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MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(17): 592-596, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2204198


On August 29, 2021, the United States government oversaw the emergent establishment of Operation Allies Welcome (OAW), led by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and implemented by the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) and U.S. Department of State (DoS), to safely resettle U.S. citizens and Afghan nationals from Afghanistan to the United States. Evacuees were temporarily housed at several overseas locations in Europe and Asia* before being transported via military and charter flights through two U.S. international airports, and onward to eight U.S. military bases,† with hotel A used for isolation and quarantine of persons with or exposed to certain infectious diseases.§ On August 30, CDC issued an Epi-X notice encouraging public health officials to maintain vigilance for measles among Afghan evacuees because of an ongoing measles outbreak in Afghanistan (25,988 clinical cases reported nationwide during January-November 2021) (1) and low routine measles vaccination coverage (66% and 43% for the first and second doses, respectively, in 2020) (2).

Communicable Diseases , Measles , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Humans , Measles/epidemiology , Measles/prevention & control , Public Health , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
Vaccine ; 38(51): 8185-8193, 2020 12 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-997580


BACKGROUND: While administration of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR-II®) vaccine has been effective at preventing rubella infection in the United States, the durability of humoral immunity to the rubella component of MMR vaccine has not been widely studied among older adolescents and adults. METHODS: In this longitudinal study, we sought to assess the durability of rubella virus (RV)-specific humoral immunity in a healthy population (n = 98) of adolescents and young adults at two timepoints: ~7 and ~17 years after two doses of MMR-II® vaccination. Levels of circulating antibodies specific to RV were measured by ELISA and an immune-colorimetric neutralization assay. RV-specific memory B cell responses were also measured by ELISpot. RESULTS: Rubella-specific IgG antibody titers, neutralizing antibody titers, and memory B cell responses declined with increasing time since vaccination; however, these decreases were relatively moderate. Memory B cell responses exhibited a greater decline in men compared to women. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, rubella-specific humoral immunity declines following vaccination, although subjects' antibody titers remain well above the currently recognized threshold for protective immunity. Clinical correlates of protection based on neutralizing antibody titer and memory B cell ELISpot response should be defined.

Immunity, Humoral , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/immunology , Rubella/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccine/pharmacology , Rubella/prevention & control , Time Factors , Vaccination , Young Adult