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Statistics and Public Policy ; 9(1):74-84, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1815730


We assess the treatment effect of juvenile stay-at-home orders (JSAHO) on reducing the rate of SARS-CoV-2 infection spread in Saline County ("Saline"), Arkansas, by examining the difference between Saline's and control Arkansas counties' changes in daily and mean log infection rates of pretreatment (March 28-April 5, 2020) and treatment periods (April 6-May 6, 2020). A synthetic control county is constructed based on the parallel-trends assumption, least-squares fitting on pretreatment and socio-demographic covariates, and elastic-net-based methods, from which the counterfactual outcome is predicted and the treatment effect is estimated using the difference-in-differences, the synthetic control, and the changes-in-changes methodologies. Both the daily and average treatment effects of JSAHO are shown to be significant. Despite its narrow scope and lack of enforcement for compliance, JSAHO reduced the rate of the infection spread in Saline. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.

Clinical Laboratory ; : 9, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1667675


Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the most common infectious disease in all ages and genders worldwide. Respiratory microorganisms such as respiratory viruses, are commonly responsible for causing ARI. COVID-19 is still prevalent in Korea. The implementation of lockdown and strict control measures, the mandatory wearing of masks, and social distancing are critical steps for controlling the risk of COVID-19 spread. This study was conducted to find out how these changes in daily lives impacted the distribution of respiratory microorganisms. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to identify the incidence and distribution patterns of ARI-causing respiratory microorganisms before (Period.) and during the COVID-19 pandemic (Period.) in terms of detection method, age, month, and season. In particular, data in Periods. and. were compared for eight major kinds of respiratory microorganisms: adenovirus (AdV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human rhinovirus/enterovirus (Rhino/Entero), influenza virus (Flu) A, Flu B, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) 3, respiratory syncytial virus, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Results: A total of 27,191 respiratory specimens were tested, of which 5,513 were obtained from children and adolescents (age groups 1. 5) and 21,678 from adults (age group 6). The overall positive rates for at least one respiratory microorganism in Periods. and. were 23.1% (1,199/5,193) and 4.9% (1,070/21,998), respectively (p < 0.001). The overall positive rates in male and female patients were significantly different (8.7% vs. 7.9%;p = 0.016). On the FilmArray (TM) RP assay, positive rates in all age groups decreased significantly in Period. compared with Period.. AdV, Rhino/Entero, and Flu A were detected in all four seasons, but HMPV and HPIV3 were not detected. The overall positive rates on FilmArray and the Flu antigen test in Period. were significantly decreased. In the COVID-19 test, the positive rates were high in March and April 2020, and decreased thereafter, but these increased again in the winter of 2020/2021. Conclusions: Life changes due to COVID-19 pandemic have had a significant impact on the distribution of respiratory microorganisms;our study results might provide useful information on respiratory virus epidemiology.