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1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 773788, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1957176

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic affecting individuals to varying degrees. There is emerging evidence that even patients with mild symptoms will suffer from prolonged physical impairment. Methods: In this prospective observational study, lung function, and cardiopulmonary exercise testing have been performed in 100 patients for 3-6 months after COVID-19 diagnosis (post-CoVG). Depending on the severity of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, patients were divided into asymptomatic, or mild to moderate (mild post-CoVG), and severe post-CoVG [hospitalization with or without intensive care unit/non-invasive ventilation (ICU/NIV)]. Results have been compared with age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) matched control group (CG, N = 50). Results: Both lung function (resting) and exercise capacity (peak workload, Wpeak and peak oxygen uptake, VO2 peak - % predicted) were considerably affected in patients with severe post-CoV (81.7 ± 27.6 and 86.1 ± 20.6%), compared to the mild post-CoVG (104.8 ± 24.0%, p = 0.001 and 100.4 ± 24.8; p = 0.003). In addition, also the submaximal exercise performance was significantly reduced in the severe post-CoVG (predicted VT1/VO2 peak; p = 0.013 and VT2/VO2 peak; p = 0.001). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that 74 % (adjusted R 2) of the variance in relative VO2 peak of patients who had CoV could be explained by the following variables: lower age, male sex, lower BMI, higher DLCO, higher predicted heart rate (HR) peak, lower breathing reserve (BR), and lower SaO2 peak, which were related to higher relative VO2 peak values. Higher NT-proBNP and lower creatinine kinase (CK) values were seen in severe cases compared to patients who experienced mild CoV. Discussion: Maximal and submaximal exercise performance in patients recovering from severe COVID-19 remain negatively affected for 3-6 months after COVID-19 diagnosis. The presented findings reveal that impaired pulmonary, cardiac, and skeletal muscle function contributed to the limitation of VO2 peak in those patients, which may have important implications on rehabilitation programs.

2.
BMC Pulm Med ; 22(1): 196, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-lasting symptoms following SARS-CoV2-infection have been described in several studies. However, there is only limited knowledge about the ongoing pathophysiology and the association with pathological findings in medical examinations. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of a prospective trial, 135 patients following COVID-19 were enrolled and grouped with respect to the presence or absence of respiratory ongoing symptoms following COVID-19. Pulmonary function test (PFT), diffusion capacity measurement (TLCO SB and TLCO/VA), blood gas analysis (BGA), laboratory tests and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of patients with persistent respiratory symptoms were compared to those of asymptomatic patients. RESULTS: In this analysis, 71% (96/135) of all patients (mean age 49 years; range 20-91 years) reported long-lasting symptoms after a median (IQR) of 85 days (60-116) following COVID-19 whereby 57.8% (78/135) complained about persistent pulmonary symptoms. Pathological findings in blood test, PFT, TLCO, BGA and/or HRCT were found in 71.8% and 64.1% of patients with and without long-lasting respiratory symptoms respectively. Patients with persistent respiratory symptoms were significantly younger and presented a significant lower FVC (%), TLC (L), and TLCO SB compared to asymptomatic patients (p < 0.05). The multiple logistic regression results in a significant effect of age (p = 0.004) and TLCO SB (p = 0.042). CONCLUSION: Following COVID-19, a large proportion of patients experience ongoing symptoms, whereby the respiratory symptoms are the predominant complaints. Compared to asymptomatic patients, patients with ongoing symptoms were younger and presented a significant lower FVC, TLC and TLCO SB. The multiple logistic regression demonstrated only a significant association between the TLCO SB as the only PFT parameter and the perceived symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Gas Analysis , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , RNA, Viral , Respiratory Function Tests , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Young Adult
3.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 134(9-10): 399-419, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1802740

ABSTRACT

The Austrian Society of Pneumology (ASP) launched a first statement on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in May 2020, at a time when in Austria 285 people had died from this disease and vaccinations were not available. Lockdown and social distancing were the only available measures to prevent more infections and the breakdown of the health system. Meanwhile, in Austria over 13,000 patients have died in association with a SARS-CoV­2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was among the most common causes of death; however, SARS-CoV­2 has been mutating all the time and currently, most patients have been affected by the delta variant where the vaccination is very effective but the omicron variant is rapidly rising and becoming predominant. Particularly in children and young adults, where the vaccination rate is low, the omicron variant is expected to spread very fast. This poses a particular threat to unvaccinated people who are at elevated risk of severe COVID-19 disease but also to people with an active vaccination. There are few publications that comprehensively addressed the special issues with SARS-CoV­2 infection in patients with chronic lung diseases. These were the reasons for this updated statement. Pulmonologists care for many patients with an elevated risk of death in case of COVID-19 but also for patients that might be at an elevated risk of vaccination reactions or vaccination failure. In addition, lung function tests, bronchoscopy, respiratory physiotherapy and training therapy may put both patients and health professionals at an increased risk of infection. The working circles of the ASP have provided statements concerning these risks and how to avoid risks for the patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Diseases , Pulmonary Medicine , Austria/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Lung Diseases/epidemiology , Lung Diseases/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 775318, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662604

ABSTRACT

Graft-vs. -host disease (GvHD) is a serious and complex immunological complication of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and is associated with prolonged immunodeficiency and non-relapse mortality. Standard treatment of chronic GvHD comprises steroids in combination with other immunosuppressive agents. Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), with its immunomodulatory mechanism, is applied as part of steroid-sparing regimens for chronic GvHD. Immunocompromised, chronically ill patients are at particular risk of severe disease courses of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. T-cell immunity in SARS-CoV-2 infection is well-described but the role of the humoral immune responses is not fully understood. This case report describes a moderate course of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a patient <9 months after HSCT who was suffering from active, severe, chronic GvHD treated with prednisone and ECP. Following HSCT from a matched unrelated donor to cure acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, the 25-year-old male patient experienced multiple infectious complications associated with cytopenia, B-cell dyshomeostasis and autoantibody production followed by development of severe chronic GvHD thereafter at day +212. The steroid-sparing treatment plan consisted of supportive care, topical treatment, prednisone and ECP. He was diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection at day +252, experiencing loss of smell and taste as well as a cough. The patient's oxygen saturation was between 94 and 97% on room air, and computed tomography images showed evolution of typical of SARS-CoV-2 infiltrates. In addition to cytopenia and immune dyshomeostasis, laboratory tests confirmed macrophage activating syndrome, transaminitis and Epstein-Barr virus viraemia. At that time, anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibodies were not available in Austria and remdesivir seemed contraindicated. Surprisingly, despite severe lymphopenia the patient developed SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies within 15 days, which was followed by clearance of SARS-CoV-2 and EBV with resolution of symptoms. Thereafter, parameters of immune dysregulation such as lymphopenia and B-cell dyshomeostasis, the latter characterised by elevated CD21low B cells and autoantibody expression, normalised. Moreover, we observed complete response of active chronic GvHD to treatment.

6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258351, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496507

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elevated D-dimer is known as predictor for severity of SARS-CoV2-infection. Increased D-dimer is associated with thromboembolic complications, but it is also a direct consequence of the acute lung injury seen in COVID-19 pneumonia. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the rate of persistent elevated D-dimer and its association with thromboembolic complications and persistent ground glass opacities (GGO) after recovery from COVID-19. METHODS: In this post hoc analysis of a prospective multicenter trial, patients underwent blood sampling, measurement of diffusion capacity, blood gas analysis, and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) scan following COVID-19. In case of increased D-dimer (>0,5 µg/ml), an additional contrast medium-enhanced CT was performed in absence of contraindications. Results were compared between patients with persistent D-dimer elevation and patients with normal D-dimer level. RESULTS: 129 patients (median age 48.8 years; range 19-91 years) underwent D-Dimer assessment after a median (IQR) of 94 days (64-130) following COVID-19. D-dimer elevation was found in 15% (19/129) and was significantly more common in patients who had experienced a severe SARS-CoV2 infection that had required hospitalisation compared to patients with mild disease (p = 0.049). Contrast-medium CT (n = 15) revealed an acute pulmonary embolism in one patient and CTEPH in another patient. A significant lower mean pO2 (p = 0.015) and AaDO2 (p = 0.043) were observed in patients with persistent D-Dimer elevation, but the rate of GGO were similar in both patient groups (p = 0.33). CONCLUSION: In 15% of the patients recovered from COVID-19, persistent D-dimer elevation was observed after a median of 3 months following COVID-19. These patients had experienced a more severe COVID and still presented more frequently a lower mean pO2 and AaDO2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Pulmonary Embolism/prevention & control , RNA, Viral , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
7.
Allergo J Int ; 30(5): 169-175, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Along with the newly approved vaccines against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), first reports of allergic or intolerance reactions were published. Subsequently, questions arose whether these vaccines pose an increased risk for intolerance reactions and whether allergic patients may be at higher risk for this. RESULTS: Allergic reactions following COVID-19 vaccinations have been reported, but mostly of mild severity and at normal (Moderna®) or only slightly increased frequency (BioNTech/Pfizer®) compared to established conventional vaccines. The risk of allergic reaction to the newly licensed vector vaccines (AstraZeneca®, Johnson&Johnson®) cannot be conclusively assessed yet, but also appears to be low. There is currently no evidence that patients with allergic diseases (atopic patients) react more frequently or more severely to these vaccines. It is currently assumed that intolerance reactions of the immediate-type are either type I allergic (IgE-mediated) reactions or occur via complement activation (CARPA, "complement activation-related pseudoallergy"). Polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polysorbate, which are present as stabilizers in the vaccines, are suspected as triggers for this. CONCLUSION: The data available so far do not show a significantly increased risk of immediate-type allergic reactions in atopic persons. In almost all cases, atopic patients can be vaccinated without problems. Standardized follow-up tests after suspected allergic reactions or CARPA-mediated reactions are currently limited.

8.
Lancet Respir Med ; 9(7): e59, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337047
10.
Wien Klin Wochenschr ; 132(13-14): 365-386, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-996394

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is currently a challenge worldwide. In Austria, a crisis within the healthcare system has so far been prevented. The treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), including SARS-CoV­2 infections, should continue to be based on evidence-based CAP guidelines during the pandemic; however, COVID-19 specific adjustments are useful. The treatment of patients with chronic lung diseases has to be adapted during the pandemic but must still be guaranteed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Lung Diseases/complications , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Pulmonary Medicine , Adolescent , Adult , Austria , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Humans , Lung Diseases/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2
11.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-951520

ABSTRACT

Experience with very mild #COVID19 disease courses in two severe eosinophilic asthmatics with complete eosinophil depletion due to benralizumab treatment counters the recent theories that eosinophilia is protective in COVID-19 infections https://bit.ly/3cnEFvg.

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