for categorical variables. An alpha of 0.05 was chosen as the threshold for statistical significance. Results: A statistically significant decrease in the rate of sternal fractures and rate of multiple sternal fractures during mechanical CPR was found. A statistically significant increase in other soft tissue injuries, such as pleural wall or lung injuries was seen in mechanical CPR cases, while an increased rate of bilateral rib fractures was noted in manual compression cases. Conversely, no difference in the number or laterality of rib fractures were noted. There was no significant difference in age, biological sex, or rate of scoliosis or kyphosis between cohorts. Results are listed in table 1. (Table Presented) Little research has looked at the injury patterns of mechanical CPR in the IHCA patient population. These results point to a potential difference in thoracic injury patterns from manual compressions when compared to LUCAS device compressions. The statistically significant decrease in sternal fractures with mechanical compressions is noteworthy. Conversely, the increase in other soft tissue injury demands further examination. The decrease in bilateral rib fractures with LUCAS use suggests that placement of the device may play a role in the epidemiology of rib injuries, but not in the number of ribs injured. Further research should examine rib injuries in more detail, and quantify additional comorbidities in both survivors and non-survivors of cardiac arrest.

5.
Living with Pandemics: Places, People and Policy ; : 91-102, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1857285

ABSTRACT

In this chapter, I aim to problematize an assumption that supports the success story of the K-quarantine model. The plot of this story is leaning towards the positive role of technocrats, scientists, and technology in fighting against COVID-19 by focusing on the activities of the KDCA (Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency) and appealing technological solutions. In this narrative, Korean society looks like a sterilized giant laboratory stuffed with scientists’ scientific rationality and well-organized research plans, which downplays another dimension that the government’s selection of policies is a politically and socially contested process - rather than a decision based on pure expert knowledge apart from society - that continues interactions with civil society and social actors situated in a specific spatio-temporal matrix. By paraphrasing the concept of spatial fix, I suggest that the Korean government’s social distancing level 2.5 measure should be seen as the imposition of another form of spatio-temporal fix. Consequently, I highlight the necessity of a more multi-scalar and multi-temporal approach to analyzing COVID-19 landscapes, rather than simply fixating on the “success story” from a singular and snapshot perspective close to the government’s position, which eventually opens up opportunities for more fundamental questions about society. © John R. Bryson, Lauren Andres, Aksel Ersoy and Louise Reardon 2021.

6.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 70(1):268-269, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1613065
7.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 70(1):267-267, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1613061
8.
Journal of Investigative Medicine ; 70(1):135-135, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1613041
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(20): 6397-6407, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503071

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a pandemic and leading cause of death. Beyond the deaths directly caused by the virus and the suicides related to the psychological response to the dramatic changes as socioeconomic related to the pandemic, there might also be suicides related to the inflammatory responses of the infection. Infection induces inflammation as a cytokine storm, and there is an increasing number of studies that report a relationship between infection and suicide. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched the World Health Organization status report and the PubMed database for keywords (COVID-19, suicide, infection, inflammation, cytokines), and reviewed five cytokine pathways between suicide and inflammation using two meta-analyses and two observational studies starting from November 31, 2020, focusing on the relationship between suicide and inflammation by infection. First, we discussed existing evidence explaining the relationship between suicidal behaviors and inflammation. Second, we summarized the inflammatory features found in COVID-19 patients. Finally, we highlight the potential for these factors to affect the risk of suicide in COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Patients infected with COVID-19 have high amounts of IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IP10, and MCP1, which may lead to Th1 cell response activation. Also, Th2 cytokines (e.g., IL-4 and IL-10) were increased in COVID-19 infection. In COVID-19 patients, neurological conditions, like headache, dizziness, ataxia, seizures, and others have been observed. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 pandemic can serve as a significant environmental factor contributing directly to increased suicide risk; the role of inflammation by an infection should not be overlooked.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cytokines/immunology , Suicide , COVID-19/psychology , Humans , Risk Factors , Suicide/psychology
11.
Social Media and Society ; 7(3), 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1463206

ABSTRACT

Vaccine hesitancy has been a growing public health issue, but during COVID-19, understanding vaccine hesitancy and promote vaccine favorability takes on a troubling immediacy. With the growing political polarization on scientific issues, the COVID-19 vaccine-related sentiment has recently been divided across ideological lines. This study aims to understand how vaccine favorability and specific vaccine-related concerns including possible side effects, distrust in medical professionals, and conspiratorial beliefs concerning COVID-19 vaccines were articulated and transmitted by Twitter users from opposing ideological camps and with different follower scopes. Using a combination of computational approaches, including supervised machine-learning and structural topic modeling, we examined tweets surrounding COVID-19 vaccination (N = 16,959) from 1 March to 30 June 2020. Results from linear mixed-effects models suggested that Twitter users high on conservative ideology and with a standard instead of large follower scope tend to express less favorable vaccine-related sentiments and talk more about vaccine side effects, distrust of medical professionals, and conspiracy theories. There is also an interaction effect where liberals with large follower scope expressed the least amount of distrust of medical professionals, whereas extreme conservatives expressed greater distrust for health professionals, regardless of their follower scope. Finally, structural topic modeling revealed distinct topical focuses among liberal and conservative users. Theoretical and practical implications for leveraging social media in effective health communication practice were discussed. © The Author(s) 2021.

12.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(17): 5525-5528, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417449

ABSTRACT

The Pfizer-BioNTech coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine is the first novel nucleoside-modified messenger ribonucleic acid (modRNA) vaccine to receive Emergency Use Authorization from the Food and Drug Administration in the United States. It is indicated to be used in patients ≥12 years-of-age as of May 25th, 2021, including populations with high atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) burden. However, little is known about the potential impact this vaccine may have on serum lipoprotein levels in patients with familial hypercholesteremia (FH), who are predisposed to high ASCVD burden due to elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). We present an interesting case where a patient with heterozygous FH (HeFH) and elevated triglycerides (TG)-controlled for years on medication and apheresis-experienced significantly elevated TG, one day after receiving his second Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine dose. It is not known whether this adverse event may be seen in other FH patients and may be worth assessing in such patients to determine the possibility of a rare adverse reaction from a COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II/blood , Hypertriglyceridemia/etiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cholesterol/blood , Humans , Hypertriglyceridemia/blood , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Triglycerides/blood , Vaccination
13.
Environmental Science-Nano ; : 12, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1379345

ABSTRACT

Safe-by-design concepts for anticoronaviral functions are important in the production of air filters, face masks, and touch substrates because these interventions may be effective in allowing continued socioeconomic activity and alleviation of the global recession. Recent attempts to provide anticoronaviral functions have involved alternative compositions and architectures aimed at producing nanoscale compounds for highly effective anticoronaviral activities. However, translating the nanocompounds to the field requires considerable investment and time as well as actual trials;thus, they may not be a viable option for timely deployment during the COVID-19 pandemic. With these considerations in mind, we have used sodium chloride, which is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), to functionalize nonwoven sheets as frequently touched surfaces. Specifically, we produced nano-dry-salt (NDS) particles through Collison-type atomization and subsequent diffusion drying, and these NDS particles were finally deposited on electret meltblown nonwovens in a single-pass air flow. The resulting GRAS NDS deposited electret nonwovens were examined for effectiveness in anticoronaviral function and aerosol filtration with pressure drop. The treated nonwovens exhibited significant inactivation of airborne human coronaviruses (surrogates of SARS-CoV-2) while retaining the original filtration performance, even under saliva droplet and dust exposures. Several realizable platforms can thus be presented to quickly incorporate NDS deposition in conventional nonwoven production.

14.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 39(15 SUPPL), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1339265

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 virus has been shown to persist in respiratory tract in immunocompromised patients. However, such data are lacking for both asymptomatic and symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in cancer patients. We share our single center experience on duration of SARS-CoV-2 viral presence in the upper respiratory tract of cancer patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (asymptomatic and symptomatic) detected by viral PCR. Methods: This is retrospective review of cancer patients with documented SARS-CoV-2 infection and measurement of viral shedding at Levine Cancer Institute. Testing indications were COVID-19 symptomatic illness, pre-procedural and pre-chemo testing. Prolonged shedding was defined as presence of viral RNA beyond 30 days after first positive test. To document viral clearance, patients required 2 negative SARSCoV-2 PCR test separated by at least 24 hours and maximum 3 weeks apart either by nasopharyngeal or nasal PCR swab. Differences in distributions were identified between patients shedding virus more than 30 days and less than 30 days using uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.10 to enter the multivariable model, and p < 0.05 to remain. Results: Demographic data: median age 62 (range 20-93);58.5% females;70% White, 21% Black, and 7.4% Hispanics. Comorbidities included hypertension 43.2%, diabetes 16.7% and chronic lung disease 3.7%. Underlying malignancies were breast cancer 25%, hematologic cancer 22%, lung cancer 16% and genitourinary 11%. Chemotherapy was received by 26.5% patients within 4 weeks prior to testing. 162 patients were identified median duration of 18 days (range 4-90 days). Of these, 76% patients were tested for non-symptomatic indication with median duration of shedding 17 days (range 6-80) and 23% were tested for clinical symptoms with median duration of shedding 29 days (range 4-90) (p = < 0.001);50% of patients never developed symptoms, whereas 35% patients with non-symptomatic testing indication, subsequently developed symptoms. Viral clearance by day 30, day 45, day 60 and day 90 was 78%, 93%, 97% and 100% respectively. Univariate analysis did not show difference between patients with prolonged shedding vs those shedding less than 30 days for age, gender, race, ethnicity, underlying malignancy, co-morbidities including body mass index, diabetes, chronic lung conditions, hypertension, or receipt of cytotoxic chemo. Multivariable analysis showed that presence of symptoms at any point during SARS-CoV-2 infection (OR 5.9, 95% CI 2.4-14.5, p < 0.001) was associated with prolonged shedding. Conclusions: Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with prolonged viral shedding in cancer patients. Cancer patients can have asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. More studies are warranted to understand viral kinetics and its clinical implications in cancer patients.

15.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 39(15 SUPPL), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1339260

ABSTRACT

Background: Cancer patients are more susceptible to developing severe disease associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Herein, data from a high-volume cancer center is presented highlighting risk factors associated with hospitalization with COVID-19 disease. Methods: Cancer patients in the Levine Cancer Institute COVID19 database who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 due to clinical illness from March 1, 2020 to October 29, 2020 with 90 days follow-up are described here. Patients' demographic and clinical information were retrospectively entered into a REDCap database from chart reviews. Differences in distributions were identified between hospitalized and nonhospitalized patients using the chi-squared test with uni- and multivariable logistic regression models. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05. Results: 228 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection were identified, of whom 103 (45%) were hospitalized. Median age was 63 years (range 28-95). Race distribution for infection showed White 65%, followed by Black 26.8% and Hispanic ethnicity 16.7% , with a similar distribution for hospital admission. Median length of stay was 10 days (range 1-91) with no readmissions within 90 days. The most common underlying malignancies were breast (29.8%), hematologic (21.1%) and genitourinary (12.3%). The most common preexisting conditions included hypertension (55.7%), diabetes (27.2%) and cardiac disease (3.9%). The most common presenting symptoms were cough (50.2%), fever (38.4%), fatigue (37.8%) and shortness of breath (36.4%). Maximum oxygen requirements for hospitalized patients were ambient air (34%), nasal canula (34%), high/medium flow nasal canula (10%), non-invasive ventilation (13%) and mechanical ventilation (10%). Case fatality rate was 10% with diagnosis of COVID-19, including 21.4% of those admitted to the hospital and 51.7% of those admitted to the ICU. Univariable logistic regression analysis showed that age, sex, prior chemotherapy, upper gastrointestinal cancers, hematologic cancers, number of medical conditions, cardiac disease, chronic lung diseases, hypertension, and diabetes increased risk of hospitalization. Table shows results of multivariate analysis. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused high case fatality rates in our cancer patients. We identified age, cardiac disease, hematologic malignancy and receipt of chemotherapy within 4 weeks of diagnosis as risk factors for hospitalization. These data may help in prioritizing early intervention in vulnerable subgroups to improve survival outcomes.

16.
Journal of Institute of Control, Robotics and Systems ; 27(5):322-333, 2021.
Article in Korean | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1278657

ABSTRACT

This study was conducted to examine the level of depression, attitude toward robot, mood changes, and content usage rankings of the elderly upon the provision of an untact silver-care-robot program. The program was provided to the elderly with normal cognitive function, with 17 subjects in the experimental group and 25 subjects in the control group. Each session lasted approximately 30 min and was provided once a week over five weeks between October 13, 2020 and November 18, 2020. For data analysis, we used SPSS 25.0. The analysis results indicated that there were no significant differences between the experimental and the control groups in terms of depression (t = 1.641, p =. 109) and attitude toward the robot (t = 1.176, p =. 247), but the experimental group exhibited more positive changes. There was no significant difference in mood state before and after program participation in the experimental group. However, the mood score increased after the program (t = 2.624, p =. 079), and in the case of content usage, singing was the most commonly used feature. In a situation such as the COVID-19 pandemic, the untact silver-care-robot program is expected to be introduced and utilized as one of the efficient care approaches for the elderly in the future. © ICROS 2021.

17.
International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print):21, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1142753

ABSTRACT

Purpose The purpose of this study was to explore if five subdimensions of perceived risk (financial, time, privacy, performance and psychological risks) negatively affects image. In addition, this study aims to investigate if image has a positive effect on intentions to use. Lastly, the purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effect of Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), before and after the outbreak, in the relationship between perceived risk and image. Design/methodology/approach Data were collected from 331 people before the COVID-19 outbreak and 343 people after the COVID-19 outbreak. To test hypotheses, this study used structural equation modeling. Findings Time, performance and psychological risks negatively affected image before the outbreak of COVID-19. Meanwhile, performance risks and psychological risks had a negative influence on image only after the outbreak of COVID-19. In addition, there was demonstrated to be a positive relationship between image and intentions to use, both before and after the COVID-19 outbreak. Finally, the outbreak of COVID-19 positively moderates the relationship between performance risk and image. Practical implications The current study provides the following practical implications. First, industry practitioners need to develop a performance guarantee system which enhances the quality assurance of drone food delivery services (DFDS). Second, live streaming or creative activities would help to visualize DFDS in a way that stresses the stable operation of these services. Originality/value The importance of contactless services has been emphasized ever since the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak. However, there has been very little research on the future of contactless services after COVID-19. This study investigated the perceived risk from DFDS as a form of contactless service which has not been conducted before. The findings of this study will improve the understanding of the changes that have occurred in consumers' perception of risk from DFDS during the COVID-19 pandemic.

19.
International Journal of Hospitality Management ; 93:11, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1065151

ABSTRACT

This study aims to identify how behavioral intentions are formed in the context of drone food delivery services using the moderating role before and after the outbreak of COVID-19. A conceptual model including eight hypotheses was developed and tested based on the data of two consumer samples, one collected before and the other after the outbreak of COVID-19. The data analysis results showed that perceived innovativeness positively affects attitude. In addition, the attitude, the subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control have a positive influence on behavioral intentions. Lastly, the outbreak of COVID-19 played a moderating role in the relationship between the attitude and behavioral intentions.

20.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 13(1):1-13, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1016239

ABSTRACT

Food delivery services using drones have emerged, but there is not much research on it. Thus, this study was designed to examine how to form behavioral intentions based on the concept of expected benefits in the field of drone food delivery services. More specifically, this study proposed the five dimensions of expected benefits, such as compatibility, social influence, convenience, function, and emotion, have a positive influence on image. In addition, it was proposed that image has a positive influence on desire, which in turn positively affects behavioral intentions. Lastly, this study hypothesized the moderating role of gender in this process. To achieve this purpose, 343 responses were collected in South Korea. The data analysis results showed that five dimensions of expected benefits, such as compatibility, social influence, convenience, function, and emotion have a positive influence on image. In addition, the image aids to enhance desire, which in turn positively affects behavioral intentions. Lastly, gender moderated the relationship between desire and behavioral intentions. The important theoretical and practical implications of this study are discussed later in the paper. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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