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Cureus ; 13(11): e20007, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604368

ABSTRACT

Adrenal hemorrhage is the most common cause of adrenal mass in newborns. We present a case of a full-term male, born by cesarean section due to acute fetal distress from a mother with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. He was diagnosed with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, multifactorial shock, and early neonatal sepsis. On the seventh day of hospitalization, hemoglobin dropped and thus blood transfusion was required, and abdominal ultrasound showed bilateral adrenal hemorrhage. He developed relative adrenal insufficiency without either hemodynamic instability or electrolyte imbalances. The use of parenteral corticosteroids was not required. Follow-up ultrasonography and adrenal axis laboratory examination revealed complete resolution of adrenal hemorrhage. Neonatal adrenal hemorrhage has a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Ultrasound is preferred for both initial screening and follow-up evaluation. Adrenal insufficiency occurs rarely in neonatal adrenal hemorrhage. Treatment is usually conservative. We emphasize the importance of a timely diagnosis and clinical follow-up of adrenal hemorrhage in neonates with fetal distress born from mothers with severe COVID-19.

2.
Rev. Cuerpo Méd. Hosp. Nac. Almanzor Aguinaga Asenjo ; 14(Supl. 1): 55-61, oct. 21, 2021.
Article in Spanish, English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1529106

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La obesidad en niños y adolescentes ha aumentado exponencialmente en todo el mundo. Asimismo, la pandemia del coronavirus (COVID-19) ha conducido a una mayor tasa de obesidad pediátrica. El exceso de tejido adiposo genera una desregulación de hormonas como adiponectina, ghrelina y leptina, entre otras. Las alteraciones metabólicas pueden ocasionar enfermedad cardiovascular, dislipidemias, hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, enfermedad del hígado graso no alcohólico, trastornos del sueño y mayor riesgo de COVID-19 severo. La obesidad tiene diferentes enfoques terapéuticos, como programas conductuales de pérdida de peso, tratamientos farmacológicos y procedimientos quirúrgicos. De esta manera, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento oportuno es importante para disminuir la mortalidad asociada a la obesidad en la población pediátrica.


Introduction: Obesity in children and adolescents has increased exponentially worldwide. Likewise, the coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) has led to a higher rate of pediatric obesity. Excess adipose tissue leads to dysregulation of hormones such as adiponectin, ghrelin and leptin, among others. Metabolic alterations can lead to cardiovascular disease, dyslipidemias, arterial hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, sleep disorders and increased risk of severe COVID-19. Obesity has different therapeutic approaches, such as behavioral weight loss programs, pharmacological treatments and surgical procedures. Thus, timely diagnosis and treatment is important to decrease obesity-associated mortality in the pediatric population.

3.
Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep ; 20212021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1290209

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is the type of thyroid cancer that has the worst prognosis. It usually presents as a rapidly growing cervical mass that generates compressive symptoms. Its association with thyrotoxicosis is rare. A 76-year-old woman, with no contributory history, presented with a 3-month course of fast-growing cervical tumor, associated with tenderness, cough, and weight loss. Physical examination revealed goiter, localized erythema, and a painful and stone tumor dependent on the right thyroid lobe. Due to the malignant findings of the thyroid ultrasound, the patient underwent a thyroid core needle biopsy, which indicated ATC. Laboratory tests revealed leukocytosis, decreased thyroid-stimulating hormone, elevated free thyroxine (fT4), and increased thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies. At the beginning, we considered that the etiology of thyrotoxicosis was secondary to subacute thyroiditis (SAT) after SARS-CoV-2 infection, due to the immunochromatography result and chest tomography findings. The result of markedly elevated TPO antibodies left this etiology more remote. Therefore, we suspected Graves' disease as an etiology; however, thyroid histopathology and ultrasound did not show compatible findings. Therefore, we suspect that the main etiology of thyrotoxicosis in the patient was the destruction of the thyroid follicles caused by a rapid invasion of malignant cells, which is responsible for the consequent release of preformed thyroid hormone. ATC is a rare endocrine neoplasm with high mortality; it may be associated with thyrotoxicosis, whose etiology can be varied; therefore, differential diagnosis is important for proper management. LEARNING POINTS: Anaplastic thyroid cancer is the thyroid cancer with the worst prognosis and the highest mortality. The association of anaplastic thyroid cancer with thyrotoxicosis is rare, and a differential diagnosis is necessary to provide adequate treatment. Due to the current pandemic, in patients with thyrotoxicosis, it is important to rule out SARS-CoV-2 as an etiology. Anaplastic thyroid cancer, due to its aggressive behavior and rapid growth, can destroy thyroid follicular cells, generating preformed thyroid hormone release, being responsible for thyrotoxicosis.

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