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1.
Infect Drug Resist ; 15: 2723-2728, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951766

ABSTRACT

Previous studies have demonstrated that the appropriate production of serum anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) neutralizing antibody (nAb) plays a critical role in the recovery from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); however, the role of nAb production in the recovery from a flare-up of chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) has been unknown. We here report the first retrospectively investigated case of serum anti-SARS-Cov-2 nAb production during chronic ITP flare-up triggered by COVID-19. A 79-year-old woman with a history of corticosteroid-refractory ITP visited our hospital complaining of fever, cough, and sore throat for 4 days. Although chronic ITP was controlled by 12.5 mg of eltrombopag (EPAG) every other day, laboratory tests showed a decreased peripheral blood platelet count of 15.0 × 109/L, which indicated worsening thrombocytopenia. Meanwhile, PCR testing of a nasopharyngeal swab revealed that the patient was positive for SARS-Cov-2, and a computed tomography scan revealed bilateral pneumonia. On the basis of the flare-up of chronic ITP associated with COVID-19 pneumonia which was determined as a moderately severe status according to the WHO clinical progression scale, intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for 5 days (days 0-4) and antiviral therapy were added on top of EPAG, which only resulted in a transient increase in the platelet count for several days. After decreasing to 8.0 × 109/L on day 13, the platelet count increased from day 16, coinciding with a positive detection for serum nAb against SARS-Cov-2. Although the increased dose up to 50 mg/day of EPAG was challenged during the clinical course, rapid dose reduction did not cause another relapse. In addition, no thrombotic or bleeding event was seen. These collectively suggest the vital role of the production of anti-SARS-Cov-2 nAb and improvement of clinical symptoms for recovery from a flare-up of chronic ITP in our case.

3.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(650): eabn7737, 2022 06 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1807308

ABSTRACT

The Omicron (B.1.1.529) SARS-CoV-2 variant contains an unusually high number of mutations in the spike protein, raising concerns of escape from vaccines, convalescent serum, and therapeutic drugs. Here, we analyzed the degree to which Omicron pseudo-virus evades neutralization by serum or therapeutic antibodies. Serum samples obtained 3 months after two doses of BNT162b2 vaccination exhibited 18-fold lower neutralization titers against Omicron than parental virus. Convalescent serum samples from individuals infected with the Alpha and Delta variants allowed similar frequencies of Omicron breakthrough infections. Domain-wise analysis using chimeric spike proteins revealed that this efficient evasion was primarily achieved by mutations clustered in the receptor binding domain but that multiple mutations in the N-terminal domain contributed as well. Omicron escaped a therapeutic cocktail of imdevimab and casirivimab, whereas sotrovimab, which targets a conserved region to avoid viral mutation, remains effective. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) decoys are another virus-neutralizing drug modality that are free, at least in theory, from complete escape. Deep mutational analysis demonstrated that an engineered ACE2 molecule prevented escape for each single-residue mutation in the receptor binding domain, similar to immunized serum. Engineered ACE2 neutralized Omicron comparably to the Wuhan strain and also showed a therapeutic effect against Omicron infection in hamsters and human ACE2 transgenic mice. Similar to previous SARS-CoV-2 variants, some sarbecoviruses showed high sensitivity against engineered ACE2, confirming the therapeutic value against diverse variants, including those that are yet to emerge.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Mice , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2
5.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-296726

ABSTRACT

The novel SARS-CoV-2 variant, Omicron (B.1.1.529) contains about 30 mutations in the spike protein and the numerous mutations raise the concern of escape from vaccine, convalescent sera and therapeutic drugs. Here we analyze the alteration of their neutralizing titer with Omicron pseudovirus. Sera of 3 months after double BNT162b2 vaccination exhibite ~27-fold lower neutralization titers against Omicron than D614G mutation. Neutralization titer is also reduced in convalescent sera from Alpha and Delta patients. However, some Delta patients have relatively preserved neutralization activity up to the level of 3-month double BNT162b2 vaccination. Omicron escapes from the cocktail of imdevimab and casirivimab, whereas sotrovimab that targets the conserved region to prevent viral escape is effective to Omicron similarly to the original SARS-CoV-2. The ACE2 decoy is another modality that neutralize the virus independently of mutational escape and Omicron is also sensitive to the engineered ACE2.

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