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PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248230, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143293


BACKGROUND: There is limited data on the markers of coagulation and hemostatic activation (MOCHA) profile in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its ability to identify COVID-19 patients at risk for thrombotic events and other complications. METHODS: Hospitalized patients with confirmed SARS-COV-2 from four Atlanta hospitals were included in this observational cohort study and underwent admission testing of MOCHA parameters (plasma d-dimer, prothrombin fragment 1.2, thrombin-antithrombin complex, fibrin monomer). Clinical outcomes included deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, myocardial infarction, ischemic stroke, access line thrombosis, ICU admission, intubation and mortality. MAIN RESULTS: Of 276 patients (mean age 59 ± 6.4 years, 47% female, 62% African American), 45 (16%) had a thrombotic endpoint. Each MOCHA parameter was independently associated with a thrombotic event (p<0.05) and ≥ 2 abnormalities was associated with thrombotic endpoints (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.2-8.8) as were admission D-dimer ≥ 2000 ng/mL (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.5-6.6) and ≥ 3000 ng/mL (OR 3.6, 95% CI 1.6-7.9). However, only ≥ 2 MOCHA abnormalities were associated with ICU admission (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.7-5.2) and intubation (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.6-6.4). MOCHA and D-dimer cutoffs were not associated with mortality. MOCHA with <2 abnormalities (26% of the cohort) had 89% sensitivity and 93% negative predictive value for a thrombotic endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: An admission MOCHA profile is useful to risk-stratify COVID-19 patients for thrombotic complications and more effective than isolated d-dimer for predicting risk of ICU admission and intubation.

Antithrombin III/analysis , COVID-19/pathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Peptide Fragments/analysis , Peptide Hydrolases/analysis , Prothrombin/analysis , Thrombosis/diagnosis , Aged , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Patient Admission , ROC Curve , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Survival Rate , Thrombosis/complications
Case Rep Neurol ; 12(2): 199-209, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638529


COVID-19 has been associated with a hypercoagulable state causing cardiovascular and neurovascular complications. To further characterize cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in COVID-19, we review the current literature of published cases and additionally report the clinical presentation, laboratory and diagnostic testing results of 12 cases with COVID-19 infection and concurrent CVD from two academic medical centers in Houston, TX, USA, between March 1 and May 10, 2020. To date, there are 12 case studies reporting 47 cases of CVD in COVID-19. However, only 4 small case series have described the clinical and laboratory findings in patients with COVID-19 and concurrent stroke. Viral neurotropism, endothelial dysfunction, coagulopathy and inflammation are plausible proposed mechanisms of CVD in COVID-19 patients. In our case series of 12 patients, 10 patients had an ischemic stroke, of which 1 suffered hemorrhagic transformation and two had intracerebral hemorrhage. Etiology was determined to be embolic without a clear cause identified in 6 ischemic stroke patients, while the remaining had an identifiable source of stroke. The majority of the patients had elevated inflammatory markers such as D-dimer and interleukin-6. In patients with embolic stroke of unclear etiology, COVID-19 may have played a direct or indirect role in the processes that eventually led to the strokes while in the remaining cases, it is unclear if infection contributed partially or was an incidental finding.