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3.
MAbs ; 14(1): 2072455, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839974

ABSTRACT

Many potent neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 antibodies have been developed and used for therapies. However, the effectiveness of many antibodies has been reduced against recently emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, especially the Omicron variant. We identified a highly potent SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, UT28K, in COVID-19 convalescent individuals who recovered from a severe condition. UT28K showed efficacy in neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 in an in vitro assay and in vivo prophylactic treatment, and the reactivity to the Omicron strain was reduced. The structural analyses revealed that antibody UT28K Fab and SARS-CoV-2 RBD protein interactions were mainly chain-dominated antigen-antibody interactions. In addition, a mutation analysis suggested that the emergence of a UT28K neutralization-resistant SARS-CoV-2 variant was unlikely, as this variant would likely lose its competitive advantage over circulating SARS-CoV-2. Our data suggest that UT28K offers potent protection against SARS-CoV-2, including newly emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans
4.
Iyakuhin Johogaku = Japanese Journal of Drug Informatics ; 23(3):143-147, 2021.
Article in Japanese | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1599893

ABSTRACT

Objective: The worldwide spread of the COVID-19 pandemic since 2020 led to a lack of information even at Japanese pharmacies, which are at the forefront of community medicine. Therefore, the Kyoto University Graduate School of Public Health Pharmacy Information Group has developed information materials related to COVID-19 for pharmacies 0and released them on the COVID-19 countermeasure website, which was launched in haste. However, these days in the information society, the amount of information distributed is explosively expanding. Therefore, it is not possible to reach the target people just by publishing the countermeasure website. Therefore, we set up a public relations team to carry out publicity activities for pharmacists and analyzed the effectiveness of these activities by focusing on changes in the number of page views (PV) on the countermeasure website. Methods: PV and public relations(Facebook, industry media , e-mail) activities during the first 18 days(EARLY period), which is half of the total PV, and the remaining 164 days(MIDDLE period), covering 182 days from the day before the countermeasure website was opened. The changes in quantity were compared. Furthermore, we also compared the changes in the level of interest in the new coronavirus during the target period using Google Trends. Results: PV was remarkably large in the EARLY period, and the amount of public relations activity was generally concentrated in the EARLY period and PV. The number of searches for related words on Google Trends was almost the same as PV except for some. Conclusion: The study revealed the importance of establishing a pandemic countermeasure website for pharmacists at an appropriate time and conducting intensive public relations activities in the early stages.

5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0056021, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546467

ABSTRACT

Serological tests are beneficial for recognizing the immune response against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). To identify protective immunity, optimization of the chemiluminescent reduction neutralizing test (CRNT) is critical. Whether commercial antibody tests have comparable accuracy is unknown. Serum samples were obtained from COVID-19 patients (n = 74), SARS-CoV-2 PCR-negative (n = 179), and suspected healthy individuals (n = 229) before SARS-CoV-2 variants had been detected locally. The convalescent phase was defined as the period after day 10 from disease onset or the episode of close contact. The CRNT using pseudotyped viruses displaying the wild-type (WT) spike protein and a commercial anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibody test were assayed. Serology for the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants was also assayed. Both tests concurred for symptomatic COVID-19 patients in the convalescent phase. They clearly differentiated between patients and suspected healthy individuals (sensitivity: 95.8% and 100%, respectively; specificity: 99.1% and 100%, respectively). Anti-RBD antibody test results correlated with neutralizing titers (r = 0.31, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.22-0.38). Compared with the WT, lower CRNT values were observed for the variants. Of the samples with ≥100 U/mL by the anti-RBD antibody test, 77.8% and 88.9% showed ≥50% neutralization against the B.1.1.7 and the B.1.351 variants, respectively. Exceeding 100 U/mL in the anti-RBD antibody test was associated with neutralization of variants (P < 0.01). The CRNT and commercial anti-RBD antibody test effectively classified convalescent COVID-19 patients. Strong positive results with the anti-RBD antibody test can reflect neutralizing activity against emerging variants. IMPORTANCE This study provides a diagnostic evidence of test validity, which can lead to vaccine efficacy and proof of recovery after COVID-19. It is not easy to know neutralization against SARS-CoV-2 in the clinical laboratory because of technical and biohazard issues. The correlation of the quantitative anti-receptor-binding domain antibody test, which is widely available, with neutralizing test indicates that we can know indirectly the state of acquisition of functional immunity against wild and variant-type viruses in the clinical laboratory.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , Neutralization Tests/methods , Protein Binding/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Vaccine Efficacy , Viral Pseudotyping , Young Adult
6.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(2): 347-351, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1510011

ABSTRACT

Genetic testing using reverse transcriptase real-time polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) is the mainstay of diagnosis of COVID-19. However, it has not been fully investigated whether infectious viruses are contained in SARS-CoV-2 genome-positive specimens examined using the rRT-PCR test. In this study, we examined the correlation between the threshold Cycle (Ct) value obtained from the rRT-PCR test and virus isolation in cultured cells, using 533 consecutive clinical specimens of COVID-19 patients. The virus was isolated from specimens with a Ct value of less than 30 cycles, and the lower the Ct value, the more efficient the isolation rate. A cytopathic effect due to herpes simplex virus type 1 contamination was observed in one sample with a Ct value of 35 cycles. In a comparison of VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells and VeroE6 cells used for virus isolation, VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells isolated the virus 1.7 times more efficiently than VeroE6 cells. There was no significant difference between the two cells in the mean Ct value of the detectable sample. In conclusion, Lower Ct values in the PCR test were associated with higher virus isolation rates, and VeroE6/TMPRSS2 cells were able to isolate viruses more efficiently than VeroE6 cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cell Line , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
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