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1.
World J Virol ; 11(2): 111-112, 2022 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1791987

ABSTRACT

In a recent meta-analysis the prevalence of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated hyperglycemia was 25%, and that of COVID-19-associated new-onset diabetes was 19%. An association between hyperglycemia or new-onset diabetes and COVID-19 has been suggested. In a recent relevant study of critically and non-critically ill patients with COVID-19, we found that indeed beta-cell function was compromised in critically ill patients with COVID-19 and that these patients showed a high glycemic gap. Nevertheless, one quarter of critically ill patients with no history of diabetes have stress hyperglycemia, a finding which could obscure the prevalence of hyperglycemia or new-onset diabetes that could be attributed to COVID-19 per se.

2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(3)2022 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742545

ABSTRACT

Metformin (MTF) occupies a major and fundamental position in the therapeutic management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Gender differences in some effects and actions of MTF have been reported. Women are usually prescribed lower MTF doses compared to men and report more gastrointestinal side effects. The incidence of cardiovascular events in women on MTF has been found to be lower to that of men on MTF. Despite some promising results with MTF regarding pregnancy rates in women with PCOS, the management of gestational diabetes, cancer prevention or adjunctive cancer treatment and COVID-19, most robust meta-analyses have yet to confirm such beneficial effects.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Metformin , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/drug therapy , Female , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents/adverse effects , Male , Metformin/pharmacology , Metformin/therapeutic use , Pregnancy , Sex Factors
3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-322965

ABSTRACT

Background: : The covid-19 pandemic is likely to cause mental health issues, especially for healthcare professionals. The aim of this study is to investigate levels of perceived stress, sleep disturbances and sense of family support among nurses in pandemic conditions. Methods: : Athens Insomnia Scale (AIS), Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Family Support Scale (FSS) were administered in a sample of 150 nurses from different hospital departments during the COVID-19 pandemic. Individual and demographic data were recorded. Results: : 120 women and 30 men completed the study questionnaires. Almost half of participants (49.7%) reported the presence of sleep difficulties and more than half (50.3%) experienced increased stress levels. Scores on AIS scale correlated positively with PSS scores (P<0.01), and nega­tively with FSS scores (P<0.01). A significantly negative correlation was observed between the PSS scores and the FSS scores (p<0.01). Regression model showed ‘scores on PSS scale’ and ‘years of work experience’ were significant predictors of ‘scores on AIS scale’, each explaining 43.6% and 2.3% of the variance. Scores on AIS scale’ and ‘scores on FSS scale’ were significant predictors of PSS explaining 43.7% and 9,2% of the variance . Conclusion: The study confirmed that working with COVID-19 patients has a negative effect on the sleep of nurses, possibly mediated by increased levels of stress. Family support, as a protective factor, appears to moderate the deleterious consequences of stress.

4.
AIMS Public Health ; 9(1): 94-105, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1626661

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus pandemic (COVID-19) is an unprecedented global health crisis with emotional and physical impact on health care workers. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the levels of fatigue and burnout in nursing staff during the pandemic. METHODS: The present study involved nursing staff from hospitals in Greece in February 2021, who completed the Fatigue (FAS) and Burnout (CBI) questionnaires. Gender, age, years of work experience, workplace (COVID-19 or non-COVID-19 wards) and SARS-CoV-2 infection status were recorded. RESULTS: The sample included 593 women and 108 men, with a mean age ± SD: 42.9 ± 9.9 years and 18.14 ± 10.8 years work experience. Slightly more than half, (367, 52.4%) worked in COVID-19 departments. Fifty-six (8%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 14 of them needed to be treated. The mean ± SD FAS and CBI scores were 25.6 ± 7.4 and 46.9 ± 18.8, respectively (67.9% and 42.9% had scores suggestive of fatigue and burnout, respectively). Women showed higher values in both scales (p < 0.01). Subjects working in COVID-19 wards scored significantly higher on both the FAS and CBI scales; they were also younger and with less work experience (p < 0.01). Staff treated for COVID-19 scored higher on the burnout scale (p < 0.01) than the uninfected staff. Fatigue showed a strong positive correlation with burnout (p < 0.01, r = 0.70). Stepwise multiple regression showed that the variation of fatigue was explained by 47.0% and 6.1% by the scores on the subscales of personal and work-related burnout, respectively. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, high rates of fatigue and burnout were found in the studied population. Nurses working with COVID-19 patients had higher rates of fatigue and burnout compared to those working elsewhere. There was a strong positive correlation (r = 0.70) between burnout and fatigue. Particular attention should be paid to staff who became ill and need to be treated.

5.
Crit Care Med ; 49(12): 2131-2136, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522360

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Critical illness is characterized by increased serum cortisol concentrations and bioavailability resulting from the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which constitutes an essential part of the stress response. The actions of glucocorticoids are mediated by a ubiquitous intracellular receptor protein, the glucocorticoid receptor. So far, data on coronavirus disease 2019 and glucocorticoid receptor alpha expression are lacking. DESIGN: Prospective observational study. SETTING: One academic multidisciplinary ICU. SUBJECTS: Twenty-six adult coronavirus disease 2019 patients; 33 adult noncoronavirus disease 2019 patients, matched for age, sex, and disease severity, constituted the control group. All patients were steroid-free. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Glucocorticoid receptor alpha, glucocorticoid-inducible leucine zipper expression, and serum cortisol were measured on ICU admission. In coronavirus disease 2019 patients, glucocorticoid receptor alpha and glucocorticoid-inducible leucine zipper messenger RNA expression were upregulated (4.7-fold, p < 0.01 and 14-fold, p < 0.0001, respectively), and cortisol was higher (20.3 vs 14.3 µg/dL, p < 0.01) compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS: ICU coronavirus disease 2019 patients showed upregulated glucocorticoid receptor alpha and glucocorticoid-inducible leucine zipper expression, along with cortisol levels, compared with ICU noncoronavirus disease 2019 patients. Thus, on ICU admission, critical coronavirus disease 2019 appears to be associated with hypercortisolemia, and increased synthesis of glucocorticoid receptor alpha and induced proteins.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Hydrocortisone/blood , Leucine Zippers/physiology , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/biosynthesis , Academic Medical Centers , Adult , Aged , Comorbidity , Critical Illness , Female , Greece , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292418

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Some studies have linked COVID-19 with thyroid disease. Google Trends (GT) searches may reflect disease epidemiology. Recently, GT searches for COVID-19-associated terms have been linked to the epidemiology of COVID-19. In this study we aimed to assess COVID-19 cases per se vs COVID-19-associated GT searches and thyroid-associated GT searches. Materials-Methods: We collected data on worldwide weekly GT searches regarding “COVID-19”, “SARS-COV-2”, “coronavirus”, “smell”, “taste”, “fatigue”, “cough”, “thyroid”, “thyroiditis” and “subacute thyroiditis” for 92 weeks and worldwide weekly COVID-19 cases' statistics in the same time period. The study period was split in half and in each time period we performed cross-correlation analysis and mediation analysis. Results Significant positive CCF values were noted in both time periods;while COVID-19 cases per se were associated with “thyroid” searches in both time periods, significant CCFs for “fatigue”, “COVID-19” and “SARS-COV-s” were mostly found in the second time period. In the latter period, the effect of “COVID-19” searches on “thyroid” searches was significantly mediated by COVID-19 cases (p=0.048). Discussion COVID-19 cases per se were found to be associated with no lag with GT searches for COVID-19 symptoms in the first time period and in the second time period to lead searches for symptoms, COVID-19 terms as well as thyroid terms. Searches for a non-specific symptom or COVID-19 search terms mostly lead GT “thyroid” searches, in the second time period. This time frame/sequence particularly in the second time period (noted by the preponderance of the SARS-COV-2 delta variant), lends some credence to associations of COVID-19 cases per se with (apparent) thyroid disease (via searches for them).

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(21)2021 Oct 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480799

ABSTRACT

The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was described as the principal component of the stress response 85 years ago, along with the acute-phase reaction, and the defense response at the tissue level. The orchestration of these processes is essential since systemic inflammation is a double-edged sword; whereas inflammation that is timely and of appropriate magnitude is beneficial, exuberant systemic inflammation incites tissue damage with potentially devastating consequences. Apart from its beneficial cardiovascular and metabolic effects, cortisol exerts a significant immunoregulatory role, a major attribute being that it restrains the excessive inflammatory reaction, thereby preventing unwanted tissue damage. In this review, we will discuss the role of the HPA axis in the normal stress response and in critical illness, especially in critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Finally, a chapter will be dedicated to the findings from clinical studies in critical illness and COVID-19 on the expression of the mediator of glucocorticoid actions, the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/metabolism , Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/virology , Pituitary-Adrenal System/metabolism , Pituitary-Adrenal System/virology , Receptors, Glucocorticoid/metabolism , Critical Illness , Glucocorticoids/metabolism , Humans , Stress, Physiological
8.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(10)2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444269

ABSTRACT

In some subjects with inherited pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma (PPG) syndromes, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1α) stabilization/activation could lead to an increase in angiotensin converting enzymes (ACE). This would result in the stimulation of angiotensin (AT) II production and, hence, reduce the availability of ACE 2. The latter would provide decreased numbers of binding sites for the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 and, therefore, result in less points of viral entry into cells. Thus, subjects with HIF1α-associated PPG syndromes may benefit from an inherent protective effect against COVID-19. Such an implication of HIF1α vis-à-vis COVID-19 could open ways of therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Paraganglioma , Pheochromocytoma , Adrenal Gland Neoplasms/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors , Humans , Paraganglioma/genetics , Pheochromocytoma/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Syndrome
9.
Minerva Endocrinol (Torino) ; 47(1): 111-116, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1431239

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Low testosterone (mainly total testosterone [TTe]) has been noted in patients with COVID-19. Calculated free testosterone (FTe) and bioavailable testosterone (BavTe) may reflect more accurately this hormone's levels. In this study, we sought to assess TTe, FTe as well as BavTe in male patients with COVID-19. METHODS: Sera were collected upon admission from 65 men (10 in the intensive care units [ICU] and 55 in the wards) with polymerase chain reaction - proven COVID-19. A group of age-matched COVID-19-negative men (N.=29) hospitalized in general medical wards served as controls. Age, Body Mass Index (BMI) and 28-day mortality were noted. Measurements included TTe, sex-hormone binding globulin, albumin (the latter two for calculating FTe and BavTe) and laboratory markers of inflammation (white blood cell count [WBC], D-Dimers [D-D], lactate dehydrogenase [LDH], ferritin [Fer] and C-reactive protein [CRP]). RESULTS: Profoundly low TTe, FTe and BavTe were noted in most patients, and were associated with disease severity/outcome (being the lowest in COVID-19 patients in the ICU and overall being lower in non-survivors; analysis of covariance P<0.05). Pearson's correlations for logTe, logFTe or logBavTe versus WBC, D-D, LDH, Ferr or CRP were negative, ranging from -0.403 to -0.293 (P=0.009 to 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: TTe, FTe and BavTe are prone to be low in patients with COVID-19, are negatively associated with disease severity and may be considered to have prognostic value.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Testosterone , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein , Female , Humans , Leukocyte Count , Male
10.
Clocks Sleep ; 3(3): 403-408, 2021 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376748

ABSTRACT

In this concise review, we present an overview of research on dream recall/affect and of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, discussing caveats regarding the action of hormones of the HPA axis (mainly cortisol and its free form, cortisol-binding globulin and glucocorticoid receptors). We present results of studies regarding dream recall/affect and the HPA axis under physiological (such as waking) or pathological conditions (such as in Cushing's syndrome or stressful situations). Finally, we try to integrate the effect of the current COVID-19 situation with dream recall/affect vis-à-vis the HPA axis.

11.
Endocr Connect ; 10(6): 646-655, 2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304497

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Following the evolution of COVID-19 pandemic, reports pointed on a high prevalence of thyroiditis-related thyrotoxicosis. Interpretation of thyroid tests during illness, however, is hampered by changes occurring in the context of non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS). In order to elucidate these findings, we studied thyroid function in carefully selected cohorts of COVID-19 positive and negative patients. DESIGN: Cohort observational study. METHODS: We measured TSH, FT4, T3 within 24 h of admission in 196 patients without thyroid disease and/or confounding medications. In this study, 102 patients were SARS-CoV-2 positive; 41 admitted in the ICU, 46 in the ward and 15 outpatients. Controls consisted of 94 SARS-CoV-2 negative patients; 39 in the ICU and 55 in the ward. We designated the thyroid hormone patterns as consistent with NTIS, thyrotoxicosis and hypothyroidism. RESULTS: A NTIS pattern was encountered in 60% of ICU and 36% of ward patients, with similar frequencies between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients (46.0% vs 46.8%, P = NS). A thyrotoxicosis pattern was observed in 14.6% SARS-CoV-2 ICU patients vs 7.7% in ICU negative (P = NS) and, overall in 8.8% of SARS-CoV-2 positive vs 7.4% of negative patients. In these patients, thyroglobulin levels were similar to those with normal thyroid function or NTIS. The hypothyroidism pattern was rare. CONCLUSIONS: NTIS pattern is common and relates to the severity of disease rather than SARS-CoV-2 infection. A thyrotoxicosis pattern is less frequently observed with similar frequency between patients with and without COVID-19. It is suggested that thyroid hormone monitoring in COVID-19 should not differ from other critically ill patients.

12.
Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) ; 12: 644055, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295630

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to measure insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and growth hormone (GH) in critically and non-critically ill patients with Covid-19 and assess them vis-a-vis clinical and laboratory parameters and prognostic tools. Subjects and Methods: We included patients who were admitted to the wards or the ICU of the largest Covid-19 referral hospital in Greece; patients with non-Covid-19 pneumonia served as controls. Apart from the routine laboratory work-up for Covid-19 we measured GH and IGF1 (and calculated normalized IGF-1 values as standard deviation scores; SDS), after blood sampling upon admission to the wards or the ICU. Results: We studied 209 critically and non-critically ill patients with Covid-19 and 39 control patients. Patients with Covid-19 who were ICU non-survivors were older and presented with a worse hematological/biochemical profile (including white blood cell count, troponin, glucose, aminotransferases and lactate dehydrogenase) compared to ICU survivors or Covid-19 survivors in the wards. Overall, IGF-1 SDS was higher in Covid-19 survivors compared to non-survivors (-0.96 ± 1.89 vs -2.05 ± 2.48, respectively, p=0.030). No significant differences were noted in GH between the groups. Nevertheless, in critically ill patients with Covid-19, the prognostic value of IGF-1 (raw data), IGF-1 (SDS) and GH for survival/non-survival was on a par with that of APACHE II and SOFA (with a marginal difference between GH and SOFA). Conclusion: In conclusion, our findings suggest that there might be an association between low IGF1 (and possibly GH) and poor outcome in patients with Covid-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Critical Illness , Human Growth Hormone/metabolism , Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Case-Control Studies , Critical Illness/mortality , Female , Greece/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Survivors/statistics & numerical data
13.
La Presse Médicale Formation ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1253350
14.
World J Diabetes ; 12(5): 642-650, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231557

ABSTRACT

In early studies regarding coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), type 2 diabetes mellitus was considered to contribute substantially to the disease's inflammatory response. Subsequently, even hyperglycemia, regardless of insulin resistance or diabetes mellitus, was found to be additionally harmful. Recent studies have shown inflammation of the pancreatic ß cells in COVID-19, even leading to new onset diabetes mellitus. We hereby summarize core literature on glycemia and COVID-19, and present implicated pathways and mechanisms.

15.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(12): 2711-2720, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1222304

ABSTRACT

In 75% of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), insulin action is impaired. In obesity, visceral adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional: Chronic inflammation is favored over storage, contributing to the development of metabolic complications. PCOS, metabolic syndrome (MetSy) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) apparently share common pathogenic factors; these include abdominal adiposity, excess body weight and insulin resistance. Alterations in the gut microbiome have been noted in women with PCOS compared to controls; these may lead to deterioration of the intestinal barrier, increased gut mucosal permeability and immune system activation, hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance, which hamper normal ovarian function and follicular development (all being hallmarks of PCOS). It has been proposed that PCOS may entail higher susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) via its associated comorbidities (NAFLD, obesity, MetSy and alterations in the gut microbiome). Studies have found an association between acute respiratory distress syndrome (seen in severe cases of COVID-19) and the intestinal microbiome. Furthermore, apparently, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can gain entry to the gastrointestinal tract via locally-expressed angiotensin converting enzyme type 2 receptors. Excess body weight is associated with more severe COVID-19 and increased mortality. Although robust links between SARS-CoV-2 infection and PCOS/NAFLD/gut microbiome/metabolic consequences are yet to be confirmed, it seems that strategies for adapting the intestinal microbiome could help reduce the severity of COVID-19 in women with PCOS with or without NAFLD, MetSy or obesity.

16.
J Crit Care Med (Targu Mures) ; 7(1): 14-20, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115377

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare professionals who are directly involved in the diagnosis, treatment, and general care of patients with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk of developing adverse psychological reactions. A cross-sectional study of healthcare professionals aimed to determine the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on the mental health of healthcare professionals in two of the largest referral hospitals in Athens, Greece. METHODS: The study was conducted in the two largest SARS-CoV-2 referral hospitals in Athens, Greece. An assessment and the interrelationship of post-traumatic stress disorder, using the Impact of Event Scale-Revised [IES-R]) and burnout, using the Maslach Burnout Inventory [MBI]) was carried out. RESULTS: A total of 162 subjects were enrolled in the study. Fifty-six (35%) had an IES-R score > 33, suggesting post-traumatic stress disorder. Forty-nine (30%) had an MBI score > 27. Seventy-five (46%) had a personal accomplishment score of < 33 and 46 (28%) had a depersonalization score >10. Stepwise backward logistic regression revealed that the only independent variable that was retained regarding the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder was the emotional exhaustion score of the MBI (at a cut-off of 24 in this scale, the 95% CI of the odds ratio for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder was 1.077-1.173). CONCLUSIONS: In this sample of first-line Greek healthcare professionals against SARS-CoV-2, most of them were proven to be quite resilient to this challenge. One-third of them had post-traumatic stress disorder, which depended on their degree of emotional exhaustion. Healthcare professionals, as represented by this study, performed their duties without feeling helpless and developing adverse psychological reactions.

17.
International Journal of Care Coordination ; : 2053434521999959, 2021.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1109960

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is a respiratory infection that has evolved to a pandemic with an enormous burden both on human life and health care. States throughout the world have pursued strategies to restrict the transmission of the virus in the community. Health systems have a crucial dual role as they are at the frontline of the fight against the pathogen and at the same time they must continue to offer emergency and routine health services. The provision of health care in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic finds certain barriers. The simultaneous protection of both universal health coverage and health care efficiency is a difficult task due to conflicting challenges of these two goals. Key actions need to be decided and implemented in the fields of health policy, operation of health services, and clinical interaction between health personnel and patients, so that health care continues to perform its mission in a sustainable manner. As the scientific community prepares for the widespread production and application of effective protective and therapeutic agents against COVID-19, it is vital for the general population to remain safe and for the health systems to survive. Allocation of resources and priority setting need to be applied fairly and efficiently for the achievement of the maximum benefit.

19.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(1)2021 Jan 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028880

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: Critically and non-critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection (Covid-19) may present with higher-than-expected glycemia, even in the absence of diabetes. With this study we aimed to assess glucose, glycemic gap (GlyG) and insulin secretion/sensitivity measures in patients with Covid-19. Materials and Methods: We studied, upon admission, 157 patients with Covid-19 (84: in wards and 73: in intensive care units; ICU); 135 had no history of diabetes. We measured blood glucose upon admission as well as glycated hemoglobin (A1c), plasma insulin and C-peptide. We calculated the GlyG and the Homeostasis Model Assessment 2 (HOMA2) estimates of steady state beta cell function (HOMA2%B) and insulin sensitivity (HOMA2%S). Statistical assessment was done with analysis or the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: Compared to patients in the wards without diabetes, patients with diabetes in the wards, as well as patients in the ICU (without or with diabetes) had higher admission glycemia. The GlyG was significantly higher in patients without diabetes in the ICU compared to patients without diabetes in the wards, while HOMA2%B based on glucose and insulin was significantly higher in the ICU patients compared to patients in the wards. Of all the parameters, HOMA2%S based on C-peptide/glucose was higher in survivors (n = 133). Conclusions: In our series of patients with Covid-19, a substantial number of patients with and without diabetes had admission hyperglycemia and those who were critically ill may have had compromised insulin secretion and lowered sensitivity to insulin. These findings lend credence to reports of association between Covid-19 and hyperglycemia/secondary diabetes.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose/analysis , C-Peptide/blood , COVID-19/blood , Insulin Resistance , Insulin/blood , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Diabetes Mellitus/blood , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Female , Glycated Hemoglobin A/analysis , Greece/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Hyperglycemia , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged
20.
J Diabetes Metab Disord ; : 1-2, 2021 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1012267
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