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Microorganisms ; 11(1)2023 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2200534


COVID-19 is characterized by the immune system's overreaction resulting in a 'cytokine storm', consisting in a massive release of cytokine into the bloodstream, leading to local and systemic inflammatory response. This clinical picture is further complicated in case of infection of patients with a peculiar immunological status, such as pregnancy. In this paper, we focused on Interferon-γ, which plays a pivotal immunomodulatory role in normal pregnancy and fetal development, as well as in defense against pathogens. In this study, we compared the levels of Interferon-γ and the Interferon autoantibodies of the peripheral and cord blood of pregnant women with confirmed mild COVID-19 and healthy pregnant women. The Interferon-γ was significantly lower both in the peripheral and cord blood of SARS-CoV-2-positive mothers, suggesting that infection can affect the fetal microenvironment even without severe maternal symptoms. In conclusion, further studies are needed to clarify whether lower levels of Interferon-γ due to SARS-CoV-2 infection affect the development or infection susceptibility of infants born to SARS-CoV-2-infected mothers.

J Clin Med ; 11(21)2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2099599


BACKGROUND: Since there is no available data on temporal trends of caesarean section (CS) rates in pregnant women with COVID-19 through the pandemic, we aimed to analyze the trends in caesarean section rate in a large cohort of pregnant women with COVID-19, according to the Robson Ten Group Classification System of deliveries. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled pregnant women with a diagnosis of COVID-19 who delivered in our center between March 2020 and November 2021. Deliveries were classified, according to the Robson group classification, and according to three time periods: (1) deliveries from March 2020 to December 2020; (2) deliveries from January 2021 to April 2021; (3) deliveries from May 2021 to November 2021. We compared pregnancy characteristics and incidence of caesarean section, according to the Robson category in the total population, and according to the three time periods. RESULTS: We included 457 patients matching the inclusion criteria in our analysis. We found that overall CS rate significantly decreased over time from period 1 to period 3 (152/222, 68.5% vs. 81/134, 60.4% vs. 58/101, 57.4%, χ2 = 4.261, p = 0.039). CS rate significantly decreased over time in Robson category 1 (48/80, 60% vs. 27/47,57.4% vs. 8/24, 33.3%, χ2 = 4.097, p = 0.043) and Robson category 3 (13/42, 31% vs. 6/33, 18.2% vs. 2/22, 9.1%, χ2 = 4.335, p = 0.037). We also found that the incidence of induction of labor significantly increased over time (8/222, 3.6% vs. 12/134, 9% vs. 11/101, 10.9%, χ2 = 7.245, p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: Our data provide an overview of the temporal changes in the management and obstetric outcome of COVID-19 pregnant women through the pandemic, confirming that standards of obstetrical assistance for pregnancies complicated by SARS-CoV-2 infection improved over time.