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EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293203


Background: We investigated clinical outcomes of favipiravir in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods Patients who between 23 May 2020 and 18 July 2020 received 24 hours or more of favipiravir were assigned to the favipiravir group, while those who did not formed the non-favipiravir group. The primary outcome was 28-day clinical improvement, defined as two-category improvement from baseline on an 8-point ordinal scale. Propensity scores (PS) for favipiravir therapy were used for 1:1 matching. Cox regression was used to examine associations with the primary endpoint. Results The unmatched cohort included 1,493 patients, of which 51.7% were in the favipiravir group, and 48.3% were not receiving supplemental oxygen at baseline. Favipiravir was started within a median of 5 days from symptoms onset. Significant baseline differences between the two unmatched groups existed, but not between the PS-matched groups (N = 774). After PS-matching, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the proportion with 28-day clinical improvement (93.3% versus 92.8%, P 0.780), or 28-day all-cause mortality (2.1% versus 3.1%, P 0.360). Favipiravir was associated with more viral clearance by day 28 (79.8% versus 64.1%, P <0.001). In the adjusted Cox proportional hazards model, favipiravir therapy was not associated 28-day clinical improvement (adjusted hazard ratio 0.978, 95% confidence interval 0.862 to 1.109, P 0.726). Adverse events were common in both groups, but the 93.9% were Grades 1 to 3. Conclusion Favipiravir therapy for COVID-19 pneumonia is well tolerated but is not associated with an increased likelihood of clinical improvement or reduced all-cause mortality by 28 days.

BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 777, 2020 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873955


BACKGROUND: There are limited data on Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes at a national level, and none after 60 days of follow up. The aim of this study was to describe national, 60-day all-cause mortality associated with COVID-19, and to identify risk factors associated with admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study including the first consecutive 5000 patients with COVID-19 in Qatar who completed 60 days of follow up by June 17, 2020. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality at 60 days after COVID-19 diagnosis. In addition, we explored risk factors for admission to ICU. RESULTS: Included patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 between February 28 and April 17, 2020. The majority (4436, 88.7%) were males and the median age was 35 years [interquartile range (IQR) 28-43]. By 60 days after COVID-19 diagnosis, 14 patients (0.28%) had died, 10 (0.2%) were still in hospital, and two (0.04%) were still in ICU. Fatal COVID-19 cases had a median age of 59.5 years (IQR 55.8-68), and were mostly males (13, 92.9%). All included pregnant women (26, 0.5%), children (131, 2.6%), and healthcare workers (135, 2.7%) were alive and not hospitalized at the end of follow up. A total of 1424 patients (28.5%) required hospitalization, out of which 108 (7.6%) were admitted to ICU. Most frequent co-morbidities in hospitalized adults were diabetes (23.2%), and hypertension (20.7%). Multivariable logistic regression showed that older age [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.041, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.022-1.061 per year increase; P < 0.001], male sex (aOR 4.375, 95% CI 1.964-9.744; P < 0.001), diabetes (aOR 1.698, 95% CI 1.050-2.746; P 0.031), chronic kidney disease (aOR 3.590, 95% CI 1.596-8.079, P 0.002), and higher BMI (aOR 1.067, 95% CI 1.027-1.108 per unit increase; P 0.001), were all independently associated with increased risk of ICU admission. CONCLUSIONS: In a relatively younger national cohort with a low co-morbidity burden, COVID-19 was associated with low all-cause mortality. Independent risk factors for ICU admission included older age, male sex, higher BMI, and co-existing diabetes or chronic kidney disease.

Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Qatar/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
J Med Virol ; 92(10): 2042-2049, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-306523


Tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 inhibitor, may ameliorate the inflammatory manifestations associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and thus improve clinical outcomes. This was a retrospective review of patients with laboratory-confirmed severe COVID-19 who received tocilizumab and completed 14 days of follow up. Twenty-five patients were included, median age was 58 years (interquartile range, 50-63) and the majority were males (92%). Co-morbidities included diabetes mellitus (48%), chronic kidney disease (16%), and cardiovascular disease (12%). Fever (92%), cough (84%), and dyspnea (72%) were the commonest presenting symptoms. All patients received at least two concomitant investigational antiviral agents. Median oral temperature was on day 1, 3, and 7 was 38.0°C, 37.3°C (P = .043), and 37.0°C (P = .064), respectively. Corresponding median C-reactive protein was 193 and 7.9 mg/L (P < .0001) and <6 mg/L (P = .0001). Radiological improvement was noted in 44% of patients by day 7% and 68% by day 14. Nine patients (36%) were discharged alive from intensive care unit and three (12%) died. The proportion of patients on invasive ventilation declined from (84%) at the time of tocilizumab initiation to 60% on day 7 (P = .031) and 28% on day 14 (P = .001). The majority (92%) of patients experienced at least one adverse event. However, it is not possible to ascertain which adverse events were directly related to tocilizumab therapy. In patients with severe COVID-19, tocilizumab was associated with dramatic decline in inflammatory markers, radiological improvement and reduced ventilatory support requirements. Given the study's limitations, the results require assessment in adequately powered randomized controlled trials.

Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Qatar , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies