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1.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217108

ABSTRACT

The population of older adults, especially those living in the nursing homes, is growing. The sedentary lifestyle and possible poor nutrition in nursing homes place residents (NHRs) at risk for body composition impairments, malnutrition, and, subsequently, numerous chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to assess body composition (including body fluids) and dietary intake in NHRs. The association between osteosarcopenic adiposity syndrome (OSA) and its components, osteopenic adiposity (OA), sarcopenic adiposity (SA), and adiposity-only (AD), and specific macro- and micro-nutrients was evaluated as well. The study included 84 participants (82.1% women), aged 65.3-95.2 years. Body composition was assessed with an advanced bioelectrical impedance device BIA-ACC® and dietary intake was assessed via 24-h recall and analyzed using "Nutrition" software. The majority (95%) of participants were overweight with a high body fat and low muscle and bone mass, leading to a high prevalence of OSA (>50%), OA (13%), and AD (26%). There were only a few participants with SA, and they were not analyzed. The highest extracellular water/total body water ratio was observed in the OSA participants, indicating a heightened inflammatory state. Participants in all three body composition categories had a similar nutrient intake, with protein, fiber, omega-3 fatty acids, and almost all micronutrients being far below recommendations. In conclusion, a high prevalence of OSA among NHRs accompanied by a poor dietary intake, could place these residents at a very high risk for COVID-19 infections. Therefore, optimization of body composition and nutritional status should be included along with standard medical care in order to provide better health maintenance, particularly in the COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , COVID-19 , Eating , Nursing Homes , Nutritional Status , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Female , Humans , Male
2.
Proc Nutr Soc ; 80(3): 344-355, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1159771

ABSTRACT

The objectives are to present an updated synopsis on osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) syndrome and evaluate the roles of selected micronutrients in its prevention and management. OSA refers to the concurrent deterioration of bone (osteopenia/osteoporosis), muscle (sarcopenia) and adipose tissue expansion. It portrays the most advanced stage in a continuum of body composition disorders. Although OSA has been widely studied involving the populations of different backgrounds, its prevalence is hard to collate because different methodologies and criteria were used for its diagnosis. Another critical health aspect is the presence of low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI) which contributes to OSA and vice versa. Nutrition is important in the prevention and management of both OSA and LGCI. Although micronutrients act in numerous metabolic and physiological processes, their roles here are presented in relation to OSA (and its components) and LGCI in general and relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. These include calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and vitamins D and K; their interactions, physiological ratios and synergism/antagonism are discussed as well. In conclusion, calcium, magnesium and vitamin D have a profound impact on OSA and its components, and the latter two also on LGCI. Potassium and vitamin K are vital in bone, muscle functioning and possibly adipose tissue modification. Both, but particularly vitamin D, surfaced as important modulators of immune system with application in COVID-19 infections. While both phosphorus and sodium have important roles in bone, muscle and can impact adiposity, due to their abundance in food, their intake should be curbed to prevent possible damaging effects.


Subject(s)
Adiposity , Bone Diseases, Metabolic , Obesity , Osteoporosis , Sarcopenia , Trace Elements , Vitamins , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/diet therapy , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diet , Humans , Obesity/diet therapy , Obesity/prevention & control , Osteoporosis/diet therapy , Osteoporosis/prevention & control , Sarcopenia/diet therapy , Sarcopenia/prevention & control , Syndrome , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/metabolism , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Vitamins/physiology
3.
Nutrients ; 12(12)2020 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028881

ABSTRACT

As more insight is gained into personalized health care, the importance of personalized nutritional and behavioral approaches is even more relevant in the COVID-19 era, in addition to the need for further elucidation regarding several diseases/conditions. One of these concerning body composition (in this context; bone, lean and adipose tissue) is osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) syndrome. OSA occurs most often with aging, but also in cases of some chronic diseases and is exacerbated with the presence of low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI). OSA has been associated with poor nutrition, metabolic disorders and diminished functional abilities. This paper addresses various influences on OSA and LGCI, as well as their mutual action on each other, and provides nutritional and behavioral approaches which could be personalized to help with either preventing or managing OSA and LGCI in general, and specifically in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Addressed in more detail are nutritional recommendations for and roles of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive food components; the microbiome; and optimal physical activity regimens. Other issues, such as food insecurity and nutritional inadequacy, circadian misalignment and shift workers are addressed as well. Since there is still a lack of longer-term primary studies in COVID-19 patients (either acute or recovered) and interventions for OSA improvement, this discussion is based on the existing knowledge, scientific hypotheses and observations derived from similar conditions or studies just being published at the time of this writing.


Subject(s)
Body Composition , COVID-19/complications , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/therapy , Nutritional Status , SARS-CoV-2 , Adiposity/physiology , Aged , Aging , Bone Diseases, Metabolic/complications , Diet/standards , Food Supply , Humans , Malnutrition , Sarcopenia/complications , Syndrome
4.
Nutrients ; 12(12):3898, 2020.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-984395

ABSTRACT

As more insight is gained into personalized health care, the importance of personalized nutritional and behavioral approaches is even more relevant in the COVID-19 era, in addition to the need for further elucidation regarding several diseases/conditions. One of these concerning body composition (in this context;bone, lean and adipose tissue) is osteosarcopenic adiposity (OSA) syndrome. OSA occurs most often with aging, but also in cases of some chronic diseases and is exacerbated with the presence of low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI). OSA has been associated with poor nutrition, metabolic disorders and diminished functional abilities. This paper addresses various influences on OSA and LGCI, as well as their mutual action on each other, and provides nutritional and behavioral approaches which could be personalized to help with either preventing or managing OSA and LGCI in general, and specifically in the time of the COVID-19 pandemic. Addressed in more detail are nutritional recommendations for and roles of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive food components;the microbiome;and optimal physical activity regimens. Other issues, such as food insecurity and nutritional inadequacy, circadian misalignment and shift workers are addressed as well. Since there is still a lack of longer-term primary studies in COVID-19 patients (either acute or recovered) and interventions for OSA improvement, this discussion is based on the existing knowledge, scientific hypotheses and observations derived from similar conditions or studies just being published at the time of this writing.

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