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2.
Int J Infect Dis ; 112: 76-80, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1400316

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate infection prevention and control (IPC) training workshops using Kirkpatrick model level 1 and 2 regarding satisfaction of trainees and improvement of their knowledge and skills. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 353 healthcare workers from January 2020 to March 2020, at four hospitals in Islamabad, Pakistan. Training feedback questionnaires and pre and post tests were employed for data collection. The authors analyzed data using SPSS version 25. RESULTS: The majority (52%) of participants rated the trainings as "Excellent", 44% rated "Good" while 2% graded "Average". Pre and post-tests mean scores demonstrated statistically significant improvement in knowledge and skills (p< 0.001). CONCLUSION: The training workshops significantly improved healthcare workers' knowledge and skills regarding Infection Prevention and Control and earned high satisfaction scores from the trainees.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Infection Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pakistan
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 4869-4877, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1905894

ABSTRACT

The emergence of different variants of concern of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has resulted in upsurges of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases around the globe. Pakistan faced the fourth wave of COVID-19 from July to August 2021 with 314,786 cases. To understand the genomic diversity of circulating SARS-CoV-2 strains during the fourth wave of the pandemic in Pakistan, this study was conducted. The samples from 140 COVID-19-positive patients were subjected to whole-genome sequencing using the iSeq Sequencer by Illumina. The results showed that 97% (n = 136) of isolates belonged to the delta variant while three isolates belonged to alpha and only one isolate belonged to the beta variant. Among delta variant cases, 20.5% (n = 28) isolates were showing B.1.617.2 while 23.5% (n = 25), 17.59% (n = 19), 14.81% (n = 16), and 13.89% (n = 15) of isolates were showing AY.108, AY.43 AY.127, and AY.125 lineages, respectively. Islamabad was found to be the most affected city with 65% (n = 89) of delta variant cases, followed by Karachi (17%, n = 23), and Rawalpindi (10%, n = 14). Apart from the characteristic spike mutations (T19R, L452R, T478K, P681R, and D950N) of the delta variant, the sublineages exhibited other spike mutations as E156del, G142D, T95I, A222V, G446V, K529N, N532S, Q613H, and V483A. The phylogenetic analysis revealed the introductions from Singapore, the United Kingdom, and Germany. This study highlights the circulation of delta variants (B.1.617.2 and sublineages) during the fourth wave of pandemic in Pakistan.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , Genomics , Humans , Mutation , Pakistan/epidemiology , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
6.
N Engl J Med ; 386(22): 2097-2111, 2022 06 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1830291

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ZF2001 vaccine, which contains a dimeric form of the receptor-binding domain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and aluminum hydroxide as an adjuvant, was shown to be safe, with an acceptable side-effect profile, and immunogenic in adults in phase 1 and 2 clinical trials. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial to investigate the efficacy and confirm the safety of ZF2001. The trial was performed at 31 clinical centers across Uzbekistan, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Ecuador; an additional center in China was included in the safety analysis only. Adult participants (≥18 years of age) were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive a total of three 25-µg doses (30 days apart) of ZF2001 or placebo. The primary end point was the occurrence of symptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19), as confirmed on polymerase-chain-reaction assay, at least 7 days after receipt of the third dose. A key secondary efficacy end point was the occurrence of severe-to-critical Covid-19 (including Covid-19-related death) at least 7 days after receipt of the third dose. RESULTS: Between December 12, 2020, and December 15, 2021, a total of 28,873 participants received at least one dose of ZF2001 or placebo and were included in the safety analysis; 25,193 participants who had completed the three-dose regimen, for whom there were approximately 6 months of follow-up data, were included in the updated primary efficacy analysis that was conducted at the second data cutoff date of December 15, 2021. In the updated analysis, primary end-point cases were reported in 158 of 12,625 participants in the ZF2001 group and in 580 of 12,568 participants in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 75.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.0 to 79.8). Severe-to-critical Covid-19 occurred in 6 participants in the ZF2001 group and in 43 in the placebo group, for a vaccine efficacy of 87.6% (95% CI, 70.6 to 95.7); Covid-19-related death occurred in 2 and 12 participants, respectively, for a vaccine efficacy of 86.5% (95% CI, 38.9 to 98.5). The incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events was balanced in the two groups, and there were no vaccine-related deaths. Most adverse reactions (98.5%) were of grade 1 or 2. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of adults, the ZF2001 vaccine was shown to be safe and effective against symptomatic and severe-to-critical Covid-19 for at least 6 months after full vaccination. (Funded by the National Science and Technology Major Project and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04646590.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Vaccines, Subunit , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Double-Blind Method , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines , Vaccines, Subunit/adverse effects , Vaccines, Subunit/therapeutic use , Young Adult
7.
Lancet ; 399(10321): 237-248, 2022 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1815307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Ad5-nCoV vaccine is a single-dose adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectored vaccine expressing the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein that was well-tolerated and immunogenic in phase 1 and 2 studies. In this study, we report results on the final efficacy and interim safety analyses of the phase 3 trial. METHODS: This double-blind, randomised, international, placebo-controlled, endpoint-case driven, phase 3, clinical trial enrolled adults aged 18 years older at study centres in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Pakistan, and Russia. Participants were eligible for the study if they had no unstable or severe underlying medical or psychiatric conditions; had no history of a laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection; were not pregnant or breastfeeding; and had no previous receipt of an adenovirus-vectored, coronavirus, or SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. After informed consent was obtained, 25 mL of whole blood was withdrawn from all eligible participants who were randomised in a 1:1 ratio to receive a single intramuscular dose of 0·5 mL placebo or a 0·5 mL dose of 5 × 1010 viral particle (vp)/mL Ad5-nCoV vaccine; study staff and participants were blinded to treatment allocation. All participants were contacted weekly by email, telephone, or text message to self-report any symptoms of COVID-19 illness, and laboratory testing for SARS-CoV-2 was done for all participants with any symptoms. The primary efficacy objective evaluated Ad5-nCoV in preventing symptomatic, PCR-confirmed COVID-19 infection occurring at least 28 days after vaccination in all participants who were at least 28 days postvaccination on Jan 15, 2021. The primary safety objective evaluated the incidence of any serious adverse events or medically attended adverse events postvaccination in all participants who received a study injection. This trial is closed for enrolment and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT04526990). FINDINGS: Study enrolment began on Sept 22, 2020, in Pakistan, Nov 6, 2020, in Mexico, Dec 2, 2020, in Russia and Chile, and Dec 17, 2020, in Argentina; 150 endpoint cases were reached on Jan 15, 2021, triggering the final primary efficacy analysis. One dose of Ad5-nCoV showed a 57·5% (95% CI 39·7-70·0, p=0·0026) efficacy against symptomatic, PCR-confirmed, COVID-19 infection at 28 days or more postvaccination (21 250 participants; 45 days median duration of follow-up [IQR 36-58]). In the primary safety analysis undertaken at the time of the efficacy analysis (36 717 participants), there was no significant difference in the incidence of serious adverse events (14 [0·1%] of 18 363 Ad5-nCoV recipients and 10 [0·1%] of 18 354 placebo recipients, p=0·54) or medically attended adverse events (442 [2·4%] of 18 363 Ad5-nCoV recipients and 411 [2·2%] of 18 354 placebo recipients, p=0·30) between the Ad5-nCoV or placebo groups, or any serious adverse events considered related to the study product (none in both Ad5-nCoV and placebo recipients). In the extended safety cohort, 1004 (63·5%) of 1582 of Ad5-nCoV recipients and 729 (46·4%) of 1572 placebo recipients reported a solicited systemic adverse event (p<0·0001), of which headache was the most common (699 [44%] of Ad5-nCoV recipients and 481 [30·6%] of placebo recipients; p<0·0001). 971 (61·3%) of 1584 Ad5-nCoV recipients and 314 (20·0%) of 1573 placebo recipients reported an injection-site adverse event (p<0·0001), of which pain at the injection site was the most frequent; reported by 939 (59%) Ad5-nCoV recipients and 303 (19%) placebo recipients. INTERPRETATION: One dose of Ad5-nCoV is efficacious and safe in healthy adults aged 18 years and older. FUNDING: CanSino Biologics and the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccination/methods , Young Adult
8.
J Med Virol ; 94(3): 1115-1129, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718378

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) have emerged worldwide and gained significant importance due to their high transmissibility and global spread, thus meriting close monitoring. In Pakistan, limited information is available on circulation of these variants as the alpha variant has been reported the main circulating lineage. The current study was designed to detect and explore the genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating during the third wave of the pandemic in the indigenous population. From May 01 to June 09, 2021, a total of 16 689 samples were tested using TaqPath™ COVID-19 kit for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 2562 samples (15.4%) were COVID-19 positive. Out of these positive samples, 2124 (12.7%) did not show the spike gene amplification (spike gene target failure ([SGTF]), whereas 438 (2.6%) showed spike gene amplification (non-SGTF). A subset (n = 58/438) of non-SGTF samples were randomly selected for whole-genome sequencing. Among VOCs, 45% (n = 26/58) were delta, 46% (n = 27/58) were beta, and one was gamma variant. The delta variant cases were reported mainly from Islamabad (n = 15; 58%) followed by Rawalpindi and Azad Kashmir (n = 1; 4% each). Beta variant cases originated mainly from Karachi (n = 8; 30%) and Islamabad (n = 11; 41%) and the gamma variant case was reported in a traveler from Italy. The delta, beta, and gamma variants possessed lineage-specific spike mutations. Notably, two rare mutations (E484Q and L5F) were found in the delta variant. Furthermore, in the beta variant, two significant rare non-synonymous spike mutations (A879S and K444R) were also reported. High prevalence of beta and delta variants in local population may increase the number of cases in the near future and provides an early warning to national health authorities to take timely decisions and devise suitable interventions to contain a possible fourth wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
9.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2402-2413, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718416

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
10.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329264

ABSTRACT

The Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 has rapidly replace previous variants of SARS CoV2 around the globe and is now a major variant of concern. The genomic surveillance of Omicron variant also reveals spread of its subvariant BA.2 which has differing transmissibility in comparison to its other subvariant BA.1. BA.1 and BA.2 harbors different mutational profile. One of the important change in both the subvariants is the presence of 69-70 deletion in BA.1 and absence of this deletion in BA.2. This deletion can be used as tool for the detection of omicron sub variants using real time PCR. In the current study we have used the TaqPath COVID-19 PCR kit for the detection of 69-70 deletion followed by genotyping using SNPsig® SARS-CoV-2 (EscapePLEX) kit (PrimerDesign, UK) that target K417N, E484K, and P681R mutations. The samples with the amplification of spike gene and K417N were termed as probable BA.2 cases. A subset of samples (n=13) were further subjected to whole genome sequencing. The results showed all the 13 samples were of BA.2. Hence, this assay can be used as a cost effective method for the detection of omicron BA.2 variant using real time PCR in resource limiting settings. Moreover, the detection of BA.2 with highly transmissible mutations in Islamabad, Pakistan may potentially increase the number of positive cases. In that scenario, there has to be stringent genomic surveillance to understand the circulating lineages in the country.

11.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327734

ABSTRACT

Since the start of COVID-19 pandemic, Pakistan has experienced four waves of pandemic. The fourth wave ended in October, 2021 while the fifth wave of pandemic starts in January, 2022. The data regarding the circulating strains after the fourth wave of pandemic from Pakistan is not available. The current study explore the genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 after fourth wave and before fifth wave of pandemic through whole genome sequencing. The results showed the circulation of different strains of SARS-CoV-2 during November-December, 2021. We have Omicron BA.1 (n=4), Lineage A (n=2) and delta AY.27 (n=1) variants of SARS-CoV-2 in the population of Islamabad. All the isolates harbors characteristics mutations of omicron and delta variant in the genome. The lineage A isolate harbors a nine amino acid (68-76) and a ten amino acid (679-688) deletion in the genome. The circulation of omicron in the population before the fifth wave of pandemic and subsequent upsurges of COVID-19 positive cases in Pakistan highlights the importance of genomic surveillance.

14.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(Suppl 3): iii1-iii11, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607646

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) regarding COVID-19 between public health workers (PHWs) attended field epidemiology training program (FETP-trained) and those who did not attend FETP (non-FETP trained). METHODS: Multi-country cross-sectional survey was conducted among PHWs who participated in COVID-19 pandemic in 10 countries at EMR. Online questionnaire that included demographic information, KAP regarding COVID-19 pandemic was distributed among HCWs. Scoring system was used to quantify the answers, bivariate and Multivariate analysis performed to compare FETP-trained with non-FETP trained PHWs. RESULTS: Overall, 1337 PHWs participated, with 835 (62.4%) < 40 years of age, and 851 (63.6%) males. Of them, 423 (31.6%) had FETP, including that 189 (44.7%) had advanced level, 155 (36.6%) intermediate and 79 (18.7%) basic level training. Compared with non-FETP trained, FETP trained were older, having higher KAP scores. FETP participation was low in infection control, and PH laboratories. KAP mean scores for intermediate level attendees are comparable to advanced level. CONCLUSIONS: FETP-trained are having better KAP than non-FETP PHWs. Expanding the intermediate level, maintain the Rapid Response training and introduce the laboratory component are recommended to maximize the benefit from FETP. Infection control, antimicrobial resistance and coordination are areas where training should include.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
J Public Health (Oxf) ; 43(Suppl 3): iii34-iii42, 2021 12 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1605007

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) fighting against the COVID-19 pandemic are under incredible pressure, which puts them at risk of developing mental health problems. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress among HCWs responding to COVID-19 and its associated factors. METHODS: A multi-country cross-sectional study was conducted during July-August 2020 among HCWs responding to COVID-19 in nine Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries. Data were collected using an online questionnaire administered using KoBo Toolbox. Mental problems were assessed using the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21). RESULTS: A total of 1448 HCWs from nine EMR countries participated in this study. About 51.2% were male and 52.7% aged ≤ 30 years. Of all HCWs, 57.5% had depression, 42.0% had stress, and 59.1% had anxiety. Considering the severity, 19.2%, 16.1%, 26.6% of patients had severe to extremely severe depression, stress, and anxiety, respectively. Depression, stress, anxiety, and distress scores were significantly associated with participants' residency, having children, preexisting psychiatric illness, and being isolated for COVID-19. Furthermore, females, those working in a teaching hospital, and specialists had significantly higher depression and stress scores. Married status, current smoking, diabetes mellitus, having a friend who died with COVID-19, and high COVID-19 worry scores were significantly associated with higher distress scores. CONCLUSIONS: Mental problems were prevalent among HCWs responding to COVID-19 in EMR. Therefore, special interventions to promote mental well-being among HCWs responding to COVID-19 need to be immediately implemented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Anxiety/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression/epidemiology , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(12): e32203, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572241

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 became a pandemic rapidly after its emergence in December 2019. It belongs to the coronavirus family of viruses, which have struck a few times before in history. Data based on previous research regarding etiology and epidemiology of other viruses from this family helped played a vital role in formulating prevention and precaution strategies during the initial stages of this pandemic. Data related to COVID-19 in Pakistan were not initially documented on a large scale. In addition, due to a weak health care system and low economic conditions, Pakistan's population, in general, already suffers from many comorbidities, which can severely affect the outcome of patients infected with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infections are coupled with a manifestation of various notable outcomes that can be documented and characterized clinically. The aim of this study was to examine these clinical manifestations, which can serve as indicators for early detection as well as severity prognosis for COVID-19 infections, especially in high-risk groups. METHODS: A retrospective observational study involving abstraction of demographic features, presenting symptoms, and adverse clinical outcomes for 1812 patients with COVID-19 was conducted. Patients were admitted to the four major hospitals in the Rawalpindi-Islamabad region of Pakistan, and the study was conducted from February to August 2020. Multivariate regression analysis was carried out to identify significant indicators of COVID-19 severity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ventilator aid, and mortality. The study not only relates COVID-19 infection with comorbidities, but also examines other related factors, such as age and gender. RESULTS: This study identified fever (1592/1812, 87.9%), cough (1433/1812, 79.1%), and shortness of breath (998/1812, 55.1%) at the time of hospital admission as the most prevalent symptoms for patients with COVID-19. These symptoms were common but not conclusive of the outcome of infection. Out of 1812 patients, 24.4% (n=443) required ICU admission and 21.5% (n=390) required ventilator aid at some point of disease progression during their stay at the hospital; 25.9% (n=469) of the patients died. Further analysis revealed the relationship of the presented symptoms and comorbidities with the progression of disease severity in these patients. Older adult patients with comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and asthma, were significantly affected in higher proportions, resulting in requirement of ICU admission and ventilator aid in some cases and, in many cases, even mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Older adult patients with comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and chronic kidney disease, are at increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 infections, with an increased likelihood of adverse clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
17.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294172

ABSTRACT

Introduction Serological surveys are valuable tools to evaluate the extent of disease transmission, measuring preventive effectiveness and proportion of asymptomatic individuals. This age-stratified, serological survey was aimed to measure the COVID-19 distribution and determinants in district Islamabad of Pakistan. Methodology Three-stage cluster sampling, using population proportionate to size technique, starting with a random number was used. A structured, pretested questionnaire was used after taking informed written consent, to gather demographic, risk factor information. Results Seroprevalence was found 16.5% (AR: 16.5%/100,000). The mean age was 35 (±16 Years). The majority were male (64%), self-employed (29%), and had primary level education (33%). The highest seroprevalence was found in the 21-30 years age group (24.8%) while the 41-50 years age group showed the highest attack rate (112.9/100,000 population). The proportion of the population tested that were asymptomatic was 69% (n=711) while the most frequently reported sign/symptom was cough (99%) followed by fever (20%). No known co-morbidity was reported in 86% (n=884) of respondents while hypertension remained the most reported condition (8%). High seroprevalence was observed in urban areas (12.3%) compared to rural union councils (6.4%). Visiting a house where COVID-19 case was isolated (OR 2, CI 1.38-2.84, P < 0.001), history of contact with a known case of COVID-19 (OR 1.42, CI 1.11-1.82, P =0.005), and attending a mass gathering (OR 1.21, CI: 1.02-1.42, p=0.02) were significant risk factors associated with contracting an infection. A Chi-Square test of independence showed significant protection while using regular hand hygiene practices (6.5;p<0.05) and regular usage of face masks (8.6;p<0.05). Conclusion Seroprevalence gives a direct estimation of population groups exposed to the virus. A remarkable difference in prevalence is found in urban and rural areas, extreme age groups, and socioeconomic statuses, suggesting targeted public health interventions. Sero-studies are affordable counterparts of molecular testing where quick estimation, prevention effectiveness, and data-driven public health policies are priorities.

18.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 8(3): e32831, 2022 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The establishment of empirical evidence in the Eastern Mediterranean Region necessitates the implementation of wide-scale studies to describe the demographic, clinical features, and severity profile of patients with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess the patterns of COVID-19 severity and mortality in seven countries, and to determine the risk factors of COVID-19 severity and mortality. METHODS: This multicountry study was based on a retrospective review of medical records of hospitalized patients confirmed to have COVID-19. This study includes data from Iraq, Pakistan, Sudan, Somalia, Morocco, Egypt, and Yemen. All demographic and clinical data were extracted from hospital records (paper files) by trained data collectors. RESULTS: A total of 4141 patients were included in this study from seven countries. Comorbidities were reported by nearly half of the patients, with hypertension (n=1021, 24.7%) and diabetes (n=939, 22.7%) being the most common. Older age, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and heart diseases were significantly associated with COVID-19 severity and mortality. Ever smoking and renal diseases were significantly associated with severity but not mortality, while male gender, respiratory diseases, and malignancy were significantly associated with mortality but not severity. CONCLUSIONS: The study confirms the role of comorbidities and demographic features on the severity and mortality of COVID-19. Understanding the contributing factors ensures attentive care and informs clinical management of patients with poorer prognoses in the early stages of diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Egypt , Humans , Male , Mediterranean Region , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
19.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(12): e32203, 2021 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496854

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 became a pandemic rapidly after its emergence in December 2019. It belongs to the coronavirus family of viruses, which have struck a few times before in history. Data based on previous research regarding etiology and epidemiology of other viruses from this family helped played a vital role in formulating prevention and precaution strategies during the initial stages of this pandemic. Data related to COVID-19 in Pakistan were not initially documented on a large scale. In addition, due to a weak health care system and low economic conditions, Pakistan's population, in general, already suffers from many comorbidities, which can severely affect the outcome of patients infected with COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: COVID-19 infections are coupled with a manifestation of various notable outcomes that can be documented and characterized clinically. The aim of this study was to examine these clinical manifestations, which can serve as indicators for early detection as well as severity prognosis for COVID-19 infections, especially in high-risk groups. METHODS: A retrospective observational study involving abstraction of demographic features, presenting symptoms, and adverse clinical outcomes for 1812 patients with COVID-19 was conducted. Patients were admitted to the four major hospitals in the Rawalpindi-Islamabad region of Pakistan, and the study was conducted from February to August 2020. Multivariate regression analysis was carried out to identify significant indicators of COVID-19 severity, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, ventilator aid, and mortality. The study not only relates COVID-19 infection with comorbidities, but also examines other related factors, such as age and gender. RESULTS: This study identified fever (1592/1812, 87.9%), cough (1433/1812, 79.1%), and shortness of breath (998/1812, 55.1%) at the time of hospital admission as the most prevalent symptoms for patients with COVID-19. These symptoms were common but not conclusive of the outcome of infection. Out of 1812 patients, 24.4% (n=443) required ICU admission and 21.5% (n=390) required ventilator aid at some point of disease progression during their stay at the hospital; 25.9% (n=469) of the patients died. Further analysis revealed the relationship of the presented symptoms and comorbidities with the progression of disease severity in these patients. Older adult patients with comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease, and asthma, were significantly affected in higher proportions, resulting in requirement of ICU admission and ventilator aid in some cases and, in many cases, even mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Older adult patients with comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and chronic kidney disease, are at increased risk of developing severe COVID-19 infections, with an increased likelihood of adverse clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Med Virol ; 94(3): 1115-1129, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490840

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) have emerged worldwide and gained significant importance due to their high transmissibility and global spread, thus meriting close monitoring. In Pakistan, limited information is available on circulation of these variants as the alpha variant has been reported the main circulating lineage. The current study was designed to detect and explore the genomic diversity of SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating during the third wave of the pandemic in the indigenous population. From May 01 to June 09, 2021, a total of 16 689 samples were tested using TaqPath™ COVID-19 kit for the presence of SARS-CoV-2. Overall, 2562 samples (15.4%) were COVID-19 positive. Out of these positive samples, 2124 (12.7%) did not show the spike gene amplification (spike gene target failure ([SGTF]), whereas 438 (2.6%) showed spike gene amplification (non-SGTF). A subset (n = 58/438) of non-SGTF samples were randomly selected for whole-genome sequencing. Among VOCs, 45% (n = 26/58) were delta, 46% (n = 27/58) were beta, and one was gamma variant. The delta variant cases were reported mainly from Islamabad (n = 15; 58%) followed by Rawalpindi and Azad Kashmir (n = 1; 4% each). Beta variant cases originated mainly from Karachi (n = 8; 30%) and Islamabad (n = 11; 41%) and the gamma variant case was reported in a traveler from Italy. The delta, beta, and gamma variants possessed lineage-specific spike mutations. Notably, two rare mutations (E484Q and L5F) were found in the delta variant. Furthermore, in the beta variant, two significant rare non-synonymous spike mutations (A879S and K444R) were also reported. High prevalence of beta and delta variants in local population may increase the number of cases in the near future and provides an early warning to national health authorities to take timely decisions and devise suitable interventions to contain a possible fourth wave.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Pakistan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
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