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1.
Mult Scler ; : 13524585221102158, 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038566

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Development of long-lasting anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) T-cell responses in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with ocrelizumab is questioned. OBJECTIVE: Investigate antiviral T-cell responses after infection with SARS-CoV-2 in ocrelizumab-treated pwMS. Control groups included ocrelizumab-treated pwMS without SARS-CoV-2 infection, and non-MS individuals with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools and T-cell reactivity was assessed by ELISPOT for interferon (IFN)-γ detection, and by multiparametric fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analyses for assessment and characterization of T-cell activation. RESULTS: ELISPOT assay against the spike and the N protein of SARS-CoV-2 displayed specific T-cell reactivity in 28/29 (96%) pwMS treated with ocrelizumab and infected by SARS-CoV-2, similar to infected persons without MS. This reactivity was present 1 year after infection and independent from the time of ocrelizumab infusion. FACS analysis following stimulation with SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools showed the presence of activation-induced markers (AIMs) in both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell subsets in 96% and 92% of these individuals, respectively. Within naïve AIM+ CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells, we detected T memory stem cells, suggesting the acquisition of long-term memory. CONCLUSIONS: B-cell depletion using ocrelizumab does not impair the development of long-lasting anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell responses.

2.
J Neurol ; 2022 Aug 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976811

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: An earlier follow-up study from the CogEx rehabilitation trial showed little change in symptoms of depression, anxiety and psychological distress during the first COVID-19 lockdown compared to pre-pandemic measurements. Here, we provide a second follow-up set of behavioral data on the CogEx sample. METHODS: This was an ancillary, longitudinal follow-up study in CogEx, a randomized controlled trial of exercise and cognitive rehabilitation in people with progressive MS involving 11 centres in North America and Europe. Only individuals impaired on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) were included. Participants repeated the COVID Impact survey administered approximately a year later and completed self-report measures of depression, anxiety and MS symptoms that had been obtained at the trial baseline and during the first COVID Impact survey. Participants who completed the second COVID Impact follow-up were included. To identify predictors of the participants' ratings of their mental and physical well-being, step-wise linear regression was conducted. RESULTS: Of the 131 participants who completed the first COVID impact survey, 74 participants completed the second follow-up survey (mean age 52 (SD = 6.4) years, 62.2% female, mean disease duration 16.4 (SD = 9.0) years, median EDSS 6.0). Pandemic restrictions prevented data collection from sites in Denmark and England (n = 57). The average time between measurements was 11.4 (SD = 5.56) months. There were no significant differences in age, sex, EDSS, disease course and duration between those who participated in the current follow-up study (n = 74) and the group that could not (n = 57). One participant had COVID in the time between assessments. Participants now took a more negative view of their mental/psychological well-being (p = 0.0001), physical well-being (p = 0.0009) and disease course (p = 0.005) compared to their last assessment. Depression scores increased on the HADS-depression scale (p = 0.01) and now exceeded the clinically significant threshold of ≥ 8.0 for the first time. Anxiety scores on the HADS remained unchanged. Poorer mental well-being was predicted by HADS depression scores (p = 0.012) and a secondary-progressive disease course (p = 0.0004). CONCLUSIONS: A longer follow-up period revealed the later onset of clinically significant depressive symptoms on the HADS and a decline in self-perceptions of mental and physical well-being associated with the COVID-19 pandemic relative to the first follow-up data point. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered on September 20th 2018 at www. CLINICALTRIALS: gov having identifier NCT03679468. Registration was performed before recruitment was initiated.

3.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 2099171, 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1948097

ABSTRACT

Vaccines prevent infections in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Though recommendations regarding vaccinating patients with MS have been recently published, real-world data regarding vaccines' planning in patients receiving disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) for MS are missing. Our aim was, therefore, to describe vaccination coverage rates, timing-proposal and safety in real-life vaccinating patients with MS undergoing DMDs before the start of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination campaign. Patients followed at our MS-center were referred to individualized immunization-programs customized to Italian recommendations, patients' risks, immunity to exanthematic diseases, ongoing DMDs, or therapy-start urgency. Disease-activity stated the need for an essential immunization-cycle, whose core was composed by four vaccines: meningococcal-B, pneumococcal conjugated, Haemophilus influenzae B, and meningococcal-ACWY vaccines. Vaccines were administered prior to the planned DMD-start when possible, inactivated-vaccines >2 weeks and live-vaccines >4 weeks before treatment-start. Patients received a 6-months clinical-/radiological-follow-up after immunization. One-hundred and ninety-five patients were vaccinated between April 2017 and January 2021. 124/195 (63.6%) started a vaccination-program before therapy-start/-switch and 108/124 (87.1%) effectively completed immunization before new therapy-start without any delay. The time needed for immunization-conclusion reached a median of 27 (confidence interval 22) days in 2020. No increase in clinical-/radiological-activity 3-/6-months after immunization was noted. In conclusion, our study confirmed feasibility and safety of a vaccination-protocol in patients with MS whose duration resulted in a median of 27 days.

4.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 9(1)2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928237

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is unclear how multiple sclerosis (MS) affects the severity of COVID-19. The aim of this study is to compare COVID-19-related outcomes collected in an Italian cohort of patients with MS with the outcomes expected in the age- and sex-matched Italian population. METHODS: Hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death after COVID-19 diagnosis of 1,362 patients with MS were compared with the age- and sex-matched Italian population in a retrospective observational case-cohort study with population-based control. The observed vs the expected events were compared in the whole MS cohort and in different subgroups (higher risk: Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score > 3 or at least 1 comorbidity, lower risk: EDSS score ≤ 3 and no comorbidities) by the χ2 test, and the risk excess was quantified by risk ratios (RRs). RESULTS: The risk of severe events was about twice the risk in the age- and sex-matched Italian population: RR = 2.12 for hospitalization (p < 0.001), RR = 2.19 for ICU admission (p < 0.001), and RR = 2.43 for death (p < 0.001). The excess of risk was confined to the higher-risk group (n = 553). In lower-risk patients (n = 809), the rate of events was close to that of the Italian age- and sex-matched population (RR = 1.12 for hospitalization, RR = 1.52 for ICU admission, and RR = 1.19 for death). In the lower-risk group, an increased hospitalization risk was detected in patients on anti-CD20 (RR = 3.03, p = 0.005), whereas a decrease was detected in patients on interferon (0 observed vs 4 expected events, p = 0.04). DISCUSSION: Overall, the MS cohort had a risk of severe events that is twice the risk than the age- and sex-matched Italian population. This excess of risk is mainly explained by the EDSS score and comorbidities, whereas a residual increase of hospitalization risk was observed in patients on anti-CD20 therapies and a decrease in people on interferon.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Adult , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Comorbidity , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Multiple Sclerosis/physiopathology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 63: 103909, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867612

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Many risk factors for the development of severe forms of Covid-19 have been identified, some applying to the general population and others specific to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. However, a score for quantifying the individual risk of severe Covid-19 in patients with MS is not available. The aim of this study was to construct such score and to evaluate its performance. METHODS: Data on patients with MS infected with Covid-19 in Italy, Turkey and South America were extracted from the Musc-19 platform. After imputation of missing values, data were separated into training data set (70%) and validation data set (30%). Univariable logistic regression models were performed in the training dataset to identify the main risk factors to be included in the multivariable logistic regression analyses. To select the most relevant variables we applied three different approaches: (1) multivariable stepwise, (2) Lasso regression, (3) Bayesian model averaging. Three scores were defined as the linear combination of the coefficients estimated in the models multiplied by the corresponding value of the variables and higher scores were associated to higher risk of severe Covid-19 course. The performances of the three scores were compared in the validation dataset based on the area under the ROC curve (AUC) and an optimal cut-off was calculated in the training dataset for the score with the best performance. The probability of showing a severe Covid-19 course was calculated based on the score with the best performance. RESULTS: 3852 patients were included in the study (2696 in the training dataset and 1156 in the validation data set). 17% of the patients required hospitalization and risk factors for severe Covid-19 course were older age, male sex, living in Turkey or South America instead of living in Italy, presence of comorbidities, progressive MS, longer disease duration, higher Expanded Disability Status Scale, Methylprednisolone use and anti-CD20 treatment. The score with the best performance was the one derived using the Lasso selection approach (AUC= 0.72) and it was built with the following variables: age, sex, country, BMI, presence of comorbidities, EDSS, methylprednisolone use, treatment. An excel spreadsheet to calculate the score and the probability of severe Covid-19 is available at the following link: https://osf.io/ac47u/?view_only=691814d57b564a34b3596e4fcdcf8580. CONCLUSIONS: The originality of this study consists in building a useful tool to quantify the individual risk for Covid-19 severity based on patient's characteristics. Due to the modest predictive ability and to the need of external validation, this tool is not ready for being fully used in clinical practice to make important decisions or interventions. However, it can be used as an additional instrument to identify high-risk patients and persuade them to take important measures to prevent Covid-19 infection (i.e. getting vaccinated against Covid-19, adhering to social distancing, and using of personal protection equipment).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Bayes Theorem , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Methylprednisolone , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment
7.
EBioMedicine ; 80: 104042, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819477

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In this study we aimed to monitor the risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection in patients with MS (pwMS) under different DMTs and to identify correlates of reduced protection. METHODS: This is a prospective Italian multicenter cohort study, long-term clinical follow-up of the CovaXiMS (Covid-19 vaccine in Multiple Sclerosis) study. 1855 pwMS scheduled for SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination were enrolled and followed up to a mean time of 10 months. The cumulative incidence of breakthrough Covid-19 cases in pwMS was calculated before and after December 2021, to separate the Delta from the Omicron waves and to account for the advent of the third vaccine dose. FINDINGS: 1705 pwMS received 2 m-RNA vaccine doses, 21/28 days apart. Of them, 1508 (88.5%) had blood assessment 4 weeks after the second vaccine dose and 1154/1266 (92%) received the third dose after a mean interval of 210 days (range 90-342 days) after the second dose. During follow-up, 131 breakthrough Covid-19 infections (33 during the Delta and 98 during the Omicron wave) were observed. The probability to be infected during the Delta wave was associated with SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels measured after 4 weeks from the second vaccine dose (HR=0.57, p < 0.001); the protective role of antibodies was preserved over the whole follow up (HR=0.57, 95%CI=0.43-0.75, p < 0.001), with a significant reduction (HR=1.40, 95%CI=1.01-1.94, p=0.04) for the Omicron cases. The third dose significantly reduced the risk of infection (HR=0.44, 95%CI=0.21-0.90,p=0.025) during the Omicron wave. INTERPRETATION: The risk of breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infections is mainly associated with reduced levels of the virus-specific humoral immune response. FUNDING: Supported by FISM - Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla - cod. 2021/Special-Multi/001 and financed or co-financed with the '5 per mille' public funding.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
8.
Front Oncol ; 12: 855723, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775732

ABSTRACT

Background: Frail patients are considered at relevant risk of complications due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and, for this reason, are prioritized candidates for vaccination. As these patients were originally not included in the registration trials, fear related to vaccine adverse events and disease worsening was one of the reasons for vaccine hesitancy. Herein, we report the safety profile of the prospective, multicenter, national VAX4FRAIL study (NCT04848493) to evaluate vaccines in a large trans-disease cohort of patients with solid or hematological malignancies and neurological and rheumatological diseases. Methods: Between March 3 and September 2, 2021, 566 patients were evaluable for safety endpoint: 105 received the mRNA-1273 vaccine and 461 the BNT162b2 vaccine. Frail patients were defined per protocol as patients under treatment with hematological malignancies (n = 131), solid tumors (n = 191), immune-rheumatological diseases (n = 86), and neurological diseases (n = 158), including multiple sclerosis and generalized myasthenia. The impact of the vaccination on the health status of patients was assessed through a questionnaire focused on the first week after each vaccine dose. Results: The most frequently reported moderate-severe adverse events were pain at the injection site (60.3% after the first dose, 55.4% after the second), fatigue (30.1%-41.7%), bone pain (27.4%-27.2%), and headache (11.8%-18.9%). Risk factors associated with the occurrence of severe symptoms after vaccine administration were identified through a multivariate logistic regression analysis: age was associated with severe fever presentation (younger patients vs. middle-aged vs. older ones), female individuals presented a higher probability of severe pain at the injection site, fatigue, headache, and bone pain; and the mRNA-1237 vaccine was associated with a higher probability of severe pain at the injection site and fever. After the first dose, patients presenting a severe symptom were at a relevant risk of recurrence of the same severe symptom after the second one. Overall, 11 patients (1.9%) after the first dose and 7 (1.2%) after the second one required postponement or suspension of the disease-specific treatment. Finally, two fatal events occurred among our 566 patients. These two events were considered unrelated to the vaccine. Conclusions: Our study reports that mRNA-COVID-19 vaccination is safe also in frail patients; as expected, side effects were manageable and had a minimum impact on patient care path.

9.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321913

ABSTRACT

Background: In patients with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) are known to affect immune response to antigens and possibly to SARS-CoV2 vaccine. Therefore, post-vaccination serological assessments are needed to evaluate the effect of the vaccine on SARS-CoV-2 antibody response.Methods: We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study enrolling pwMS who were scheduled for SARS-Cov-2 vaccination with mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2, Pfizer/BioNTech, Inc or mRNA-1273, Moderna Tx, Inc). A blood collection for the measure of SARS-CoV-2 antibody before the first vaccine dose and 4 weeks after the second dose was planned, with a centralized serological assessment (electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, ECLIA, Roche Diagnostics).Findings: 780 pwMS (76% BNT162b2 and 24% mRNA-1273) had pre- and 4-week post-vaccination blood assessments. 87 (11·2%) were untreated, 154 (19·7%) on ocrelizumab, 25 (3·2%) on rituximab, 85 (10·9%) on fingolimod, 25 (3·2%) on cladribine and 404 (51·7%) on other DMTs. 677 patients (86·8%) had detectable post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. At multivariate analysis, the antibody levels of patients on ocrelizumab (178-fold decrease, p<0·001), fingolimod (26-fold decrease, p<0·001) and rituximab (17-fold decrease, p<0·001) were significantly reduced as compared to untreated patients. mRNA-1273 vaccine resulted in a systematically 3·5-fold higher antibody level than the BNT162b2 vaccine (p<0·001).Interpretation: In pwMS, therapy with anti-CD20 and fingolimod led to a reduced humoral response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. As mRNA-1273 elicits 3·5-higher antibody titers than BNT162b2, this vaccine may be preferentially considered for patients under anti-CD20 or fingolimod. Since it is still unknown the role of T-cells vaccine response, further information is required about the role of cellular immunity triggered by vaccination to better define the most appropriate strategy to vaccinate pwMS under specific DMTs.Funding Information: FISM [2021/Special-Multi/001];the Italian Ministry of Health grant ‘Progetto Z844A 5x1000’.Declaration of Interests: MPS reports grants from Roche, during the conduct of the study;personal fees from Biogen, Merck, Roche, Sanofi, personal fees from Novartis, Medday, Geneuro, Celgene, Mylan, outside the submitted work;MI reports consulting fees from Roche, Merck-Serono, Novartis, Sanofi-Genzyme, Biogen;AL has received personal compensation from Novartis, Sanofi Genzyme, Biogen, Merck, and Roche for public speaking and advisory boards. AL received funding for research by Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla, the Italian Ministry of Health, and the Italian Ministry of University;CC reports personal fees from Novartis, personal fees from Biogen Idec, personal fees from Almirall, personal fees from Merck Serono, outside the submitted work;DL reports consulting fees Roche, Biogen, Teva, Mylan, Sanofi-Genzyme, fess for advisory boards from Bristol-Celgene, Merck, Novartis, JF reports consulting fees fromSanofi, Biogen, Admirall;ADS reports personal consulting fees from Biogen, Novartis, Genzyme;MS reports research support and personal consulting fees from Merk, Sanofi, Novartis, Biogen, Roche;AU has received personal compensation from Novartis, Biogen, Merck, Roche and Sanofi Genzyme for public speaking and advisory boards. AU received funding for research by Fondazione Italiana Sclerosi Multipla, the Italian Ministry of Health and the European Community. IS, LC, CL, GDR, CS, IG, TT, GP, PG, GPB, AM, MLS, MC, ES, MTF, LP, MU, FM, GC, RI, GL, AMR, FC, SC, MAB, DF, have nothing to dislcose.Ethics Approval Statement: The study is done in compliance with the principles of the Declaration of Helsinki. The protocol is approved by the regional (CER Liguria: 5/2021 - DB id 11169- 21/01/2021) and the centralized national ethical committee AIFA/Spallanzani (Parere n 351, 2020/21). Written informed consent was obtained from all participants before starting any study procedures.

10.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3375-3383, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In multiple sclerosis (MS), disease-related factors and dysfunctional coping might favor the development of mental distress induced by COVID-19 containment measures. Aim of this study was exploring the relationship between disability, coping strategies, daily life reorganization and neuropsychiatric symptoms in an Italian MS population during the COVID-19 lockdown, in order to identify potentially modifiable factors that could inform clinical management of mental distress in people with MS. METHODS: We explored the relationship between mental distress, disability and coping strategies in the Italian MS population under lockdown. Structural equation modeling was applied to information collected via web survey to identify modifiable factors that could account for mental distress. RESULTS: A total of 845 participants (497 with MS and 348 controls) were included in the study. The MS group had higher scores than the control group for depression (p = 0.005), but not for anxiety, emotional dyscontrol or sleep disturbances. The structural equation modeling explained 74% of the variance observed in depression score. Within the model, three latent factors were characterized from measured variables: motor disability and cognitive dysfunction contributed to disability (ß = 0.509 and ß = 0.836; p < 0.001); positive attitude and exercise contributed to active attitude (ß = 0.386 and ß = 0.297; p < 0.001); and avoidance, social support and watching television contributed to passive attitude (ß = 0.301, ß = 0.243 and ß = 0.212; p < 0.001). With regard to the relationship between latent factors and their influence on depression, disability contributed to passive attitude (ß = 0.855; p < 0.001), while both passive and active attitude significantly influenced depression (ß = 0.729 and ß = -0.456; p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: As a practical implication of our model, favoring exercise would enhance active attitude and its positive impact on mental well-being while, at the same time, reducing the negative impact of disability on depression, representing a valuable tool in facing COVID-19-related mental distress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disabled Persons , Motor Disorders , Multiple Sclerosis , Anxiety , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
J Neurol ; 269(4): 1758-1763, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503921

ABSTRACT

Pandemic restrictions have led to changes in therapy plans and disrupted rehabilitation services for people with multiple sclerosis. CogEx is an international, multicentre MS dual-intervention (cognitive rehabilitation, aerobic exercise) randomized, controlled rehabilitation trial confined to people with progressive disease. The primary outcome is cognition (processing speed).There are 11 treatment sites in six countries with participants required to make 27 site visits over 12 weeks. Collectively, the large, in-person demands of the trial, and the varying international policies for the containment of COVID-19, might disproportionately impact the administration of CogEx. During the first lockdown, all centres closed on average for 82.9 (SD = 24.3) days. One site was required to lockdown on two further occasions. One site remained closed for 16 months. Ten staff (19.2%) were required to quarantine and eight staff (15.4%) tested positive for COVID. 10 of 264 (3.8%) participants acquired COVID-19. All survived. The mean duration of enrollment delay has been [236.7 (SD = 214.5) days]. Restarting participants whose interventions were interrupted by the pandemic meant recalculating the intervention prescriptions for these individuals. While the impact of the pandemic on CogEx has been considerable, all study sites are again open. Participants and staff have shown considerable flexibility and resilience in keeping a complex, international endeavour running. The future in general remains uncertain in the midst of a pandemic, but there is cautious optimism the study will be completed with sufficient sample size to robustly evaluate our hypothesis and provide meaningful results to the MS community on the impact of these interventions on people with progressive MS.Trial registration: The trial was registered on September 20th 2018 at www.clinicaltrials.gov having identifier NCT03679468. Registration was performed before recruitment was initiated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Communicable Disease Control , Exercise , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/therapy , Pandemics
12.
Eur J Neurol ; 29(2): 535-542, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Some studies have shown that air pollution, often assessed by thin particulate matter with diameter below 2.5 µg/m3 (PM2.5), may contribute to severe COVID-19 courses, as well as play a role in the onset and evolution of multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the impact of air pollution on COVID-19 has never been explored specifically amongst patients with MS (PwMS). This retrospective observational study aims to explore associations between PM2.5 and COVID-19 severity amongst PwMS. METHODS: Data were retrieved from an Italian web-based platform (MuSC-19) which includes PwMS with COVID-19. PM2.5 2016-2018 average concentrations were provided by the Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service. Italian patients inserted in the platform from 15 January 2020 to 9 April 2021 with a COVID-19 positive test were included. Ordered logistic regression models were used to study associations between PM2.5 and COVID-19 severity. RESULTS: In all, 1087 patients, of whom 13% required hospitalization and 2% were admitted to an intensive care unit or died, were included. Based on the multivariate analysis, higher concentrations of PM2.5 increased the risk of worse COVID-19 course (odds ratio 1.90; p = 0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Even if several other factors explain the unfavourable course of COVID-19 in PwMS, the role of air pollutants must be considered and further investigated.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Air Pollution/adverse effects , Air Pollution/analysis , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Particulate Matter/analysis , Particulate Matter/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2
13.
EBioMedicine ; 72: 103581, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433160

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In patients with Multiple Sclerosis (pwMS) disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) affects immune response to antigens. Therefore, post-vaccination serological assessments are needed to evaluate the effect of the vaccine on SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. METHODS: We designed a prospective multicenter cohort study enrolling pwMS who were scheduled for SARS-Cov-2 vaccination with mRNA vaccines (BNT162b2, Pfizer/BioNTech,Inc or mRNA-1273, Moderna Tx,Inc). A blood collection before the first vaccine dose and 4 weeks after the second dose was planned, with a centralized serological assessment (electrochemiluminescence immunoassay, ECLIA, Roche-Diagnostics). The log-transform of the antibody levels was analyzed by multivariable linear regression. FINDINGS: 780 pwMS (76% BNT162b2 and 24% mRNA-1273) had pre- and 4-week post-vaccination blood assessments. 87 (11·2%) were untreated, 154 (19·7%) on ocrelizumab, 25 (3·2%) on rituximab, 85 (10·9%) on fingolimod, 25 (3·2%) on cladribine and 404 (51·7%) on other DMTs. 677 patients (86·8%) had detectable post-vaccination SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. At multivariable analysis, the antibody levels of patients on ocrelizumab (201-fold decrease (95%CI=128-317), p < 0·001), fingolimod (26-fold decrease (95%CI=16-42), p < 0·001) and rituximab (20-fold decrease (95%CI=10-43), p < 0·001) were significantly reduced as compared to untreated patients. Vaccination with mRNA-1273 resulted in a systematically 3·25-fold higher antibody level (95%CI=2·46-4·27) than with the BNT162b2 vaccine (p < 0·001). The antibody levels on anti-CD20 therapies correlated to the time since last infusion, and rituximab had longer intervals (mean=386 days) than ocrelizumab patients (mean=129 days). INTERPRETATION: In pwMS, anti-CD20 treatment and fingolimod led to a reduced humoral response to mRNA-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. As mRNA-1273 elicits 3·25-higher antibody levels than BNT162b2, this vaccine may be preferentially considered for patients under anti-CD20 treatment or fingolimod. Combining our data with those on the cellular immune response to vaccines, and including clinical follow-up, will contribute to better define the most appropriate SARS-CoV-2 vaccine strategies in the context of DMTs and MS. FUNDING: FISM[2021/Special-Multi/001]; Italian Ministry of Health'Progetto Z844A 5 × 1000'.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation/drug effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Adult , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/immunology , Cladribine/adverse effects , Cladribine/therapeutic use , Female , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/adverse effects , Fingolimod Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Rituximab/adverse effects , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
16.
Psychol Health Med ; 27(2): 352-360, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201484

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) resulted in several psychological consequences. Past epidemiological experiences already showed the deep albeit heterogeneous psychological repercussions of pandemics. Nevertheless, little is known about COVID-19 outbreak and the possible strategies for boosting resilience in patients with chronic diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Therefore, we designed a study aiming to assess the changes in mental distress during COVID-19 outbreak in patients with MS and to identifyfactors contributing to resilience's development.We enrolled 106 patients (69 relapsing-remitting, 20 secondary-progressive, and 17 primary-progressive) whose neuropsychological assessment before the COVID-19 pandemic (1 January 2019-1 March 2020) was available. It consisted of Brief International Cognitive Assessment for MS (BICAMS), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and patient-reported MS Neuropsychological Screening Questionnaire (MSNQ-P). All patients were re-tested during Italian lockdown through an online survey, comprehensive of sociodemographic information, HADS self-rating Scale, MSNQ-P Questionnaire and finally Connor-Davidson Resilience self-rating Scale (CD-RISC 25), in order to evaluate resilience.No significant changes in HADS and MSNQ-P scores were detected during COVID-19 pandemic in our population. Though, pre-existing lower HADS and MSNQ-P scores but not demographic, disease- and treatment-related elements were found significantly (p < 0.0001) and independently associated with a better resilience attitude.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Resilience, Psychological , Anxiety/epidemiology , Anxiety/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression/epidemiology , Depression/psychology , Humans , Multiple Sclerosis/diagnosis , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
J Clin Med ; 10(6)2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1136516

ABSTRACT

Physical disability impacts psychosocial wellbeing in people with multiple sclerosis. However, the role of physical activity in this context is still debated. By taking advantage of a previous survey, conducted online from 22 April to 7 May 2020, we performed a post-hoc analysis with the aim to assess the associations between disability, physical exercise, and mental health in multiple sclerosis. We retrieved the following data: (i) sociodemographic information, (ii) changes in lifestyle (including exercise), (iii) physical disability, as measured with the Patient-Determined Disease Steps scale, and (iv) anxiety feelings and depressive symptoms assessed via the items included in the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders measurement system. Examination of the interaction plot showed that the effect of disability on depression, but not on anxious symptoms, was significant for all levels of physical exercise (low: b = 1.22, 95% C.I. 0.85, 1.58, p < 0.001; moderate: b = 0.95, 95% C.I. 0.66, 1.24, p < 0.001; and high: b = 0.68, 95% C.I. 0.24, 1.13, p = 0.003). Based on these data, we can conclude that disability significantly impacted depression during the COVID-19 pandemic, with physical activity playing a moderating role. Our results suggest that favoring exercise in multiple sclerosis (MS) would ameliorate psychological wellbeing regardless of the level of physical disability.

18.
Neurol Sci ; 42(4): 1231-1236, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1028133

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Factors influencing self-perceived health status over Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) emergency in vulnerable populations, such as patients with chronic neurological diseases, are still unknown. In this work, we aimed at testing whether clinical care changes imposed by the quarantine, together with certain demographic and disease-specific features, might have determined a self-perceived worsening of health status in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). METHODS: A brief web-based questionnaire investigating self-perceived anxiety, depression, and motor worsening, as well as clinical care changes over COVID-19 emergency, was administered to ALS patients currently followed at San Martino Hospital. Ordinal and logistic regression analyses were applied to identify significant predictors of health status. RESULTS: Fifty-seven ALS patients completed the questionnaire. A total of 35.08% of cases reported anxiety symptoms, 36.84% depressive symptoms, and 35.08% reported worsening of motor symptoms. Significant predictors of anxiety symptoms severity included female gender, greater motor impairment, more aggressive disease course, and rehabilitation therapy suspension. The only significant predictor of depressive symptoms severity was a more aggressive disease course. Significant predictors of motor worsening were shorter disease duration and exams/visits cancelation. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 emergency and its management exerted a significant impact on self-perceived health status in patients with ALS, particularly in those cases in the earliest disease phases and with a more aggressive disease course. These findings have potential to improve personalized medicine strategies in the next phase.


Subject(s)
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/complications , COVID-19 , Health Status , Pandemics , Self Concept , Aged , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/psychology , Anxiety/etiology , Anxiety/psychology , Delivery of Health Care , Depression/etiology , Depression/psychology , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Quarantine , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Front Neurol ; 11: 602114, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983702

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The incidence and the clinical presentation of neurological manifestations of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) remain unclear. No data regarding the use of neuromonitoring tools in this group of patients are available. Methods: This is a retrospective study of prospectively collected data. The primary aim was to assess the incidence and the type of neurological complications in critically ill COVID-19 patients and their effect on survival as well as on hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay. The secondary aim was to describe cerebral hemodynamic changes detected by noninvasive neuromonitoring modalities such as transcranial Doppler, optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD), and automated pupillometry. Results: Ninety-four patients with COVID-19 admitted to an ICU from February 28 to June 30, 2020, were included in this study. Fifty-three patients underwent noninvasive neuromonitoring. Neurological complications were detected in 50% of patients, with delirium as the most common manifestation. Patients with neurological complications, compared to those without, had longer hospital (36.8 ± 25.1 vs. 19.4 ± 16.9 days, p < 0.001) and ICU (31.5 ± 22.6 vs. 11.5±10.1 days, p < 0.001) stay. The duration of mechanical ventilation was independently associated with the risk of developing neurological complications (odds ratio 1.100, 95% CI 1.046-1.175, p = 0.001). Patients with increased intracranial pressure measured by ONSD (19% of the overall population) had longer ICU stay. Conclusions: Neurological complications are common in critically ill patients with COVID-19 receiving invasive mechanical ventilation and are associated with prolonged ICU length of stay. Multimodal noninvasive neuromonitoring systems are useful tools for the early detection of variations in cerebrovascular parameters in COVID-19.

20.
Neurol Sci ; 41(12): 3401-3404, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-842509

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of a COVID-19 patient with severely impaired consciousness after sedation hold, showing magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of (i) acute bilateral supratentorial ischemic lesions involving the fronto-parietal white matter and the corpus callosum and (ii) multiple diffuse susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) hypointense foci, infra and supratentorial, predominantly bithalamic, suggestive of microhemorrhage or alternatively microthrombi. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RNA was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid. Our findings suggest the occurrence of vascular damage, predominantly involving microvessels. The underlying mechanisms, which include direct and indirect penetration of the virus to the central nervous system and systemic cardiorespiratory complications, are yet to be elucidated, and a direct correlation with SARS-CoV-2 infection remains uncertain.


Subject(s)
Brain Ischemia/pathology , Brain Ischemia/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Microvessels/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Hypertension/complications , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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