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1.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 11(9):2465, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1809974

ABSTRACT

Accurate and rapid molecular diagnosis of COVID-19 is a crucial step to tackle the ongoing pandemic. The primary objective of this study was to estimate the real-world performance of the novel RT-PCR STANDARD M10 SARS-CoV-2 assay in a large number of nasopharyngeal (NP) specimens eluted in universal transport medium. The secondary objective was to evaluate the compatibility of this kit in testing NP samples eluted in an inactivated transport medium (essential for point-of-care testing) and lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens, which are commonly collected in critical care. A total of 591 samples were analyzed. Compared with the standard extraction-based RT-PCR Allplex 2019-nCoV (time-to-result of 270 min), the sensitivities of the STANDARD M10 were 100% (95% CI: 98.1–100%), 95.5% (95% CI: 91.7–97.6%), and 99.5% (95% CI: 97.2–99.9%) for ≥1 gene, the ORF1ab gene, and the E gene, respectively, while the specificity was 100% (95% CI: 98.7–100%). The diagnostic accuracy was 100% in testing both NP samples eluted in an inactivated transport medium and LRT specimens. STANDARD M10 reliably detects SARS-CoV-2 in 60 min, may be used as a POC tool, and is suitable for testing LRT specimens in the critical care setting.

2.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(3)2022 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1732155

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 and influenza are the main respiratory viruses for which effective vaccines are currently available. Strategies in which COVID-19 and influenza vaccines are administered simultaneously or combined into a single preparation are advantageous and may increase vaccination uptake. Here, we comprehensively review the available evidence on COVID-19/influenza vaccine co-administration and combination vaccine candidates from the standpoints of safety, immunogenicity, efficacy, policy and public acceptance. While several observational studies have shown that the trained immunity induced by influenza vaccines can protect against some COVID-19-related endpoints, it is not yet understood whether co-administration or combination vaccines can exert additive effects on relevant outcomes. In randomized controlled trials, co-administration has proved safe, with a reactogenicity profile similar to that of either vaccine administered alone. From the immunogenicity standpoint, the immune response towards four influenza strains and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in co-administration groups is generally non-inferior to that seen in groups receiving either vaccine alone. Several public health authorities have advocated co-administration. Different combination vaccine candidates are in (pre)-clinical development. The hesitancy towards vaccine co-administration or combination vaccines is a multifaceted phenomenon and may be higher than the acceptance of either vaccine administered separately. Public health implications are discussed.

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309368

ABSTRACT

Background: To describe the cellular characteristics of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of critically ill COVID-19 patients requiring invasive mechanical ventilation;the secondary outcome is to describe BALF findings between survivors vs non-survivors. Materials and Methods Patients positive for SARS-CoV-2 RT PCR, admitted to ICU between March and April 2020 were enrolled. At ICU admission, BALF were analyzed by flow cytometry. Univariate, multivariate and Spearman correlation analyses were performed. Results Sixty-four patients were enrolled, median age of 64 years (IQR 58–69). The majority cells in the BALF were neutrophils (70%, IQR 37.5–90.5) and macrophages (27%, IQR 7–49) while a minority were lymphocytes, 1%, TCD3 + 92% (IQR 82–95). The ICU mortality was 32.8%. Non-survivors had a significantly older age (p = 0.033) and peripheral lymphocytes (p = 0.012) were lower compared to the survivors. At multivariate analysis the percentage of macrophages in the BALF correlated with poor outcome (OR 1.336, CI95% 1.014–1.759, p = 0.039). Conclusions In critically ill patients, BALF cellularity is mainly composed of neutrophils and macrophages. The macrophages percentage in the BALF at ICU admittance correlated with higher ICU mortality. The lack of lymphocytes in BALF could partly explain a reduced anti-viral response.

4.
Microorganisms ; 10(2)2022 Feb 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1674731

ABSTRACT

Reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) has been described in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia. In the present two-center retrospective experience, we primarily aimed to assess the cumulative risk of HSV-1 reactivation detected on bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) samples in invasively ventilated COVID-19 patients with worsening respiratory function. The secondary objectives were the identification of predictors for HSV-1 reactivation and the assessment of its possible prognostic impact. Overall, 41 patients met the study inclusion criteria, and 12/41 patients developed HSV-1 reactivation (29%). No independent predictors of HSV-1 reactivation were identified in the present study. No association was found between HSV-1 reactivation and mortality. Eleven out of 12 patients with HSV-1 reactivation received antiviral therapy with intravenous acyclovir. In conclusion, HSV-1 reactivation is frequently detected in intubated patients with COVID-19. An antiviral treatment in COVID-19 patients with HSV-1 reactivation and worsening respiratory function might be considered.

5.
Vaccine ; 40(12): 1755-1760, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671283

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are a priority group for seasonal influenza vaccination (SIV). The 2020/21 SIV campaign was conducted during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccines, including SIV, may exert non-specific protective effects on other infectious diseases which may be ascribable to the concept of trained immunity. The aim of this study was to explore the association between 2020/21 SIV and SARS-CoV-2 positivity in a cohort of Italian HCWs. METHODS: In this observational study, a cohort of HCWs employed by a large (ca 5000 employees) referral tertiary acute-care university hospital was followed up retrospectively until the start of the COVID-19 vaccination campaign. The independent variable of interest was the 2020/21 SIV uptake. Both egg-based and cell culture-derived quadrivalent SIVs were available. The study outcome was the incidence of new SARS-CoV-2 infections, as determined by RT-PCR. Multivariable Cox regression was applied in order to discern the association of interest. RESULTS: The final cohort consisted of 2561 HCWs who underwent ≥1 RT-PCR test and accounted for a total of 94,445 person-days of observation. SIV uptake was 35.6%. During the study period, a total of 290 new SARS-CoV-2 infections occurred. The incidence of new SARS-CoV-2 was 1.62 (95% CI: 1.22-2.10) and 3.91 (95% CI: 3.43-4.45) per 1000 person-days in vaccinated and non-vaccinated HCWs, respectively, with an adjusted non-proportional hazard ratio of 0.37 (95% CI: 0.22-0.62). E-values suggested that unmeasured confounding was unlikely to explain the association. CONCLUSIONS: A lower risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection was observed among SIV recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Health Personnel , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
6.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667351

ABSTRACT

Efficient, wide-scale testing for SARS-CoV-2 is crucial for monitoring the incidence of the infection in the community. The gold standard for COVID-19 diagnosis is the molecular analysis of epithelial secretions from the upper respiratory system captured by nasopharyngeal (NP) or oropharyngeal swabs. Given the ease of collection, saliva has been proposed as a possible substitute to support testing at the population level. Here, we used a novel saliva collection device designed to favour the safe and correct acquisition of the sample, as well as the processivity of the downstream molecular analysis. We tested 1003 nasopharyngeal swabs and paired saliva samples self-collected by individuals recruited at a public drive-through testing facility. An overall moderate concordance (68%) between the two tests was found, with evidence that neither system can diagnose the infection in 100% of the cases. While the two methods performed equally well in symptomatic individuals, their discordance was mainly restricted to samples from convalescent subjects. The saliva test was at least as effective as NP swabs in asymptomatic individuals recruited for contact tracing. Our study describes a testing strategy of self-collected saliva samples, which is reliable for wide-scale COVID-19 screening in the community and is particularly effective for contact tracing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/methods , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/standards , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Saliva/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Nasopharynx/virology , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Specimen Handling/methods
7.
Microorganisms ; 10(2)2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662700

ABSTRACT

The rapid and presumptive detection of SARS-CoV-2 variants may be performed using multiplex RT-PCR assays. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of five qualitative RT-PCR tests as compared with next-generation sequencing (NGS). We retrospectively examined a multi-variant panel (n = 72) of SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swabs categorized as variants of concern (Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta), variants under monitoring (Iota and Kappa) and wild-type strains circulating in Liguria (Italy) from January to August 2021. First, NGS libraries of study samples were prepared and mapped to the reference genome. Then, specimens were screened for the detection of L452R, W152C, K417T, K417N, E484Q, E484K and N501Y mutations using the SARS-CoV-2 Variants II Assay Allplex, UltraGene Assay SARS-CoV-2 452R & 484K & 484Q Mutations V1, COVID-19 Ultra Variant Catcher, SARS-CoV-2 Extended ELITe MGB and Simplexa SARS-CoV-2 Variants Direct. The overall accuracy of these assays ranged from 96.9% to 100%. Specificity and sensitivity were 100% and 96-100%, respectively. We highly recommend the use of these assays as second-level tests in the routine workflow of SARS-CoV-2 laboratory diagnostics, as they are accurate, user friendly, low cost, may identify specific mutations in about 2-3 h and, therefore, optimize the surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 variants.

8.
J Pers Med ; 12(2)2022 Jan 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1648208

ABSTRACT

Co-administration of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and seasonal influenza vaccines has several advantages, has been advocated by various public health authorities and should be seen as an opportunity to increase the uptake of both vaccines. The objective of this survey was to quantify the acceptance of concomitant COVID-19/influenza vaccination and to identify its correlates in a representative sample of Italian adults. Of 2463 participants, a total of 22.9% were favorable to vaccine co-administration, while 16.6% declared their firm unwillingness to receive both vaccines simultaneously. The remaining 60.5% of subjects could be dubbed hesitant to some degree. Compliance with the primary COVID-19 vaccination schedule (adjusted proportional odds ratio (aOR) = 7.78), previous influenza vaccination (aOR = 1.89) and trust in public health institutions (aOR = 1.22) were the main determinants of positive attitudes toward vaccine co-administration. Other significant correlates included age, sex, perceived disease severity and vaccination risk-benefit, being offered a more personalized influenza vaccine and recent seeking for influenza-related information. In Italy, hesitancy toward COVID-19/influenza vaccine co-administration is common and appears to be higher than hesitancy toward either vaccine administered alone. This pattern is multifaceted and requires specific and tailored strategies, with public health institutions playing the central role.

9.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(12)2021 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1614015

ABSTRACT

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic disease. The prevalence of SSc ranges from 7 to 700 cases per million worldwide. Due to multiple organ involvement and constant inflammatory state, this group of patients presents an increased risk of infectious diseases. This paper aimed to gather the up-to-date evidence on vaccination strategies for patients with SSc and to be a useful tool for the prevention and management of infectious diseases. The authors conducted a scoping review in which each paragraph presents data on a specific vaccine's safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy. The work deals with the following topics: SARS-CoV-2, seasonal influenza, S. pneumoniae, HAV, HBV, HZV, N. meningitidis, H. influenzae, HPV, and diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis.

10.
Med Lav ; 112(6): 429-435, 2021 Dec 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission among co-workers at the University of Genoa, Italy, during the second COVID-19 pandemic wave. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in October 2020 - March 2021: RT-PCR confirmed cases of COVID-19 notified to the Occupational Health Service were included in the analysis. RESULTS: Among the n = 201 notified cases, contact tracing of n = 53 individuals identified n = 346 close contacts. The household setting (IRR = 36.8; 95% CI: 4.9-276.8; p < 0.001) and sharing eating areas (IRR = 19.5; 95% CI: 2.5-153.9; p = 0.005) showed the highest Secondary Attack Rates (SARs) compared to the office setting. Fatigue (IRR= 17.1; 95% CI: 5.2-55.8; p < 0.001), gastrointestinal symptoms (IRR= 6.6; 95% CI: 2.9-15.2; p< 0.001) and cough (IRR= 8.2; 95% CI: 3.7-18.2; p= p< 0.001) were associated with transmission of infection. Polysymptomatic cases (IRR= 23.1; 95% CI: 3.1-169.2; p = 0.02) were more likely to transmit the infection. Among COVID-19 index cases aged >60 years (OR = 7.7; 95% CI: 1.9-31.9; p = 0.0046) SARs were higher than in other age groups. Wearing respiratory protections by both the case and the close contact resulted an effective measure compared with no use (IRR = 0.08; 95% CI: 0.03-0.2; p = < 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: Accurate infection monitoring and contact tracing was useful to identify the main situations Conclusions: Accurate infection monitoring and contact tracing was useful to identify the main situations of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in the workplace, and hence for risk assessment and prevention programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Expert Rev Vaccines ; 21(3): 377-384, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574830

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: General practitioners (GPs) need a valid, user-friendly tool to identify patients most vulnerable to COVID-19, especially in the hypothesis of a booster vaccine dose. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a GP-friendly prognostic index able to forecast severe COVID-19 outcomes in primary care. Indeed, no such prognostic score is as yet available in Italy. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, a representative sample of 47,868 Italian adults were followed up for 129,000 person-months. The study outcome was COVID-19-related hospitalization and/or death. Candidate predictors were chosen on the basis of systematic evidence and current recommendations. The model was calibrated by using Cox regression. Both internal and external validations were performed. RESULTS: Age, sex and several clinical characteristics were significantly associated with severe outcomes. The final multivariable model explained 60% (95%CI 58-63%) of variance for COVID-19-related hospitalizations and/or deaths. The area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC) was 84% (95% CI: 83-85%). On applying the index to an external cohort, the AUC was 94% (95% CI: 93-95%). CONCLUSIONS: This index is a reliable prognostic tool that can help GPs to prioritize their patients for preventive and therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Pathogens ; 10(12)2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572584

ABSTRACT

Although the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is considered a standard-of-care assay for the laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, several limitations of this method have been described. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is an alternative molecular assay and is potentially able to overcome some intrinsic shortcomings of RT-PCR. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of the novel HG COVID-19 RT-LAMP assay. In this retrospective analysis, a total of 400 routinely collected leftover nasopharyngeal samples with a known RT-PCR result were tested by means of the HG COVID-19 RT-LAMP assay. The overall sensitivity and specificity values of HG COVID-19 RT-LAMP versus RT-PCR were 97.0% (95% CI: 93.6-98.9%) and 98.5% (95% CI: 95.7-99.7%), respectively. Inter-assay agreement was almost perfect (κ = 0.96). Concordance was perfect in samples with high viral loads (cycle threshold < 30). The average time to a positive result on RT-LAMP was 17 min. HG COVID-19 RT-LAMP is a reliable molecular diagnostic kit for detecting SARS-CoV-2, and its performance is comparable to that of RT-PCR. Shorter turnaround times and the possibility of performing molecular diagnostics in the point-of-care setting make it a valuable option for facilities without sophisticated laboratory equipment.

13.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 589, 2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571929

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Parsonage-Turner syndrome is an acute peripheral neuropathy that affects the upper brachial plexus region. Previously published reports demonstrate that the condition can be triggered by surgery, infection, autoimmune diseases, strenuous exercise, trauma, radiation, and vaccination. Parsonage-Turner syndrome has already been reported in three other patients who were vaccinated against coronavirus disease 2019. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 51-year-old Caucasian man without comorbidities who received the first dose of the ChAdOx1-S recombinant vaccine (Vaxzevria, AstraZeneca, Oxford, UK) against coronavirus disease 2019 and was diagnosed with Parsonage-Turner syndrome. A few days after getting vaccinated, the patient reported a progressive increase in pain in the region of vaccine administration. One month later, the shoulder pain was followed by symptoms of hypoesthesia and muscle weakness on abduction and elevation of the left upper limb. Neurological examination revealed an atrophy of the proximal muscles of the left upper limb, accompanied by paresis of the left deltoid, biceps brachii, triceps brachii, and infraspinatus muscles. Electroneuromyography carried out 3 months after the onset of symptoms showed signs consistent with brachial plexus neuritis. The adverse reaction has been properly reported to the Italian Pharmacovigilance System (Italian Medicines Agency-Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco. CONCLUSION: The increased awareness of such association is essential for early identification and diagnosis and, thus, better clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus Neuritis , COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
14.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260947, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: On 9th January 2020, China CDC reported a novel coronavirus (later named SARS-CoV-2) as the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Identifying the first appearance of virus is of epidemiological importance to tracking and mapping the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in a country. We therefore conducted a retrospective observational study to detect SARS-CoV-2 in oropharyngeal samples collected from hospitalized patients with a Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) enrolled in the DRIVE (Development of Robust and Innovative Vaccine Effectiveness) study in five Italian hospitals (CIRI-IT BIVE hospitals network) (1st November 2019 - 29th February 2020). OBJECTIVES: To acquire new information on the real trend in SARS-CoV-2 infection during pandemic phase I and to determine the possible early appearance of the virus in Italy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Samples were tested for influenza [RT-PCR assay (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Yam, B/Vic)] in accordance with the DRIVE study protocol. Subsequently, swabs underwent molecular testing for SARS-COV-2. [one-step real-time multiplex retro-transcription (RT) PCR]. RESULTS: In the 1683 samples collected, no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 was found. Moreover, 28.3% (477/1683) of swabs were positive for influenza viruses, the majority being type A (358 vs 119 type B). A/H3N2 was predominant among influenza A viruses (55%); among influenza B viruses, B/Victoria was prevalent. The highest influenza incidence rate was reported in patients aged 0-17 years (40.3%) followed by those aged 18-64 years (24.4%) and ≥65 years (14.8%). CONCLUSIONS: In Italy, some studies have shown the early circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in northern regions, those most severely affected during phase I of the pandemic. In central and southern regions, by contrast no early circulation of the virus was registered. These results are in line with ours. These findings highlight the need to continue to carry out retrospective studies, in order to understand the epidemiology of the novel coronavirus, to better identify the clinical characteristics of COVID-19 in comparison with other acute respiratory illnesses (ARI), and to evaluate the real burden of COVID-19 on the healthcare system.


Subject(s)
Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Hospitals , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza B virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA, Viral/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/pathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Young Adult
15.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-294611

ABSTRACT

Although the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is considered a standard-of-care assay for the laboratory diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, several limitations of this method have been described. Reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) is an alternative molecular assay and is potentially able to overcome some intrinsic shortcomings of RT-PCR. In this study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance of the novel HG COVID-19 RT-LAMP assay. In this retrospective analysis, a total of 400 routinely collected leftover nasopharyngeal samples with a known RT-PCR result were tested by means of the HG COVID-19 RT-LAMP assay. The overall sensitivity and specificity values of HG COVID-19 RT-LAMP versus RT-PCR were 97.0% (95% CI: 93.6–98.9%) and 98.5% (95% CI: 95.7–99.7%), respectively. Inter-assay agreement was almost perfect ( κ  = 0.96). Concordance was perfect in samples with high viral loads (cycle threshold <30). The average time to a positive result on RT-LAMP was 17 min. HG COVID-19 RT-LAMP is a reliable molecular diagnostic kit for detecting SARS-CoV-2, and its performance is comparable to that of RT-PCR. Shorter turnaround times and the possibility of performing molecular diagnostics in the point-of-care setting make it a valuable option for facilities without sophisticated laboratory equipment.

16.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(22)2021 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524010

ABSTRACT

Certain professional categories are at a high occupational exposure to COVID-19. The aim of this survey was to quantify the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among police officers in Italy and identify its correlates. In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative sample of State police employees was tested for IgG and IgM before the start of the National vaccination campaign. A total of 10,535 subjects (approximately 10% of the total workforce) participated in the study. The overall seroprevalence was 4.8% (95% CI: 4.4-5.3%). However, seropositivity was unevenly distributed across the country with a clear (p < 0.001) North-South gradient. In particular, the seroprevalence was 5.6 times higher in northern regions than in southern regions (9.0% vs. 1.6%). Most (71.2%) seropositive subjects reported having no recent symptoms potentially attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Previous dysosmia, dysgeusia, and influenza-like illness symptoms were positive predictors of being seropositive. However, the prognostic value of dysosmia depended (p < 0.05) on both sex and prior influenza-like illness. The baseline seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in police employees is considerable. A significant risk of occupational exposure, frequent asymptomatic cases and the progressive waning of neutralizing antibodies suggest that the police workers should be considered among the job categories prioritized for the booster COVID-19 vaccine dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Police , Seroepidemiologic Studies
17.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502539

ABSTRACT

Vaccinations are a key prevention measure in fighting the COVID-19 pandemic. The BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (BioNTech/Pfizer), the first to receive authorization, was widely used in the mass vaccination campaign in Italy. Healthcare workers were identified as a priority group for vaccination, but few studies have assessed its reactogenicity among the young working age population. An online survey was conducted to investigate the adverse reactions occurring in the 7 days following the first and second vaccination doses amongst resident doctors of the University of Genoa, employed at the IRCCS Ospedale Policlinico San Martino of Genoa, between 11 January and 16 March 2021. A total of 512 resident physicians were invited to participate in the study (female = 53.2%; mean age = 28.9 years), of whom 296 (female = 53.4%, mean age = 28.9 years) and 275 (female = 55.3%, mean age = 29.1 years) completed the survey after their first and second vaccination doses, respectively. In the 7 days following the first dose, most common adverse reactions were local pain (96.3%), fatigue (42.6%), headache (33.8%), arthromyalgia (28.0%), and 5.1% reported fever, while following the second dose, participants reported local pain (93.5%), fatigue (74.9%), headache (57.5%), arthromyalgia (58.2%), and fever (30.9%), with a higher prevalence among females. Systemic (but not local) reactions increased following the second vaccination, reaching severe intensity in 9.8% of participants and causing three or more events of moderate intensity in 23.7% of participants. Adverse reactions preventing regular daily activities could cause absenteeism among workers. These results can be useful to inform populations of young individuals, set expectations, and improve adherence to vaccination campaigns.

18.
Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol ; 35: 20587384211042115, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430368

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercoagulability is a risk factor of thromboembolic events in COVID-19. Anti-phospholipid (aPL) antibodies have been hypothesized to be involved. Typical COVID-19 dermatological manifestations of livedo reticularis and digital ischemia may resemble cutaneous manifestations of anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS). OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between aPL antibodies and thromboembolic events, COVID-19 severity, mortality, and cutaneous manifestations in patients with COVID-19. METHODS: aPL antibodies [anti-beta2-glycoprotein-1 (B2GP1) and anti-cardiolipin (aCL) antibodies] were titered in frozen serum samples from hospitalized COVID-19 patients and the patients' clinical records were retrospectively analyzed. RESULTS: 173 patients were enrolled. aPL antibodies were detected in 34.7% of patients, anti-B2GP1 antibodies in 30.1%, and aCL antibodies in 10.4%. Double positivity was observed in 5.2% of patients. Thromboembolic events occurred in 9.8% of patients, including 11 pulmonary embolisms, 1 case of celiac tripod thrombosis, and six arterial ischemic events affecting the cerebral, celiac, splenic, or femoral-popliteal arteries or the aorta. aPL antibodies were found in 52.9% of patients with vascular events, but thromboembolic events were not correlated to aPL antibodies (adjusted OR = 1.69, p = 0.502). Ten patients (5.8%) had cutaneous signs of vasculopathy: nine livedo reticularis and one acrocyanosis. No significant association was observed between the presence of cutaneous vasculopathy and aPL antibodies (p = 0.692). CONCLUSIONS: Anti-phospholipid antibodies cannot be considered responsible for hypercoagulability and thrombotic events in COVID-19 patients. In COVID-19 patients, livedo reticularis and acrocyanosis do not appear to be cutaneous manifestations of APS.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/blood , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Skin Diseases/blood , Vascular Diseases/blood , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Anticardiolipin/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Skin Diseases/immunology , Skin Diseases/mortality , Vascular Diseases/immunology , Vascular Diseases/mortality , beta 2-Glycoprotein I/immunology
19.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(9)2021 Sep 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1411057

ABSTRACT

Perceptions of the risks of vaccine-preventable diseases and preventive behaviors change over time. The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic may have modified laypeople's attitudes towards routine vaccinations. In this longitudinal study, we aimed to assess changes in attitudes and beliefs concerning (influenza) vaccines between the first and second COVID-19 pandemic waves. A total of 1979 participants completed both 2020 and 2021 surveys. After one year, more interviewees agreed that vaccines were fundamental and should be mandatory (77.3% vs. 75.0%). Analogously, willingness to undergo influenza vaccination increased (p < 0.001) from 44.1% to 48.6%. This increase was seen in subjects aged ≥35 years. Previous influenza vaccinations, receipt of a COVID-19 vaccine, positive attitudes towards (influenza) vaccination, male sex, and older age were the main correlates of willingness to receive the 2021/22 influenza vaccine. Totals of 12.6% and 11.8% had no intention to receive the next seasonal influenza and COVID-19 vaccines, respectively. Most respondents favored a hypothetical combined influenza/COVID-19 vaccine (73.7%) or influenza and COVID-19 vaccine co-administration (67.5%). In Italy, influenza and COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy and refusal are common. Effective public health strategies to pursue higher uptake of both vaccines are urgently needed.

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