Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 7 de 7
Filter
1.
Virology ; 573: 96-110, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895490

ABSTRACT

Non-Structural Protein 6 (NSP6) has a protecting role for SARS-CoV-2 replication by inhibiting the expansion of autophagosomes inside the cell. NSP6 is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response by binding to Sigma receptor 1 (SR1). Nevertheless, NSP6 crystal structure is not solved yet. Therefore, NSP6 is considered a challenging target in Structure-Based Drug Discovery. Herein, we utilized the high quality NSP6 model built by AlphaFold in our study. Targeting a putative NSP6 binding site is believed to inhibit the SR1-NSP6 protein-protein interactions. Three databases were virtually screened, namely FDA-approved drugs (DrugBank), Northern African Natural Products Database (NANPDB) and South African Natural Compounds Database (SANCDB) with a total of 8158 compounds. Further validation for 9 candidates via molecular dynamics simulations for 100 ns recommended potential binders to the NSP6 binding site. The proposed candidates are recommended for biological testing to cease the rapidly growing pandemic.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biological Products/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Drug Repositioning , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
2.
RSC advances ; 11(26):16026-16033, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812711

ABSTRACT

In the present era, there are many efforts trying to face the emerging and successive waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. This has led to considering new and unusual targets for SARS CoV-2. 2′-O-Methyltransferase (nsp16) is a key and attractive target in the SARS CoV-2 life cycle since it is responsible for the viral RNA protection via a cap formation process. In this study, we propose a new potential inhibitor for SARS COV-2 2′-O-methyltransferase (nsp16). A fragment library was screened against the co-crystal structure of the SARS COV-2 2′-O-methyltransferase complexed with Sinefungin (nsp16 – PDB ID: 6WKQ), and consequently the best proposed fragments were linked via a de novo approach to build molecule AP-20. Molecule AP-20 displayed a superior docking score to Sinefungin and reproduced the key interactions in the binding site of 2′-O-methyltransferase. Three molecular dynamic simulations of the 2′-O-methyltransferase apo structure and its complexed forms with AP-20 and Sinefungin were performed for 150 nano-seconds to provide insights on the dynamic nature of such setups and to assess the stability of the proposed AP-20/enzyme complex. AP-20/enzyme complex demonstrated better stability for the ligand–enzyme complex compared to Sinefungin in a respective setup. Furthermore, MM-PBSA binding free energy calculations showed a better profile for AP-20/enzyme complex compared to Sinefungin/enzyme complex emphasizing the potential inhibitory effect of AP-20 on SARS COV-2 2′-O-methyltransferase. We endorse our designed molecule AP-20 to be further explored via experimental evaluations to confront the spread of the emerging COVID-19. Also, in silico ADME profiling has ascribed to AP-20 an excellent safety and metabolic stability profile. The identification of AP-20 as a potential SARS COV-2 2′-O-methyltransferase inhibitor: fragment-based screening approach and MM-PBSA calculations.

3.
RSC Adv ; 11(26): 16026-16033, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236099

ABSTRACT

In the present era, there are many efforts trying to face the emerging and successive waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. This has led to considering new and unusual targets for SARS CoV-2. 2'-O-Methyltransferase (nsp16) is a key and attractive target in the SARS CoV-2 life cycle since it is responsible for the viral RNA protection via a cap formation process. In this study, we propose a new potential inhibitor for SARS COV-2 2'-O-methyltransferase (nsp16). A fragment library was screened against the co-crystal structure of the SARS COV-2 2'-O-methyltransferase complexed with Sinefungin (nsp16 - PDB ID: 6WKQ), and consequently the best proposed fragments were linked via a de novo approach to build molecule AP-20. Molecule AP-20 displayed a superior docking score to Sinefungin and reproduced the key interactions in the binding site of 2'-O-methyltransferase. Three molecular dynamic simulations of the 2'-O-methyltransferase apo structure and its complexed forms with AP-20 and Sinefungin were performed for 150 nano-seconds to provide insights on the dynamic nature of such setups and to assess the stability of the proposed AP-20/enzyme complex. AP-20/enzyme complex demonstrated better stability for the ligand-enzyme complex compared to Sinefungin in a respective setup. Furthermore, MM-PBSA binding free energy calculations showed a better profile for AP-20/enzyme complex compared to Sinefungin/enzyme complex emphasizing the potential inhibitory effect of AP-20 on SARS COV-2 2'-O-methyltransferase. We endorse our designed molecule AP-20 to be further explored via experimental evaluations to confront the spread of the emerging COVID-19. Also, in silico ADME profiling has ascribed to AP-20 an excellent safety and metabolic stability profile.

4.
Comput Biol Med ; 134: 104468, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225184

ABSTRACT

Corona Virus 2019 Disease (COVID-19) is a rapidly emerging pandemic caused by a newly discovered beta coronavirus, called Sever Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2). SARS CoV-2 is an enveloped, single stranded RNA virus that depends on RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) to replicate. Therefore, SARS CoV-2 RdRp is considered as a promising target to cease virus replication. SARS CoV-2 polymerase shows high structural similarity to Hepatitis C Virus-1b genotype (HCV-1b) polymerase. Arising from the high similarity between SARS CoV-2 RdRp and HCV NS5B, we utilized the reported small-molecule binders to the palm subdomain of HCV NS5B (genotype 1b) to generate a high-quality DEKOIS 2.0 benchmark set and conducted a benchmarking analysis against HCV NS5B. The three highly cited and publicly available docking tools AutoDock Vina, FRED and PLANTS were benchmarked. Based on the benchmarking results and analysis via pROC-Chemotype plot, PLANTS showed the best screening performance and can recognize potent binders at the early enrichment. Accordingly, we used PLANTS in a prospective virtual screening to repurpose both the FDA-approved drugs (DrugBank) and the HCV-NS5B palm subdomain binders (BindingDB) for SARS CoV-2 RdRp palm subdomain. Further assessment by molecular dynamics simulations for 50 ns recommended diosmin (from DrugBank) and compound 3 (from BindingDB) to be the best potential binders to SARS CoV-2 RdRp palm subdomain. The best predicted compounds are recommended to be biologically investigated against COVID-19. In conclusion, this work provides in-silico analysis to propose possible SARS CoV-2 RdRp palm subdomain binders recommended as a remedy for COVID-19. Up-to-our knowledge, this study is the first to propose binders at the palm subdomain of SARS CoV2 RdRp. Furthermore, this study delivers an example of how to make use of a high quality custom-made DEKOIS 2.0 benchmark set as a procedure to elevate the virtual screening success rate against a vital target of the rapidly emerging pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis C , Benchmarking , Drug Discovery , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 36(1): 727-736, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1123193

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease COVID-19, caused by the virus SARS CoV-2, has exerted a significant unprecedented economic and medical crisis, in addition to its impact on the daily life and health care systems all over the world. Regrettably, no vaccines or drugs are currently available for this new critical emerging human disease. Joining the global fight against COVID-19, in this study we aim at identifying a potential novel inhibitor for SARS COV-2 2'-O-methyltransferase (nsp16) which is one of the most attractive targets in the virus life cycle, responsible for the viral RNA protection via a cap formation process. Firstly, nsp16 enzyme bound to Sinefungin was retrieved from the protein data bank (PDB ID: 6WKQ), then, a 3D pharmacophore model was constructed to be applied to screen 48 Million drug-like compounds of the Zinc database. This resulted in only 24 compounds which were subsequently docked into the enzyme. The best four score-ordered hits from the docking outcome exhibited better scores compared to Sinefungin. Finally, three molecular dynamics (MD) simulation experiments for 150 ns were carried out as a refinement step for our proposed approach. The MD and MM-PBSA outputs revealed compound 11 as the best potential nsp16 inhibitor herein identified, as it displayed a better stability and average binding free energy for the ligand-enzyme complex compared to Sinefungin.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Enzyme Inhibitors/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/chemistry , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/chemistry , Adenosine/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , Crystallography, X-Ray , Databases, Pharmaceutical , Databases, Protein , Drug Stability , Enzyme Inhibitors/metabolism , High-Throughput Screening Assays , Humans , Kinetics , Methyltransferases , Molecular Docking Simulation , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Protein Binding , Protein Conformation, alpha-Helical , Protein Conformation, beta-Strand , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Thermodynamics , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors
6.
Comput Biol Med ; 131: 104295, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1095921

ABSTRACT

Papain-Like Protease (PLpro) is a key protein for SARS-CoV-2 viral replication which is the cause of the emerging COVID-19 pandemic. Targeting PLpro can suppress viral replication and provide treatment options for COVID-19. Due to the dynamic nature of its binding site loop, PLpro multiple conformations were generated through a long-range 1 micro-second molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Clustering the MD trajectory enabled us to extract representative structures for the conformational space generated. Adding to the MD representative structures, X-ray structures were involved in an ensemble docking approach to screen the FDA approved drugs for a drug repositioning endeavor. Guided by our recent benchmarking study of SARS-CoV-2 PLpro, FRED docking software was selected for such a virtual screening task. The results highlighted potential consensus binders to many of the MD clusters as well as the newly introduced X-ray structure of PLpro complexed with a small molecule. For instance, three drugs Benserazide, Dobutamine and Masoprocol showed a superior consensus enrichment against the PLpro conformations. Further MD simulations for these drugs complexed with PLpro suggested the superior stability and binding of dobutamine and masoprocol inside the binding site compared to Benserazide. Generally, this approach can facilitate identifying drugs for repositioning via targeting multiple conformations of a crucial target for the rapidly emerging COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Drug Repositioning , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , Binding Sites , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Crystallography, X-Ray , Enzyme Stability , Humans
7.
Front Chem ; 8: 592289, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-945632

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) is a rapidly growing pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Its papain-like protease (SARS-CoV-2 PLpro) is a crucial target to halt virus replication. SARS-CoV PLpro and SARS-CoV-2 PLpro share an 82.9% sequence identity and a 100% sequence identity for the binding site reported to accommodate small molecules in SARS-CoV. The flexible key binding site residues Tyr269 and Gln270 for small-molecule recognition in SARS-CoV PLpro exist also in SARS-CoV-2 PLpro. This inspired us to use the reported small-molecule binders to SARS-CoV PLpro to generate a high-quality DEKOIS 2.0 benchmark set. Accordingly, we used them in a cross-benchmarking study against SARS-CoV-2 PLpro. As there is no SARS-CoV-2 PLpro structure complexed with a small-molecule ligand publicly available at the time of manuscript submission, we built a homology model based on the ligand-bound SARS-CoV structure for benchmarking and docking purposes. Three publicly available docking tools FRED, AutoDock Vina, and PLANTS were benchmarked. All showed better-than-random performances, with FRED performing best against the built model. Detailed performance analysis via pROC-Chemotype plots showed a strong enrichment of the most potent bioactives in the early docking ranks. Cross-benchmarking against the X-ray structure complexed with a peptide-like inhibitor confirmed that FRED is the best-performing tool. Furthermore, we performed cross-benchmarking against the newly introduced X-ray structure complexed with a small-molecule ligand. Interestingly, its benchmarking profile and chemotype enrichment were comparable to the built model. Accordingly, we used FRED in a prospective virtual screen of the DrugBank database. In conclusion, this study provides an example of how to harness a custom-made DEKOIS 2.0 benchmark set as an approach to enhance the virtual screening success rate against a vital target of the rapidly emerging pandemic.

SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL