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2.
Life (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143529

ABSTRACT

Recent scientific literature has investigated the cardiovascular implications of COVID-19. The mechanisms of cardiovascular damage seem to involve the protein angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), to which severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus-2 (CoV-2) binds to penetrate cells and other mechanisms, most of which are still under study. Cardiovascular sequelae of COVID-19 include heart failure, cardiomyopathy, acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias, and venous thromboembolism. This article aims to collect scientific evidence by exploiting PubMed, Scopus, and Pedro databases to highlight the cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 and to define the physiotherapy treatment recommended for these patients. Exercise training (ET), an important part of cardiac rehabilitation, is a powerful tool in physiotherapy, capable of inducing significant changes in the cardiovascular system and functional in the recovery of endothelial dysfunction and for the containment of thromboembolic complications. In conclusion, due to the wide variety of possible exercise programs that can be obtained by combining intensity, duration, and speed in various ways, and by adjusting the program based on continuous patient monitoring, exercise training is well suited to the treatment of post-COVID patients with an impaired cardiovascular system of various degrees.

3.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 59(4): 901-907, 2021 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114845

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Healthcare systems worldwide have been overburdened by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Accordingly, hospitals had to implement strategies to profoundly reshape both non-COVID-19 medical care and surgical activities. Knowledge about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cardiac surgery practice is pivotal. The goal of the present study was to describe the changes in cardiac surgery practices during the health emergency at the national level. METHODS: A 26-question web-enabled survey including all adult cardiac surgery units in Italy was conducted to assess how their clinical practice changed during the national lockdown. Data were compared to data from the corresponding period in 2019. RESULTS: All but 2 centres (94.9%) adopted specific protocols to screen patients and personnel. A significant reduction in the number of dedicated cardiac intensive care unit beds (-35.4%) and operating rooms (-29.2%), along with healthcare personnel reallocation to COVID departments (nurses -15.4%, anaesthesiologists -7.7%), was noted. Overall adult cardiac surgery volumes were dramatically reduced (1734 procedures vs 3447; P < 0.001), with a significant drop in elective procedures [580 (33.4%) vs 2420 (70.2%)]. CONCLUSIONS: This national survey found major changes in cardiac surgery practice as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This experience should lead to the development of permanent systems-based plans to face possible future pandemics. These data may effectively help policy decision-making in prioritizing healthcare resource reallocation during the ongoing pandemic and once the healthcare emergency is over.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiac Surgical Procedures , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Italy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Thorac Dis ; 13(1): 125-132, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1079880

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Health systems worldwide have been overburdened by the "COVID-19 surge". Consequently, strategies to remodulate non-COVID medical and surgical care had to be developed. Knowledge of the impact of COVID surge on cardiac surgery practice is mainstem. Present study aims to evaluate the regional practice pattern during lockdown in Campania. METHODS: A multicenter regional observational 26-question survey was conducted, including all adult cardiac surgery units in Campania, Italy, to assess how surgical practice has changed during COVID-19 national lockdown. RESULTS: All centers adopted specific protocols for screening patients and personnel. A significant reduction in the number of dedicated intensive care unit (ICU) beds (-30.0%±38.1%, range: 0-100%) and cardiac operating rooms (-22.2%±26.4%, range: 0-50%) along with personnel relocation to other departments was disclosed (anesthesiologists -5.8%±11.1%, range: 0-33.3%; perfusionists -5.6%±16.7%, range: 0-50%; nurses -4.8%±13.2%, range: 0-40%; cardiologists -3.2%±9.5%, range: 0-28.6%). Cardiac surgeons were never reallocated to other services. Globally, we witnessed dramatically lower adult cardiac surgery case volumes (335 vs. 667 procedures, P<0.001), as institutions and surgeons followed guidelines to curtail non-urgent operations. CONCLUSIONS: This regional survey demonstrates major changes in practice as a response to the COVID-19 pandemic. In this respect, this experience might lead to the development of permanent systems-based plans for future pandemic and may effectively help policy decision making when prioritizing healthcare resource reallocation during and after the pandemic.

5.
Trends Cardiovasc Med ; 31(1): 8-16, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065613

ABSTRACT

The management of patients infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) may be difficult due to the need for dedicated in-hospital pathways, protective measures for healthcare professionals and isolated beds of intensive care, particularly in areas overwhelmed by wide viral spread. Although pneumonia is the most common clinical manifestation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a variety of cardiovascular complications have been reported. An integrated diagnostic algorithm in SARS-CoV-2-infected patients with suspected cardiac involvement (laboratory findings of myocardial injury and electrocardiographic changes) may help to avoid unnecessary examinations and minimize the risk of operator infection. Due to its mobility and bedside feasibility, echocardiography is the first-line imaging technique in this clinical setting. It quickly provides information on ventricular functions, pulmonary hypertension, valve disease and pericardial effusion. In case of ST-segment elevation (STE), urgent coronary angiography should be performed. Cardiac ultrasound helps distinguish between ischemic and non-ischemic myocardial disease and may detect pericardial disease. Transmural ischemic electrocardiographic changes, with or without early elevated troponin levels or echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities, will determine the need for early invasive coronary angiography. Computed tomography (CT) through its multiple applications (chest CT; CT pulmonary angiography and coronary CT angiography; late iodine enhancement CT) and cardiac magnetic resonance might be helpful in reinforcing or redirecting diagnostic hypothesis emerged by other clinical, electrocardiographic and echocardiographic findings. The current pandemic makes it challenging to perform serial invasive and non-invasive diagnostic testing in COVID-19 patients and high serum troponin level. Nevertheless, thoughtful and systematic use of an appropriate multimodality imaging strategy is clinically relevant to detect cardiac injury and distinguish myocardial infarction from, myocarditis, takotsubo syndrome and pulmonary embolism.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Multimodal Imaging , Cardiac Imaging Techniques , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 59(5): 1096-1102, 2021 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006340

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on acute and elective thoracic and abdominal aortic procedures. METHODS: Forty departments shared their data on acute and elective thoracic and abdominal aortic procedures between January and May 2020 and January and May 2019 in Europe, Asia and the USA. Admission rates as well as delay from onset of symptoms to referral were compared. RESULTS: No differences in the number of acute thoracic and abdominal aortic procedures were observed between 2020 and the reference period in 2019 [incidence rates ratio (IRR): 0.96, confidence interval (CI) 0.89-1.04; P = 0.39]. Also, no difference in the time interval from acute onset of symptoms to referral was recorded (<12 h 32% vs > 12 h 68% in 2020, < 12 h 34% vs > 12 h 66% in 2019 P = 0.29). Conversely, a decline of 35% in elective procedures was seen (IRR: 0.81, CI 0.76-0.87; P < 0.001) with substantial differences between countries and the most pronounced decline in Italy (-40%, P < 0.001). Interestingly, in Switzerland, an increase in the number of elective cases was observed (+35%, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: There was no change in the number of acute thoracic and abdominal aortic cases and procedures during the initial wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, whereas the case load of elective operations and procedures decreased significantly. Patients with acute aortic syndromes presented despite COVID-19 and were managed according to current guidelines. Further analysis is required to prove that deferral of elective cases had no impact on premature mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Asia , Elective Surgical Procedures , Europe , Humans , Italy , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland
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