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1.
29th IEEE International Conference on Electronics, Circuits and Systems, ICECS 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2191840

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 outbreak has caused disruptions in the education sector, making remote education the dominant mode for lecture delivery. The lack of visual feedback and physical interaction makes it very hard for teachers to measure the engagement level of students during lectures. This paper proposes a time-bounded window operation to extract statistical features from raw gaze data, captured in a remote teaching experiment and link them with the student's attention level. Feature selection or dimensionality reduction is performed to reduce the convergence time and overcome the problem of over-fitting. Recursive feature elimination (RFE) and SelectFromModel (SFM) are used with different machine learning (ML) algorithms, and a subset of optimal feature space is obtained based on the feature scores. The model trained using the optimal feature subset showed significant improvement in accuracy and computational complexity. For instance, a support vector classifier (SVC) led 2.39% improvement in accuracy along with approximately 66% reduction in convergence time. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
European Journal of Molecular and Clinical Medicine ; 9(7):4651-4662, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2168594

ABSTRACT

Background / Introduction: The novel coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) has affected the world entirely. The government of Saudi Arabia adopted varieties of measures to mitigate the spread of the novel virus;one of the measures taken was to close all schools and universities across the kingdom and promoting online education. The aim of our study is to determine the prevalence of digital eye strain, the associated risk factors and the most prevalent associated symptoms among under graduated medical students at Majmaah University in Saudi Arabia. Objective(s): to study the prevalence of digital eye strain among undergraduate students in the college of medicine, and to identify the risk factors associated with digital eye strain, and to identify the preventive measures taken to avoid eye strain symptoms related to digital device use. Methodology: Observational descriptive study (Cross-sectional study) to evaluate Digital Eye Strain among undergraduate students in the college of medicine at Majmaah University, to determine the prevalence of DES, associated risk factors, and measures taken to relieve the symptoms. Data will be analyzed by researchers using SPSS version 20. Result(s): Our study showed that digital eye strain was positively associated in female gender more than male, also it was positively associated in people who have preexisting eye conditions like myopia. Regarding the incidence of digital eyestrain with the intensity, it has been shown that most of our participants had mild strain eyestrain (41%). Moreover, it was observed that headache was the most common complaints by our participants. Using the digital devices for more than 4 h/day, and takings a breaks during using the devices in frequency 60 minutes or more and not using antiglare screen were significant risk factors linked to sys strain symptoms (P<0.001, P=0.02, P=0.04) respectively .In regard the preventive measure taking to reduce the digital eye strain our study found that there was no significant association between practicing the rule of 20-20-20 and the prevalence of digital eye strain among participant using eye drops was significantly associated with low incidence of digital eye strain (P=0.01). Conclusion(s): In conclusion, digital eye strain is an emergent public health problem that is proportional to the duration of exposure to digital screens. It has also been associated with multiple digital devices among medical students most commonly iPads. Digital devices are mandatory in every institution and prevention of digital eye strains with the consequences must be included in the curriculum. Copyright © 2022 Ubiquity Press. All rights reserved.

3.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 72(6):1961-1964, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2206935

ABSTRACT

Objective: To look for the psychiatric morbidity and associated socio-demographic factors among patients who tested positive and isolated for COVID-19. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Malir Pakistan, from Mar to May 2020. Methodology: All patients who tested positive for COVID-19 and were admitted to the COVID-19 Ward without complications were included in the study. General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12) was administered to look for the presence of psychiatric morbidity. Results: Out of 61 patients included in the study, 45(73.7%) showed the presence of psychiatric morbidity, while 16(26.3%) did not show psychiatric morbidity when screened with GHQ-12. 43(70.4%) were male, while 18(29.6%) were female. The mean age of the patients was 35.21±2.355 years. The advanced age and female gender have a statistically significant relationship (pvalue<0.05) with the presence of psychiatric morbidity among patients of COVID-19. Conclusion: Many patients had psychiatric morbidity after being tested positive for COVID-19 and were isolated in the health facility. Female patients and patients aged more than 40 years were found to be more at risk of developing psychiatric morbidity among the patients admitted to COVID-19 ward. © 2022, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

4.
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences ; 35(4):1269-1274, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2156228

ABSTRACT

People around the globe rumored so many things about the safety and efficacy of initial two doses and booster dose of Covid-19 vaccine, which eventually affected the acceptance of the only tool available against the fight between humans and virus. The aim of current study is to evaluate the acceptance and reluctance level among the population specifically elderly diabetes patients. The cross-sectional study was conducted during a time period of 3 months i.e. from July 2021 until September 2021. A 16-item questionnaire was used to assess the acceptance, reluctance, and concerns of the Covid-19 vaccine booster dose among elderly diabetes patients. A 16-item questionnaire was used to assess the acceptance, reluctance, and concerns of the Covid-19 vaccine booster dose among elderly diabetes patients. A total of 497 responses were collected and analyzed. Approximately 32% of respondents believed that they need additional information about the Covid-19 vaccine booster dose will be ineffective due to not enough information about the potential side effects of the vaccine dose, while around 80% of respondents showed concerns about safety, efficacy, newness and not enough information about vaccine contents. Around 47.1% of respondents expressed robust concerns about possible side effects of the Covid-19 vaccine booster dose. Copyright © 2022 Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. All rights reserved.

5.
Health Sci Rep ; 6(1):e975, 2023.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2148329

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Health care workers (HCWs) are thought to be high-risk population for acquiring coronavirus disease (COVID-19). The COVID-19 emergence has had a profound effect on healthcare system. We sought to investigate the COVID-19 among HCWs and their effects on the healthcare system. METHODS: A cross sectional observational study was conducted at Timergara teaching hospital. The study included HCWs with positive real time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR) for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). The study duration was from April to September, 2020. The demographic profile of each recruited subject was collected through structured interview. The patient's admissions to hospital were collected for the 5 months before (October 2019-February 2020) and 5 months after lockdown (March-July 2020). RESULTS: A total of 72 out of 689 (10%) HCWs were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, of whom 83% were front-liners. The majority were male (72%), with comorbidities (14%) and no mortality. The structured interview of all participants showed that the healthcare setting was the major possible source of infection (97%). The patient admissions into the hospital were reduced by 42% during lockdown than prelockdown period. The patients admission was significantly decreased in the medical ward during lockdown (60% decrease;p < 0.01) with slightly similar trends in other departments. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found increased risk of COVID-19 for front-line HCWs. Lack of mortality was the favorable outcome. Lack of replacing the infected HCWs possibly explained the marked decrease in hospital admissions, and potential inadequate healthcare delivery during the lockdown. Understanding SARS-CoV-2 among HCWs and their impact on health-care system will be crucial for countries under COVID-19 crises or in case of future pandemic to deliver proper health services.

6.
Pakistan Armed Forces Medical Journal ; 72(5):1649-1652, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2146763

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the relationship between ethnicity and demographic factors with the time taken by patients to get negative on PCR for COVID-19. Study Design: Prospective Comparative Study. Place and Duration of Study: Combined Military Hospital, Malir Pakistan, from Mar to May 2020. Methodology: All patients who tested positive for COVID-19 with less than one week of exposure time and were admitted to the COVID-19 ward of Combined Military Hospital, Malir without any complications were included in the study. They were tested after every seven days with PCR. Time taken to get two consecutive negative tests were noted for each patient. Results: Out of 84 patients included in the study, 12(14.3%) tested negative on the 7th day, 34(40.4%) on the 14th day and 38(45.3%) tested negative after 14 days. 17(20.2%) were Sindhi, 13(15.5%) were Muhajir, 19(22.6%) were Punjabi, 25(29.7%) were Pathan, and 10(11.9%) were Kashmiris. Chi-square revealed that ethnicity and advancing age have a statistically significant relationship (p-value<0.05) with the time taken by patients to get negative on PCR for COVID-19. Conclusion: Ethnicity emerged as a significant factor in getting negative for COVID-19. Punjabis and Kashmiris required a shorter period to get negative than Sindhis and Pathans. Older age emerged as a factor requiring a longer period to get negative. © 2022, Army Medical College. All rights reserved.

7.
IEEE Sensors Journal ; : 1-1, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2078238

ABSTRACT

The elderly population is growing, and the health care system is experiencing a strain on services provided to the elderly. The recent COVID-19 pandemic has increased this strain and has resulted in an increased risk of exposure during visits to elderly homes. Increasing the desire to provide technological solutions to counteract this. Currently, there lack reliable real-time non-invasive sensing systems. This paper makes use of Radio Frequency sensing, where signal propagation is observed in Channel State Information (CSI) reports on Activities of Daily Living (ADLs). Real-time data has been collected for three classifications, “movement”, “empty room”, and “no activity”. A filter is applied to reduce the noise of the CSI data. Then the mean, max, min, kurtosis, skew and standard deviation features are extracted from the CSI data. A machine learning model provides classification for the real-time monitoring system allowing detection of abnormalities in the expected ADLs of the elderly. The timing of classifications gives insight into the real-time capabilities of the system. The Random Forest algorithm is chosen to create the machine learning model based on accuracy and timing capabilities. The model was able to achieve an accuracy of 100 % on new unseen testing data with an average classification time of 7.31 milliseconds. IEEE

8.
International Journal of Pharmacology ; 18(7):1340-1352, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2066718

ABSTRACT

Paxlovid™ is a combination of Nirmatrelvir and Ritonavir antiviral pills with good oral bioavailability. In clinical studies, treatment of the patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 with Paxlovid™ within three to five days of the appearance of symptoms significantly reduced the hospitalization rate as well as mortality. It is the first oral antiviral treatment for the COVID-19 which received USFDA approval for EUA on 22nd December, 2021. Nirmatrelvir inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 while another antiviral drug, Ritonavir, is given in combination to enhance the bioavailability of Nirmatrelvir. Molecular interaction studies have shown that Nirmatrelvir binds covalently with the catalytic triad of the active site of the viral protease enzyme (3CLPRO). It, therefore, acts by stopping the SARS-CoV-2 replication by its ability to block the translation of the viral genetic materials. Research studies conducted have proven the efficacy of this oral anti-viral drug in mild to moderate COVID-19 patients beside its ease of oral administration and good oral bioavailability. Alternative synthetic methods to scale up the synthesis of this potent molecule are needed to reduce the treatment cost of the COVID-19. Extensive clinical research on a larger group population is also underway for ensuring the safety and efficacy of this medication in the battle against the COVID-19 pandemic.

9.
Asian Journal of Chemistry ; 34(9):2343-2350, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2040444

ABSTRACT

COVID pandemic initiated in early 2019 and the origin from where it initiated was Wuhan city of China. It changed the whole world. A huge population died due to COVID-19 in spite of taking precautions. New treatments and vaccines are introduced for the treatment and prevention. Among successful treatments, antivirals were found effective against COVID-19. But there is a need to find derivatives, which could be more effective for the treatment of COVID-19. The current research is focused on computational studies on one of the antiviral, darunavir. A computational strategy, molecular docking and molecular dynamic simulation techniques is presented to discover the potent analogues of darunavir for inhibiting protease 3CLpro of SARS-CoV2. The newly discovered X-ray structure (PDB ID: 6LU7) was selected for docking study and generated analogues were docked. The docking results showed that the compounds were bound in the active site of receptor with good binding affinity. It was concluded that compounds D8 and D15 were have good binding affinity value of -9.85 and -8.95 kcal/mol, respectively and these compounds were selected for molecular dynamic simulation (MDS) study to check their stability in pocket of receptor. © 2022 Chemical Publishing Co.. All rights reserved.

10.
IEEE Network ; : 1-7, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018975

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has now been sweeping the whole world, and fundamentally affecting our daily life. An effective mechanism to further fight against COVID-19 and prevent the spread of this pandemic is to alert people when they are in the vicinity of areas with a high infection risk, yielding them to adjust their routes and consequently, leave these areas. Inspired by the fact that mobile communication networks are capable of precise positioning, data processing and information broadcasting, as well as are available for almost every person, in this paper, we propose a mobile network assisted Risk arEa ALerting scheme, named REAL, which exploits heterogeneous mobile networks to alert users who are in/near to the areas with high risks of COVID- 19 infection. Specifically, in REAL scheme, all base stations (BSs) periodically estimate their serving users' locations, which are then analyzed by macro BSs (MBSs) to identify risk areas. Next, each MBS transmits the information about risk areas to small BSs (SBSs), which in their turn adjust the beamforming direction to cover these areas and send alerts to users located therein. Simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed REAL scheme. In addition, some key challenges associated with implementing REAL are discussed at the end. IEEE

11.
7th International Conference on Communication and Electronics Systems, ICCES 2022 ; : 1663-1666, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2018807

ABSTRACT

Peerconnect is a great solution for virtual event management. Peerconnect is an all-in-one event management platform for promoting and conducting online events on the same platform. The point of virtual event management software is to allow users to create hosts and manage the events at ease without having to depend on many software to accomplish different tasks. So, the event management software Peerconnect has established the pipeline for people who want to promote, manage and conduct virtual events. Organizers can create the events on the platform and can promote and sell the tickets to other users on the same platform. Organizers can host live chat rooms and live discussions with video calling capabilities as well. Peerconnect is a web application using which the user can get to know about the events which are conducted virtually. Once the user selects the event, then he has to register for it. Once the registration is successful, user can attend the event on the same platform. Once the registration is successful, users can successfully login and they can search for an event that they are interested in and filter them according to their interests. Once the user selects the event then they have to register for it. Once registration for the event is successful, user can join the event in just one click and attend the event on the same platform and can download the participation certificate as well. If a registered user misses an event, he can still watch the recorded session of that event anytime after its completion. The event organizer can create an organization and later post the event. During the event, the organizer can send files and use the chat feature to engage and clear doubts of the attendees. They can also share their screen so that it is visible to all the attendees. Organizers can also capture the attendance of those who are attending, based on which the attendees can be able to download their participation certificates. © 2022 IEEE.

12.
4th IEEE Global Power, Energy and Communication Conference, GPECOM 2022 ; : 644-649, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1973467

ABSTRACT

Smart building technologies transform buildings into agile, sustainable, and health-conscious ecosystems by leveraging IoT platforms. In this regard, we have developed a Persuasive Energy Conscious Network (PECN) at the University of Glasgow to understand the user-centric energy consumption patterns in an agile workspace. PECN consists of desk-level energy monitoring sensors that enable us to develop user-centric models that can be exploited to characterize the normal energy usage behavior of an office occupant. In this study, we make use of staked long short-term memory (LSTM) to forecast future energy demands. Moreover, we employed statistical techniques to automate the detection of anomalous power consumption patterns. Our experimental results indicate that post-anomaly resolution leads to 6.37% improvement in the forecasting accuracy. © 2022 IEEE.

13.
IRANIAN JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY & CHEMICAL ENGINEERING-INTERNATIONAL ENGLISH EDITION ; 40(6):2019-2027, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1969992

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 has initiated in Wuhan city of China and then extend all around the world as a health emergency. It begins a new research area to produce potential drugs using data-driven approaches to identify potential therapies for the treatment of the virus. This is the time to develop specific antiviral drugs using molecular docking, quantum chemical approaches, and natural products. The protease inhibitors that constitute plant derivatives may become highly efficient to cure virus-prompted illnesses. A systematic study of isolated phytochemicals was executed then frontier molecular orbitals, docking score, molecular descriptors, and active sites were compared with favipiravir, dexamethasone, redeliver, and hydroxychloroquine which are being used against COVID19 nowadays. This is the first study on the phytochemicals of Daphne species to explore their anti-SARS-CoV-2 behavior by molecular docking and quantum chemical methods.

14.
Radiographics ; 42(5): 1415-1432, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962441

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, the clinical syndrome produced by infection with SARS-CoV-2, can result in multisystem organ dysfunction, including respiratory failure and hypercoagulability, which can lead to critical illness and death. Musculoskeletal (MSK) manifestations of COVID-19 are common but have been relatively underreported, possibly because of the severity of manifestations in other organ systems. Additionally, patients who have undergone sedation and who are critically ill are often unable to alert clinicians of their MSK symptoms. Furthermore, some therapeutic measures such as medications and vaccinations can worsen existing MSK symptoms or cause additional symptoms. Symptoms may persist or occur months after the initial infection, known as post-COVID condition or long COVID. As the global experience with COVID-19 and the vaccination effort increases, certain patterns of MSK disease involving the bones, muscles, peripheral nerves, blood vessels, and joints have emerged, many of which are likely related to a hyperinflammatory host response, prothrombotic state, or therapeutic efforts rather than direct viral toxicity. Imaging findings for various COVID-19-related MSK pathologic conditions across a variety of modalities are being recognized, which can be helpful for diagnosis, treatment guidance, and follow-up. The online slide presentation from the RSNA Annual Meeting is available for this article. ©RSNA, 2022.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Musculoskeletal System , COVID-19/complications , Humans , Multimodal Imaging , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1948682

ABSTRACT

Purpose: With theoretical underpinnings in the conservation of resources theory, this research aims at understanding the link between workplace ostracism (WPO) and its effects on customers' interests in the context of COVID-19, with the mediation of stress and moderation of self-efficacy (SE). Design/methodology/approach: The study followed a time-lagged design. A sample of 217 frontline employees working in the food sector of southern Punjab, Pakistan responded to the study questions using survey method with structured questionnaires. A Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) tool was utilized for data analysis with bootstrapping and PROCESS macro. Findings: The findings show that an important mechanism by which ostracism translates into customer service sabotage (CSS) is the increase in perceived stress levels of the employees. Additionally, SE was found to be an important personal resource that acts as a moderator in the said relationship. Practical implications: Employees with high SE sense less workplace stress even during a pandemic. Leadership should consider the stress-alleviating effect of SE for lessening the damaging influence of WPO on customers. Originality/value: The study fills an important empirical gap in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, by showing that due to resource loss perceived by employees while being targeted by ostracism, they may decide to transfer their frustration towards organizational customers by sabotaging their service experience. © 2022, Ambreen Sarwar, Muhammad Ibrahim Abdullah, Muhammad Kashif Imran and Nazia Rafiq.

16.
Rawal Medical Journal ; 47(2):434-437, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925376

ABSTRACT

Objective: To study the impact of covid-19 on medical education and anxiety level of medical students. Methodology: This prospective cross sectional study was done at Shifa College of mMedicine, Islamabad, Pakistan from 1st October 2020 to 15th November 2020. Medical students were randomly selected and a preformed questionnaire was circulated among them via Online Google forums. We used GAD-7 scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23. Results: Out of 122 respondents, 69 (56.5%) were female. Mean age was 22.1 ± 1.7 years. Almost all students had online education during COVID-19, however, 64 (52.4%) of them faced communication problems during online education. Only 32 (26.2%) were satisfied with this method. In this study, 46 (37.7%) respondents had anxiety;38.0% had moderate to severe and 27.0% had mild anxiety. Most of the anxious respondents were significantly younger (21.6 vs. 22.5 years, p = 0.01). Females were significantly more anxious (69.6% vs. 30.4%) than males (p < 0.03). Conclusion: During Covid-19 pandemic, anxiety and stress levels have increased among medical student.

17.
Rawal Medical Journal ; 47(2):271-274, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1925118

ABSTRACT

Objective: To assess the importance of adenosine signaling in cardiovascular disorders (thrombosis, ischemia) and novel corona virus infection. Methodology: A specified web search was done to gather the relevant information using different scientific research forums and databases like WHO database, Pubmed and Google Scholar etc. Results: Adenosine receptors are P1 type of purinergic receptors and belong to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), which is the largest family of integral membrane bound proteins receptors. Adenosine receptors are further classified into four subclasses known as A1, A2A, A2B, and A3. All four subclasses are being mediated by extracellular adenosine and perform a key role in a wide range of physiological functions such as immune system modulation, angiogenesis and sleep regulation. Adenosine receptors are thought to play a significant role in many pathophysiological conditions including cardiovascular disorders such as ischemia and thrombosis and novel corona virus infection making it a key target against these disorders. Conclusion: We suggest that modulation of adenosine receptor activity could increase the regenerative phase in these disorders by increasing the proliferation and differentiation rates of damaged tissue.

18.
6th International Conference on UK-China Emerging Technologies (UCET) ; : 235-240, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1895934

ABSTRACT

With the advent of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), the world encountered an unprecedented health crisis due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) pathogen. This impacted all of the sectors but more critically the transportation sector which required a strategy in the light of mobility trends using transportation modes and regions. We analyse a mobility prediction model for smart transportation by considering key indicators including data selection, processing and, integration of transportation modes, and data point normalisation in regional mobility. A Machine Learning (ML) driven classification has been performed to predict transportation modes efficiency and variations using driving, walking and transit. Additionally, regional mobility by considering Asia, Europe, Africa, Australasia, Middle-East, and America has also been analysed. In this regard, six ML algorithms have been applied for the precise assessment of transportation modes and regions. The initial experimental results demonstrate that the majority of the world's travelling dynamics have been contrastively shaped with the accuracy of 91.21% and 84.5% using Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Random Forest (RT) for different transportation modes and regions. This study will pave a new direction for the assessment of transportation modes affected by the pandemic to optimize economic benefits for smart transportation.

19.
Journal of Enterprising Communities ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1891355

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic impacts the financial condition and the mental health of millions of workers from various informal sectors. This study aims to look into the hawkers’ community’s mental health and living conditions in Bangladesh during COVID-19. Design/methodology/approach: The researchers have applied the purposive sampling technique to choose ten hawkers from Khulna city, a district in the northern region of Bangladesh. An in-depth interview was taken in the Bengali language in an unstructured manner and lasted 30–40 min per respondent. Findings: The findings showed that the Hawkers’ income reduced, and specifically, during the pandemic, they had earned half of what they usually made before. Besides, they could not open their stores because law enforcement agencies imposed restrictions on opening business centres during the lockdown except for some emergency necessities shops. This restriction led the hawkers to stop selling their products because there was a high chance of spreading the virus through the products they sold. Due to income reduction, they had to eat cheap food, which caused their health problems. Consequently, this community mentally got depressed. Practical implications: Policymakers in Bangladesh might think about enacting more effective measures to provide some extrinsic and intrinsic support in improving the mental health of the hawkers’ community. Originality/value: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study on the mental of the hawkers’ community during COVID-19. © 2022, Emerald Publishing Limited.

20.
Iranian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering ; 40(6):2019-2027, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1879789

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 has initiated in Wuhan city of China and then extend all around the world as a health emergency. It begins a new research area to produce potential drugs using data-driven approaches to identify potential therapies for the treatment of the virus. This is the time to develop specific antiviral drugs using molecular docking, quantum chemical approaches, and natural products. The protease inhibitors that constitute plant derivatives may become highly efficient to cure virus-prompted illnesses. A systematic study of isolated phytochemicals was executed then frontier molecular orbitals, docking score, molecular descriptors, and active sites were compared with favipiravir, dexamethasone, redeliver, and hydroxychloroquine which are being used against COVID19 nowadays. This is the first study on the phytochemicals of Daphne species to explore their anti-SARS-CoV-2 behavior by molecular docking and quantum chemical methods. © 2021, Iranian Institute of Research and Development in Chemical Industries. All rights reserved.

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